%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818091109+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818091109+01'00') /Title (Friends and Strangers: The Making of a Creole Culture in Colonial Pennsylvania) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4359 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Friends and Strangers: The Making of a Creole Culture in Colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Pennsylvania)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Smolenski, Associate Professor of History at University of California- Davis, begins his tome, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends and Strangers: The Making of a Creole Culture in Colonial Pennsylvania )] TJ ET BT 431.348 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(a work within the Early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Studies series\))] TJ ET BT 156.992 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with an appropriate discussion of and lesson on the complex etymology of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word )] TJ ET BT 61.676 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(creole)] TJ ET BT 91.664 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. According to the author, modern readers will likely view the word with ?exotic connotations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to describe cultural, linguistic, or racial migrants?, but never ?peoples of European descent? \(p. 1\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends and Strangers)] TJ ET BT 142.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( comes at an advantageous time in the historiography of the Atlantic World and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colonial America as this is the first major work on the founding of Pennsylvania in several decades. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition, his work fits into the greater trend of the last two decades of educators and interested parties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconsidering their views on the early-American colonies within the context of the Atlantic World and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(redefining the boundaries of colonial study. Smolenski accurately argues that researchers should broaden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their lens to consider the colonial past of North America, and its European migrants especially those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English descent. He contends that these migrants also created and crafted a creole culture in Pennsylvania.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Traditional histories of Pennsylvania painted the endeavor as a utopian colony that showed the world how a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colony and settlement ideally should be. Many histories celebrated the narrative of William Penn and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quaker colony as the ?birthplace of modern tolerance, domesticity, and political liberalism?, but according )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1067)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 April, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Smolenski)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780812242393)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(392pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Pennsylvania Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philadephia, PA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kristalyn Shefveland)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7315 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Smolenski, this story is not ?entirely false? but rather flawed, a tale purposefully propagated as part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creolization of the colony, a deliberate retelling of the province's origin that masks the inherent unrest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present in the transplantation of an ideology and a people into a foreign world \(p. 2\). Unable to ship their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and legal traditions intact across the Atlantic, the early Quaker settlers had to re-imagine their role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Pennsylvania, a process that naturally involved tension, coercion, and accommodation-- that is, a creole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture, a hybridity in a colony that, prior to Penn's founding, already contained other non-Quaker Europeans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Dutch, Swedish, and English descent. This process of crafting the narrative represents to Smolenski what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he calls establishing a shared civic culture that would ensure Quaker dominance in a manner that seemed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant to occur.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the contrary, the Quaker colony in Pennsylvania faced five major problems in just the first decade alone. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, Penn found, to his dismay, that English liberties did not survive the Atlantic trip intact and simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reemerge whole in Pennsylvania. Second, the colonial population contained a large number of non-Quaker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans who needed education on the English liberties Penn envisioned for them. Third, the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quakers themselves had differing views on their own theology, at once causing schism within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community itself. Fourth, the colonists had to consider diplomacy with the existing Native American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population, a situation made more difficult because of the encroachment of other Native groups from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northeast, namely the Iroquois, who had their own desires for the region. Fifth, and finally, the ruling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment had to effectively reinvent an English government suited to meet the needs of the region and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the newly arriving immigrants that would need to be accommodated and adapted into the system the elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were attempting to create. The bottom line remained, ?Penn's colony, despite his best hopes, was not born )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quaker: it was made that way, through a series of contentious battles fought in various colonial institutions? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smolenski's narrative proposes to confirm his thesis by examining the creative process with which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quakers created a provincial culture. They did so through a crafted narrative of the past legitimizing their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inheritance. In their cultural lingua franca the Quaker elite sought to establish a set of habits, rules, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectations that would set expectations for the colonial society. In addition, the elite sought the creation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities and creole consciousness through this crafted narrative and hoped to impart the legitimation of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creole culture to new immigrants. Smolenski notes that this crafted creole civic culture was inclusive of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans but exclusive of Africans and Native Americans, although the latter played an important role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the formation of the colony and throughout its history. The first generation of Quakers first had to develop a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civic discourse that established their authority \(and at the same time to re-imagine English liberty and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quaker theology in their new settings\), and then to develop a manner in which the body politic could engage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in that discourse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smolenski divides his work into three parts. In the first portion, he explores the origins of Quakerism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and the Society of Friends as a ?dynamic and adaptable faith that drew its strength from its ability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to incorporate elements from a variety of other dissenting faiths while establishing institutional mechanisms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to maintain a coherent spiritual identity? \(p. 9\). The second part of the book establishes William Penn's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utopian visions and the ?Holy Experiment? coupled with the realities of the early years of Pennsylvania. