%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818084902+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818084902+01'00') /Title (Wasteland with Words. A Social History of Iceland) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4241 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Wasteland with Words. A Social History of Iceland)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wasteland with Words)] TJ ET BT 142.688 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a very welcome addition to the small number of academic books about Iceland?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern history available in English. The few other works on modern Icelandic history are largely written in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Icelandic for local consumption. This means that the rest of the world is largely starved of any broader or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeper understanding of Iceland beyond the headline-grabbing activities of its bankers and volcanoes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course it would be unfair to say that Iceland has been totally ignored by the wider world. As Sigurur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gylfi Magnsson notes \(p. 258\), Iceland was ?cool? in the 1990s, thanks in no small part to the global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success of pop singer Bjrk. Iceland largely continues to be so thanks to the efforts of its tourist industry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the exploits abroad of musicians and sportsmen and women whose individual and team success exceeds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what one might expect of a country of 300,000 people. Cultural exports have continued to get Iceland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noticed: the last decade has seen the rise of modern Icelandic crime fiction through the success of the likes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arnaldur Indrason and Yrsa Sigurardttir. The culture and history of medieval Iceland are still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficiently in vogue for there to be fairly regular, new translations of sagas and poetry of different kinds. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New archaeological discoveries and new studies of ?Viking? DNA continue to foster broader interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iceland?s significance within the Viking expansion. There is a plethora of educational children?s books on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Vikings in which Iceland?s colonisation and ?parliament?, the Althing, play their part and ? despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(UK education system largely denying people the opportunity of studying such things between the ages of 11 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1066)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 April, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sigurur Gylfi Magnsson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781861896612)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reaktion Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chris Callow)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8214 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 18 ? a significant number of history, literature and archaeology students study Iceland in some way in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(UK universities. For all this general interest, the only other recent, relatively accessible works in English that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deal with Iceland?s )] TJ ET BT 129.656 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(post)] TJ ET BT 149.660 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-medieval history are a single-volume work, Gunnar Karlsson?s )] TJ ET BT 459.932 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Iceland)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.004 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.004 752.307 m 86.996 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 86.996 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and one reference work \(Gumundur Hlfdanarson, )] TJ ET BT 341.576 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Historical Dictionary of Iceland)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 509.900 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 509.900 752.307 m 523.892 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 523.892 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wasteland with Words)] TJ ET BT 142.688 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( therefore aims to appeal to a general but still fairly specialist audience and it largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeds in doing so.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iceland has had a peculiar trajectory from its first colonization by humans in about AD 900 to its rapid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development into a modern, wealthy state in the late 20th century. This presents anyone writing its history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with some decisions to make about the chronological and thematic scope of their work. On one level it may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem like no great challenge to encapsulate the history of an island country which only began in c.900 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for most of its past has had a population of less than 100,000. Iceland being an island, isolated and a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polity \(although mostly a colony of Denmark\) also makes it easier to write a ?national? history in a way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which might no longer be seen as appropriate for larger, more complex polities.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.612 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.612 612.003 m 430.604 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 430.604 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In some ways, the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuities in Icelandic history ? its poverty, continued use of turf-built dwellings, lack of urbanization, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependence on fishing and pastoral farming, linguistic conservatism, and amid all this surprisingly high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels of literacy and strong storytelling traditions ? all make it harder to identify beginnings and endings for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sake of writing historical works. Iceland?s history does not fit into the neat periodisations applied to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western European history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, there )] TJ ET BT 113.984 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(were)] TJ ET BT 137.312 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( major events in Iceland?s history before the Second World War. There was the formal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjugation of the island to Norwegian control in the 1260s; its transfer to Danish control in 1380 \(a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation which lasted until independence in 1944\); the devastation of the Black Death \(just after 1400 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so 50 years later than in most of western Europe\); the arrival of Lutheranism \(1550s\); epidemics and natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disaster in the 18th century \(small pox, the Lakaggar eruption\); then mass emigration to the New World and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of a strong independence movement from the 19th century into the 20th. But, for all these, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was probably only with the mechanization of the fishing industry \(from just after 1900\) that Icelandic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society witnessed any really large scale changes. Arguably the occupation of Iceland by British forces in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1940, followed by that of US forces in 1941 until the end of the Second World War, followed by a continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(US presence at the airbase at Keflavk in south-west Iceland from 1951?2006, had an even stronger impact. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iceland grew much wealthier during the second half of the 20th century through increased revenues from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(export of fish and a subsequent general diversification to move away from dependence on this single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry. Although the country was plagued with bouts of high inflation, Icelanders? health and welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased steadily as did their total numbers, from about 130,000 in 1945 to nearly 300,000 by the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To deal with all of this, Sigurur Gylfi ? it is conventional in Iceland to refer to scholars by first name\(s\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than by patronymic ? who is a specialist in late 19th- and early 20th-century Icelandic social history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes some nods to Iceland?s more distant past, but focusses on the period since 1850, especially that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1850 and 1940. The book?s alliterative title plays on many foreigners? and Icelanders? views of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the dominant things which have characterized the country ? its largely uninhabitable landscape and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its long-lived and well preserved oral and written culture ? but the continuities with earlier centuries are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasized much beyond the title. An example of these is the fact that the great stability in rural settlement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns from Iceland?s earliest centuries coupled with the density of the coverage of ?Sagas of Icelanders? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually means that many contemporary farms play a part in these medieval stories and modern farmers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know them. English speakers have probably been exposed enough to romantic ideas about modern Iceland?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections to its past so perhaps it is no bad thing that such ?othering? does not go much beyond a catchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is divided into 18 short chapters of which the longest is 21 pages. Each of these functions well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an independent essay although their order is not explained and they are not explicitly grouped together. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters one to three, the necessary ?broad-brush? socio-economic context which is required for any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overview work of this kind comes from the works of those other Icelandic historians who have published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most extensively on early 20th-century Icelandic society and politics \(Gsli gst Gunnlaugsson and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.0037 752.6215 86.9957 764.5015 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 509.8997 752.6215 523.8917 764.5015 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 416.6117 612.3175 430.6037 624.1975 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7903 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gumundur Hlfdanarson\). It might have served the reader well to have had chapter ten, ?The Middle Ages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and beyond: a cultural foundation? as part of this introductory section because a part of Sigurur Gylfi?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctive contribution is his emphasis on literary culture and education. Such evidence is often presented to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reader: the inclusion of many ten- to 20-line translated excerpts from diaries, autobiographies, letters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspaper articles etc. gives the general reader a good sense of the material. For example, the cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peculiarities which led to appalling levels of sanitation and health in 19th-century rural Iceland come across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tragically well \(pp. 53?63\). Just under 50 black-and-white photographs, interspersed throughout the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and usually accompanied by short explanatory paragraphs, work in a similar way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From chapter 12 onwards the book largely deals with post-1945 society, mostly in relation to urbanisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and urban life, i.e. the increase in size, wealth and social complexity of Reykjavk \(chapter 12\). The last two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters, ?Selective modernization and capitalist euphoria? and ?Black-out? serve to critique the Icelandic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political system, a system which enabled the country?s economy to become so unstable and, ultimately, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse in 2008. Like other commentators, Sigurur Gylfi sees part of the underlying problem as Iceland?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued sense of inferiority as a small nation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sigurur Gylfi?s own particular interest is in microhistory and a microhistorical approach is deployed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great effect in many parts of the book. In a ten-page chapter called ?Blind spots in history? Sigurur Gylfi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets out what he sees as his distinctive contribution to modern Icelandic history because he has ?long held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reservations about the validity of ?broad-brush? overviews of history as a medium for presenting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explaining events from the past.? \(p. 14\). He considers that historical scholarship on Iceland too often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consists of ?wide-ranging syntheses? which implicitly overstate the ability of historians to understand the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past. Thus, as many parts of this book and his previous work have demonstrates, Sigurur Gylfi sees himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as following in the footsteps of well-known \(non-Icelandic\) microhistorians by describing and analysing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular examples of phenomena. The difficulty with such an approach is, of course, steering a path )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the typical and atypical, giving a sense of the mundane and the exceptional. In any case, this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relies almost as often on presenting a general picture as it does using extended case studies and it is none the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worse for doing so; an unremittingly detailed study would have been less palatable to a non-Icelandic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience than )] TJ ET BT 103.328 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wasteland with Words)] TJ ET BT 212.000 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will prove to be.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One key example will serve to show why a microhistorical approach can raise as many questions as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answers. Sigurur Gylfi is concerned to emphasise the incompleteness of the historical record in his opening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter but the real issue is the potential traps of a microhistorical approach. Thus the book opens with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quotation from a late 19th-century love letter by one Nels Jnsson, a farm labourer in the north-west of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iceland, to his fiance. Nels uses highly emotive language to explain his strong feelings for his future wife )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this letter just as he apparently does in other letters to her. In relation to this Sigurur Gylfi explains that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he has already published a book on this couple?s relationship )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.644 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.644 288.627 m 344.636 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 344.636 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and that afterwards he received )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence from an elderly reader who had had a connection to Nels Jnsson. In a dramatic turn of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic events, according to this reader, Nels had later castrated himself, apparently in a fit of anger after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an argument with his now wife about another woman. One can understand Sigurur Gylfi?s surprise at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finding this out but the issue is not so much the incompleteness of what the preserved texts about Nels? life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tell us, but of the typicality of Nels as a 19th-century farmer and therefore his literary outpourings. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irrespective of Nels? handiwork on his external genitalia, it is clear that he was not an average farmer. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nels? letter-writing and his 40 years or more of diary-writing were rare, even allowing for high levels of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literacy in rural Iceland \(p. 127\). Few farmers can have also had a brother \(Halldr\) who was equally keen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on writing and went so far as to produce a local newspaper \(p. 126\). As farmers Nels and Halldr were a bit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(odd too: after their parents refused to allow them to alter the location of their farm?s water supply they got )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up in the middle of night to do it anyway \(pp. 137?8\). Thus, while the preserved diaries and other writings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Nels and his brother do provide a good understanding of )] TJ ET BT 326.312 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(some)] TJ ET BT 350.972 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( aspects of economic, social and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life, and in other respects their writings are entertaining, we might wonder as to how representative these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men were of farmers in general. Sigurur Gylfi makes extensive reference to these men and their families? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives ? they appear on at least 25 pages ? and they are the focus of several sections: on mourning \(chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(six, pp. 103?7\); on personal expression through writing and ?The shaping of modern man?; and an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 330.6437 288.9415 344.6357 300.8215 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7892 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting investigation into the connections between individuals? emotions and the desire for ?progress?, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key element in the public discourse about independence \(chapters nine and ten, pp. 123?46\). Through these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts we have )] TJ ET BT 102.332 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a)] TJ ET BT 108.332 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( view of the phenomena discussed but it would be interesting to hear about other views.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sigurur Gylfi?s own distinctive perspective comes across in his choice of topics elsewhere. He dedicates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters to childhood and death in Reykjavk, for instance: there is \(rightly\) a continued emphasis on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined emotional impacts of pre-industrial Iceland?s extremely low life expectancy and miserable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical environment. Men, women and children worked hard, often having multiple seasonal, temporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sometimes dangerous occupations. Only after successive education reforms, and not until after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War, did children attend school for anything like the length of time that their peers did in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other parts of Europe. Yet, as the earlier part of the book aptly demonstrates, within the household, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant amounts of time were used by parents, clergy and others to educate children. )] TJ ET BT 458.600 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wasteland with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Words)] TJ ET BT 65.348 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reinforces the image of Icelanders as avid readers, thirsty for knowledge of the world beyond Iceland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the most novel chapters of the book \(?Monsters from the deep and the Icelandic way of thinking?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter 16\) takes the reader back to rural Iceland and to an event from 1963 when a dead leatherback turtle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was discovered just off northern Icelandic coast. The arrival of an exotic, dead animal to Icelandic waters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counted as significant news in Iceland in 1963 and Sigurur Gylfi uses the episode as the starting point for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of Iceland?s isolation and national identity. Such was the turtle?s notoriety that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually put on display in Reykjavk and thousands of people queued to see it. The arrival of the killer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whale Keiko, star of the )] TJ ET BT 151.988 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Free Willy)] TJ ET BT 202.976 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( films in the 1990s, to his watery retirement home on Iceland?s southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coast was met with just as much fanfare. By contrast, a small country like Iceland can understandably feel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threatened by too many intrusions. Sigurur Gylfi uses the rest of the chapter to discuss measures put in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place by the authorities to protect Icelandic identity in the face of greater threats to national cultural purity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the influence of foreign troops. British and US troops stationed in Iceland were especially perceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a threat to Icelandic women in much the same way as US troops were seen as a problem in Britain. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader, continued opposition between the Icelandic and the un-Icelandic is usefully pointed out because it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something which most foreign visitors and potential readers of this book might otherwise not sense quite so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forcefully.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sigurur Gylfi includes a chapter on women \(chapter 13\) where he asserts that the growth of Reykjavk in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early 20th century largely led to a greater sexual division of labour, particularly as a result of the growth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the number of young women employed as domestic servants. At the same time attitudes towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illegitimacy were hardening due to the increasing influence of foreign ideas on the urban middle class. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th century, despite the importance of marriage as a precondition for rural couples establishing their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homes, illegitimacy rates had been high and there was no stigma attached to having children outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage. Thus, in Sigurur Gylfi?s view, women?s lives were worse in the first half of the 20th century than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were before or after. Here Sigurur Gylfi does not use first-hand accounts to make his case but it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been no less valuable to have them here just as they are used elsewhere in the book. The history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender relations in Iceland is an interesting and important issue; there are not many western countries that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have experienced quite the \(relative\) scale of invasions by foreign troops as Iceland witnessed in the 1940s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nor seen the kinds of mass, all-female marches which took place in Reykjavk in 1975 and 2010.