%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150522130130+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150522130130+01'00') /Title (The Political Life of Josiah C. Wedgwood: Land, Liberty and Empire, 1872-1943) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4243 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Political Life of Josiah C. Wedgwood: Land, Liberty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Empire, 1872-1943)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Mulvey?s study of the radical MP Josiah C. Wedgwood is a labour of love. Beginning as a doctoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis at the London School of Economics, this book has been many years in the making. Drawing on a fund )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of unexplored papers and documents relating to the life of Wedgwood at Stoke-upon-Trent Archives in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanley, Mulvey lived out the fantasy of so many academics and researchers to enjoy privileged access to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underused and unexplored sources in the public domain. The result is an especially rich and nuanced account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of one of the lesser figures of early 20th century politics, but one sometimes described as ?the last of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicals?. The subject of several studies and an autobiography, Wedgwood traditionally remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misunderstood. This makes the use of the papers and archive relating to his career at Hanley doubly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important. For the first time Wedgwood emerges as a constituency MP, as a politician, and as an imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinker. In short, this is a political biography that offers an impression of Wedgwood in the round, and as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central figure in the last days of radical liberalism. In addition, it places Wedgwood firmly in his context, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining the trajectory of his ideas and political development at a time when the political fortunes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberalism were in decline, and radicals were often forced into an uneasy accord with the newly emergent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour Party. Eschewing traditional labels of eccentricity and perversity, Mulvey points out that Wedgwood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an interesting example of a reformer whose ideas were formed in the later part of the 19th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solidified in the ferment of the years before 1914, and struggled to keep up with the changing pace of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1065)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 April, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Mulvey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780861933082)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(232pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antony Taylor)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7605 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics and world events in the inter-war period. With a less sure-footed guide, this might have provided a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tangled and confusing tale. However, Mulvey offers a clear, sharp, and, at times, a very original, analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics during these years, and of the role of Wedgwood within them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is at its strongest in its treatment of Wedgwood?s devotion and dedication to the ideas of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American economist, Henry George. In an incisive chapter Mulvey places the land reform ideas of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of the 20th century in context. The land campaign had roots deep in the British past. A traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canard of much reform opinion, land reformers emphasised the unfair distribution of land ownership, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monopoly of land by a small, aristocratic elite. Following the visits of the American economist Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George to Britain in the 1880s, much land reform opinion cohered around the notion of the Single Tax. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many Georgeites, a single tax on the value of land, overriding all other forms of taxation, would unlock the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential of the land, leading to the cultivation of waste, cheaper food, the break?up of the great estates, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the restoration of a small peasant proprietorship. The later aim in particular was a long-held article of faith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst many reformers in Britain in the 19th century. For many radicals, the ideas of Henry George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became something of a millenarian crusade at the beginning of the 20th century, promising an unlimited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social transformation. At its more extreme fringe, Georgeites believed that the single tax would end crime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altogether and usher in a more just society. Briefly the Georgeite single tax united advanced liberals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional liberals, socialists and municipal progressives under its banner. Wedgwood was a high priest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cult of Georgeite economics. As Mulvey comments, for Georgeite purists like Wedgwood, the reform of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the land was almost a ?theological? issue in itself \(p. 19\). Wedgwood stated that he had no need for any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other faith that Henry Georgeism, writing that ever since 1905 ?I have known that there was a man from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God, and his name was Henry George? \(p. 20\). Thereafter the one continuous thread that bound his politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ideas together was devotion to the cause of Georgeite land reform. As Mulvey points out, in the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1906?14 land reform played a crucial part in the platform of British liberalism. Bearing the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benediction of liberals like John Bright and J. S. Mill, land reform appealed to the notion of the ?the many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the few? that underpinned the producerist ethos of liberalism, allowed Asquith and Lloyd George to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create a counterweight to the conservative wing of the party, while appealing to working-men voters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently resident in rented accommodation and suspicious of collectivist socialism. Far more of a minority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faith after 1919, the notion of a single tax on land nevertheless remained a live issue into the 1930s. In 1931 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a land valuation measure supported by Wedgwood featured as a prelude to a land tax in the final budget of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1929?31 Labour government that was swept away by the crisis in national finances that ushered in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Wedgwood, the land and the debates surrounding it were not merely the preserve of British domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians. In this book Mulvey is at his strongest when he outlines the broader