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third and final discussion examines the aftermath of the first decades of instability as Quakers sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create a legitimate creole civic identity in their print culture through the narrative whereby Smolenski )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, ?memorializing Pennsylvania's early history played a crucial role in solidifying a creolized Quaker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity and Quaker political rule? \(p. 10\). This introduction aside, the remaining seven chapters and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion include a dizzying array of primary sources and intricate details that provide a thoughtful and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenging analysis of both the individuals? impulses in the project and broad bigger picture snapshots of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time period in question.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of particular interest throughout Smolenski's work is the notion of creating a collective voice, a collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative and identity within a religious plurality, both in England prior to the settlement and then in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pennsylvania in the colonies? first decades. That Penn himself hoped for religious toleration in his colony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely played a role in some of the discord. However, Smolenski makes a compelling argument for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of factionalism, and that there was political as well as spiritual wrangling within the early Quaker )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7563 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite. Quakers in England had to standardize their faith to accommodate by the mid-1650s a ?growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional structure? and did so through a network of itinerant ministers, an organized Quaker meeting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure, and most importantly, through the regulation of their publishing tracts \(pp. 28?9\). By creating a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standard body of Quaker theology, they hoped to craft a church that contained no contrary opinions, never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacked certainty in matters of conscience, and was infallible when united under Christ? \(p. 41\). Naturally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these high aspirations ran into opposition and concerns in England but for leaders such as William Penn, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most important goal for a cohesive Quaker identity was to create an entirely new society. Pennsylvania )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be the ?ultimate expression of Quaker values? where a ?different kind of citizen, 'shut out' of the old, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('great nations' across the Atlantic' could prosper? \(pp. 57, 63\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the narrative of the Quaker past firmly established, Smolenski spends the rest of the book exploring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quaker publications in some depth. Penn wrote the constitutions of the colony in England in 1682, hoping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a written constitution would help in the process of assimilating the body politic to the new world. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smolenski points out the flaw that in crafting the identity of the colony prior to settlement, the Quaker elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected to consider how they would change in the settlement process, how they would be creolized. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Almost immediately, the Quaker settlers and their proprietor clashed over the process and form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. In the process that emerged from the debates over government the Quaker elite sought to craft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laws to create a ?legal speech community they hoped would produce common standards of socially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate speech?, to standardize authority and legitimacy through the ?regulation of interpersonal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interactions between magistrates and citizens?, and thereby regulate behavior, crafting a cohesive body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politic \(pp. 70?1\). Among their important deliberations were early attempts at prison reform, a early method )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of penance for criminals to shape their ?interior 'selves' through the forced embodiment of appropriate civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and social behaviors? \(p. 72\). Through the legal order chosen by the Friends, Smolenski argues, they ?picked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and chose with English precedents they wished to import?, an important and conscious effort to create new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities, a process which was in itself creole and creolizing to incorporate new immigrants and to respond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to new situations in North America \(p. 73\). To encourage settlement, promoters and pamphlets spoke of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orderly world created in Pennsylvania, the easy naturalization for existing European populations and future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigrants in the territory and favorable conditions of the province.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interestingly, while there are numerous examples of the differences between perceived expectations on paper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reality, the policies of the early Quaker elite seemed to be deliberately ignorant of the reality that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?despite their best efforts to explain the meaning of the civic ordered they had created?, one for immigrants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and for the existing European and Native populations as well, ?they could not control how ordinary colonists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performed the roles they prescribed? \(p. 103\). For Penn, the question remained as to how he could order his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colony and reconfigure the settlement back to his original intentions. Smolenski asserts that Penn grew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly worried about controversial court cases, scandalous behavior among the leading Quaker elite, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and conflict within the government itself, writing, ?I am sorry at heart for yr Anemositys, for the love of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(god, me & the poor Country, be not so Governmentish, so Noisy & open in yr dissatisfactions? \(p. 104\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knowing that words themselves were actions, Smolenski suggests Penn knew that words could become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objects of power and disorderly confrontations among the elite and would not create an orderly society. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short, because religious cohesion in the origin of the elite did not translate directly to political civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cohesion, the governing elite had failed to ?develop an authoritative political language? \(p. 111\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most interesting and provocative chapter in Smolenski?s work is his discussion on the Keithian Schism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1691?3. Here Smolenski makes his most compelling case for the struggle to establish political legitimacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present in the early years of the colony. For example, the very public debate over the light within, the nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the body of Christ within, showcases how creolization and colonization can shift supposed accepted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(norms and identities. George Keith, a firebrand of sorts, an itinerant minister to other colonial communities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began asking for confession for membership. By doing so, Keith hoped ?through these reforms, ?the faithful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among us? would be blessed ?with a spirit of discerning? that would enable them to ensure that the outward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tests of membership reflected inner fellowship with God? \(p. 155\). The Keithians, then, ?hoped to restore the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meeting from its present fallen state?, a state of degeneracy brought on by the colonization effort ?in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was ?more like Babylon than a Church of Christ? ? to its former glory? \(p. 157\). In the very public battle )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7334 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that emerged from these debates among the ministry one can see the struggle to transplant the Quaker body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its institution to North America. On each side, the use of British precedents from the Society of Friends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are interpreted in very different ways while both sides had the same basic thrust: to maintain their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quakerness in the wilderness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The realities of the new world ? the wilderness, Indians, and competing colonial religions and interests ? did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much to shape a creole identity for the Quakers. Smolenski?s next several chapters focus on specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives and documents to illustrate this fact and his inquiry and analysis is quite compelling. At times, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglican minority in the colony provided a threat by reporting back to London the amount of disarray in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colony. Of particular concern was the threat to British hegemony in the region posed by the lack of military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defense. French-allied Indians raided throughout the region and Anglicans accused the Colonial Friends of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic liaisons with French pirates. By 1692 these threats appeared serious enough that colony was under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal direction in an effort to increase administrative control over the territory in the heart of King William?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War. Despite these efforts, however, Smolenski makes it quite clear that to the leading Colonial Friends, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?imperial authority stopped at the water?s edge?, with the example that one Quaker, David Lloyd, publicly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mocked the royal seal and English authority \(p. 183\). A question that emerges from these readings is how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pacifism could be expected to survive in the New World, with the constant threat of European rivalries and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the threat of Native trade wars. While the traditional narrative paints the early years of Pennsylvania in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive light regarding the Native population, Smolenski indicates that the situation was much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenuous. For example, Quaker James Logan indicated to William Penn at one point that the colony was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?nearly ?destitute of Indians??, and said this because ?he worried that the colony would have no Indian allies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to protect it in the event of a French attack on the western frontier? \(p. 211\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smolenski?s work is an authoritative and enlightening take on the mythmaking process of the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlements and the differences between realities and histories written after the fact which illustrates an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agenda driven mythology. Regarding the portrait of Penn as a benevolent benefactor and friend of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Natives, Smolenski is not revisionist, per se, but he does suggest, accurately, that the reality was filled with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more tension than a painting of happy Anglo-Indian relations in the colony portrays. Primarily the issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the two arose regarding trade, land, miscommunications, disagreements, and missed opportunities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but of great interest is the issue of the Iroquois and their role in the colony. Here is where it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible for Smolenski to expand his dialogue on the subject. While a great deal of information is present in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the endnotes on the continuing discussion of Iroquois influence on the region \(especially concerning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walking Purchase\), it would be interesting to see that dialogue within the body of the narrative itself in more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail. This is not a fault of Smolenski, rather, a preference of the reviewer. Despite this minor concern, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smolenski makes a strong argument for the solidifying narrative of accepted history as legitimising the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quaker present. For example, Smolenski writes about the Walking Purchase fiasco and the Penn sons, ?their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability to reshape Pennsylvania?s Indian policy relied on the steadfast support of the ?traditions? laid down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by their father. Their use of the past ratified proprietary power in their present? \(p. 285\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last example Smolenski provides is the narrative of Caleb Pusey, an unfinished project entitled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?historical account of the first settling and continuance of the Christian people called Quakers in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provinces of Pennsylvania and West Jersey?, a piece of literature that had a ?long afterlife? and influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although it was never published \(pp. 287, 288\). As a final example of the deliberate crafting of a usable past, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pusey's narrative presented Pennsylvania as a plain and straightforward but deceptive shaping of history, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?mixture of remembering and forgetting? that included forgetting the problems Penn faced as a proprietor or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pusey's own role in the Keithian debacle as one of the most vocal anti-Keithians \(p. 289\). As an intimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read of a number of important episodes, persons, and documents Smolenski's work provides a much-needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection on the very real experience of creolization in this post-Restoration middle colony. And as such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(document, it is a welcome revision to the traditional Quaker Pennsylvania narrative and its genesis tale.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 73.711 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 55.931 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 55.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1067)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 54.537 m 328.316 54.537 l S endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 54.8515 328.3157 66.7315 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1067) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5428)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000588 00000 n 0000000670 00000 n 0000005081 00000 n 0000005190 00000 n 0000005300 00000 n 0000005409 00000 n 0000008970 00000 n 0000009098 00000 n 0000009182 00000 n 0000009247 00000 n 0000016615 00000 n 0000016680 00000 n 0000024296 00000 n 0000024380 00000 n 0000031767 00000 n 0000031893 00000 n 0000031989 00000 n 0000032054 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32412 %%EOF