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In summary, then, )] TJ ET BT 124.340 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wasteland with Words)] TJ ET BT 233.012 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is only fleshing out the general picture set out succinctly by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gunnar Karlsson?s thorough survey of ten years ago. However, its strength is that it provides a far better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of mentalities than a more conventional account might have provided. The book is arguably uneven in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its exposition ? sometimes making sweeping generalisations, at other times carefully setting out a detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case study ? but as an introduction to 19th- and 20th-century Icelandic history it is excellent. Nobody could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cover everything but there are a few things which I might have liked to have seen more of and think other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign readers ought to know more about even if they perhaps stretch the notion of social history. Post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural production, for example, is barely touched on, to the extent that even the iconic Nobel Prize winner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Halldr Laxness only gets mentioned in passing. And a greater sense of how Reykjavk has developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spatially and how it has functioned as an urban place would have been insightful. On a smaller scale, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sigurur Gylfi has examined urban housing to good effect in previous work but sadly does not do so that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 5315 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much here. Local sports clubs might also have been discussed; my guess is that they have filled a far more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant feature in shaping people?s lives in post-war Reykjavk than non-Icelanders could imagine. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given Sigurur Gylfi?s interests, and the recent growth in historical studies of emotion, it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting to see the Icelandic experience considered in the light of this historiography although clearly in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very different kind of book. A broader issue related to the last point, and mentioned in passing at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of this review, concerns the perspectives of Icelandic authors and foreign audiences: as Icelandic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians tend not to study other regions and Iceland tends to get studied in isolation, works such as this can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack the occasional contextualising statements which would assist the foreign reader. As Sigurur Gylfi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates, Iceland was not isolated, so arguably its history requires a bit more contextualisation than it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes gets.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s apparatus is both helpful and unhelpful. Nine pages of endnotes and two of English-language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography will satisfy \(the still fairly well-educated\) current, past or future visitor to Iceland but are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably not enough to satisfy the academic historian of other regions of Europe. To get the most out of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book foreign readers will probably need more than the single map of Iceland with five places marked on it; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I?ll bet many will want to know where the self-castrating Nels Jnsson actually lived. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.987 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gunnar Karlsson, )] TJ ET BT 151.664 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History of Iceland)] TJ ET BT 259.988 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Minneapolis, MN, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.312 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.312 517.971 m 443.300 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Historical Dictionary of Iceland)] TJ ET BT 229.340 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Gumundur Hlfdanarson \(2nd edition, Lanham, MD, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 489.459 m 118.004 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Colley, ?Little Englander histories?, )] TJ ET BT 271.664 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Review of Books)] TJ ET BT 390.656 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 32, 14 \(22nd July 2010\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12?4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.344 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.344 460.947 m 144.332 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sigurur Gylfi, )] TJ ET BT 140.348 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Menntun, st og sorg)] TJ ET BT 242.348 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Reykjavk, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 335.672 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 335.672 446.691 m 389.660 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 421.829 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reykyavk Grapevine)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.grapevine.is/Home/ReadArticle/Wasteland-Review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 391.923 m 338.636 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 341.636 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Economist)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.economist.com/node/16213940)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 363.411 m 242.684 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 245.684 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 360.079 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 342.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 342.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1066)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 340.905 m 328.316 340.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 315.928 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.528 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5424)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.128 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.grapevine.is/Home/ReadArticle/Wasteland-Review)] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.728 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.economist.com/node/16213940)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 389.3117 518.2855 443.2997 530.1655 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 489.7735 118.0037 501.6535 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 90.3437 461.2615 144.3317 473.1415 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 335.6717 447.0055 389.6597 458.8855 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 392.2375 338.6357 404.1175 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.grapevine.is/Home/ReadArticle/Wasteland-Review) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 363.7255 242.6837 375.6055 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.economist.com/node/16213940) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 341.2195 328.3157 353.0995 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1066) >> endobj xref 0 48 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000559 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000004934 00000 n 0000005043 00000 n 0000005153 00000 n 0000005262 00000 n 0000008823 00000 n 0000008951 00000 n 0000009035 00000 n 0000009133 00000 n 0000017400 00000 n 0000017430 00000 n 0000017556 00000 n 0000017592 00000 n 0000017622 00000 n 0000017750 00000 n 0000017786 00000 n 0000017816 00000 n 0000017944 00000 n 0000017980 00000 n 0000018064 00000 n 0000026020 00000 n 0000026050 00000 n 0000026178 00000 n 0000026214 00000 n 0000026279 00000 n 0000034224 00000 n 0000034350 00000 n 0000039718 00000 n 0000039846 00000 n 0000039901 00000 n 0000040028 00000 n 0000040083 00000 n 0000040210 00000 n 0000040265 00000 n 0000040393 00000 n 0000040448 00000 n 0000040575 00000 n 0000040684 00000 n 0000040811 00000 n 0000040901 00000 n 0000041029 00000 n trailer << /Size 48 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41125 %%EOF