imperial agendas that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspired land reform campaigners. Wedgwood?s imperial ideas found their point of origin in the example set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Alfred Milner in South Africa. An early member of Milner?s Kindergarten, and an admirer of Milner in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his youth, Wedgwood spent time in Africa during the Boer War. Like Milner, Wedgwood felt that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British colonies of settlement might be stabilised by the encouragement of yeoman proprietorships that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would recreate the vanished and dispersed British peasantry in the further reaches of the empire. In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wedgwood echoed other rural sentimentalists who discerned simpler values of community, small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government and thrifty rustic virtue on the imperial frontier. For Wedgwood, Henry George?s ideas were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again applicable here. Mulvey points out that the Boer farmers he encountered bore some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristics of the idealised smallowner he hoped would augment agrarian production at home. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the Great War, Wedgwood was offering the single tax as a remedy to troubled colonial economies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern Nigeria and elsewhere. Thereafter the notion of a small rural proprietorship remained marked in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes to these colonial contexts. Wedgwood?s interest in the land also led him in the direction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle East. He was one of those voices who hoped for a Jewish homeland in Palestine with full dominion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status within the empire. When he spoke of the Arab peoples of the region as almost feudal in nature, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered support to the Zionist small producers, the shadow of Georgeite economic thinking fell over the intra-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communal, religious and ethnic tensions of the region. A close assessment of the links between Wedgwood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Zionism is omitted by Mulvey from this study, but for the ageing Wedgwood, the armed farmers of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kibbutzim bound together by ties of communal obligation were the culmination of a long Georgeite dream of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7804 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosperity and economic inter-dependency. Fascinatingly, and, no doubt, inspired by his interests in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic theory of George, Wedgwood was one of the first British politicians to recognise the importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reinvigorated world role of the United States following the decline of Britain?s imperial significance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the end of the Great War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wedgwood?s career sheds particular light on the political flux of the post-1906 years, and the shifting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns of alliance that led to the disintegration of the great 19th-century Liberal Party, and its replacement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Labour. Often depicted as a relatively smooth and fluid transition in recent scholarship, Mulvey depicts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reality of the political tensions, and conflicting networks that cut across the Labour/Liberal divide. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wedgwood navigated a number of these fault lines, moving between the polarities of Cobdenite labourism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical liberalism, socialism, Fabian statism and Red Clydesidism. Moving in the upper reaches of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional liberal families like the Wedgwoods and the Trevelyans, Wedgwood found himself situated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uneasily in a Labour Party where the links and networks that really counted were in the trade union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement. Mulvey?s book provides a fascinating case study of the tensions that existed in this alliance for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many apostate liberals and the older elite families that had acted as the vanguard of Whiggery in the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Here more engagement with the work of Eugenio Biagini or of Jonathan Parry might have helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyse directly the arguments for and against radical continuity in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 537.596 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 537.596 569.235 m 551.588 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The experience of Josiah Wedgwood suggests a troubled and ill-tempered accommodation of progressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces within the Labour camp, rather than the harmonious fusion of ideological affinities familiar from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous scholarship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mulvey is particularly strong in his assessment of the relationship between Wedgwood?s intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development, and the history of British radicalism. Throughout his career Wedgwood depicted himself as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(custodian of radical memory. Before 1914 he had already researched a parliamentary history of North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Staffordshire, and in the post-war years he became actively involved in projects to record and commemorate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British parliamentary institutions. After 1927 he was a prime mover in attempts to create a standard histories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of parliament, including a historical record of the careers of key MPs. Omitted by Mulvey is Wedgwood?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in and enthusiasm for the Puritan side in the English Civil War. This placed him firmly in a spectrum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ideas within Whiggery and liberalism that traced the origins of traditional English liberties back to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th century and before.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 151.316 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 151.316 386.163 m 165.308 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 165.308 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Mulvey, however, is correct to suggest that Wedgwood?s liberalism remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily one of individualism and self-reliance, rooted in the ideas of Herbert Spencer. In the face of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence to the contrary he continued to see these principles as vindicated by the forces of history until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of his career. By the height of the Great War this traditional liberalism was increasingly out of step with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the organic statism of the New Liberalism and the demands placed on British society by the impositions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mass mobilisation, censorship and internment of enemy aliens. In this sense Mulvey takes a very traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view when he depicts British liberalism as plunged into a state of crisis by the demands of the 20th century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here Wedgwood?s sin was his refusal to go with the flow. His adherence to the traditional principles of 19th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century liberalism left him in some very strange company indeed. By the 1920s he was one of a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arch-individualists who clustered around Hilaire Belloc and G. K. Chesterton. Never a school or a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement, like him they offered an increasingly nostalgic vision of rural England, and of the certainties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small rural proprietorships. In contrast to Wedgwood?s philo-semitism, however, their politics had taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them in the direction of a resurrected English Catholicism, and anti-semitism. This was effectively a dead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end, and is indicative of the relative isolation into which Wedgwood sank in his later career.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If I have one criticism to make, it is that throughout the book more might have been said about the variants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of radicalism that pertained in the north Staffordshire area. In this volume Wedgwood emerges more as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national figure, rather than as a local politician. In many ways his political outlook suited the region. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Potteries had a history of vocal dissident politics that remains unexplored by Mulvey. The mix of mining, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artisanal workshop culture and low trades union membership in the area created a string of variegated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unorthodox constituencies that often set themselves against the grain of party and political organisation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wedgwood embodies this reflex and was in a tradition of similar MPs at the time of his first election in 1906 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Newcastle-under-Lyme. The Potteries were also the home of the only Tichborne Campaign MP, Edward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vaughn Kenealy elected in a by-election for neighbouring Stoke in 1875, and Kenealy?s later successor, the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 537.5957 569.5495 551.5877 581.4295 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 151.3157 386.4775 165.3077 398.3575 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 4420 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lib-Lab MP John Ward, who moved from labourism into anti-Bolshevisk politics, becoming a National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal in 1919.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 111.008 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 111.008 780.819 m 125.000 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 125.000 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Here was evidence of oscillating populist political sympathies that were unconfined by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional party machinery, yet resisted the pull towards Labour. Mulvey misses an opportunity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider this theme against the background of the changing and fractured electoral loyalties of the post-1906 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sometimes unambitious in his political objectives, and never a major front-line politician, the career of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Josiah Wedgwood nevertheless presents a fascinating glimpse into the concerns of those radicals and liberals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that sought to navigate the wreckage of the great 19th-century Liberal Party, and survive into the statism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the post-1919 world. After a number of false starts, Wedgwood has at last been well-served by a biography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a politically-attuned historian writing with sensitivity, and a strong sense of period. It is to be hoped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Mulvey?s thought-provoking book will generate other political biographies grounded in the experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the transition from liberalism into labour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.755 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eugenio Biagini, )] TJ ET BT 148.352 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liberty, Retrenchment and Reform: Popular Liberalism in the Age of Gladstone, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1860-1880)] TJ ET BT 116.012 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1992\) and Jonathan Parry, )] TJ ET BT 311.312 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise and Fall of Liberal Government in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Britain)] TJ ET BT 146.360 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 1993\), chapters 11?12.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 346.976 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 346.976 532.227 m 400.964 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blair Worden, )] TJ ET BT 135.668 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Roundhead Reputations: the English Civil War and the Passions of Posterity)] TJ ET BT 505.004 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010\), chapters 6?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.324 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.324 503.715 m 215.312 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Edward Vaughn Kenealy?s by-election campaign in Stoke in 1875, see Rohan McWilliam, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Tichborne Claimant: A Victorian Sensation)] TJ ET BT 294.356 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2007\), chapter 7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.996 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.996 475.203 m 479.984 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 450.341 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 431.359 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 413.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 413.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1065)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 412.185 m 328.316 412.185 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 387.208 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 372.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5419)] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.408 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 111.0077 781.1335 124.9997 793.0135 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 346.9757 532.5415 400.9637 544.4215 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.3237 504.0295 215.3117 515.9095 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.9957 475.5175 479.9837 487.3975 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 412.4995 328.3157 424.3795 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1065) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000580 00000 n 0000000662 00000 n 0000004957 00000 n 0000005066 00000 n 0000005176 00000 n 0000005285 00000 n 0000008846 00000 n 0000008974 00000 n 0000009058 00000 n 0000009123 00000 n 0000016781 00000 n 0000016872 00000 n 0000024729 00000 n 0000024759 00000 n 0000024887 00000 n 0000024923 00000 n 0000024953 00000 n 0000025081 00000 n 0000025117 00000 n 0000025229 00000 n 0000029702 00000 n 0000029732 00000 n 0000029860 00000 n 0000029896 00000 n 0000030024 00000 n 0000030079 00000 n 0000030207 00000 n 0000030262 00000 n 0000030390 00000 n 0000030445 00000 n 0000030573 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30669 %%EOF