%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140711080229+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140711080229+01'00') /Title (Histories of the Holocaust) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4712 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Histories of the Holocaust)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Holocaust, which caused so many resignifications and dissolutions of post-war cultural forms and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradigms, from the deconstruction of grand historical narratives to the shattering of the idea of progress, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has not exhausted its capacity to urge reflection or attempts at explanation, as well as fascination, obsession, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypocrisy and often despair. The last two decades witnessed the opening of the archives in post-communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries and, consequently, the appearance of new directions of enquiry and the exponential growth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical research. The overwhelming quantity and diversity of publications and perspectives has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constantly increased the need for their systematization. The year 2010 marked the appearance of such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesis. Although he announces, modestly, that his book )] TJ ET BT 318.344 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histories of the Holocaust)] TJ ET BT 444.680 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is primarily conceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a supplement to Michael Marrus? remarkable )] TJ ET BT 268.292 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Holocaust in History)] TJ ET BT 389.960 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( published in 1987 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 481.964 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 481.964 200.649 m 495.956 200.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 495.956 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? in other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words, a historiographical guide of the last 20 years of research and its outcomes ? in fact Dan Stone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines critically and insightfully the post-1989 literature in question, together with the schools of thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and areas of debate. The impressive range, quantity and diversity of the material discussed makes Stone?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book the first interpretive guide to this vast literature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although he establishes the Holocaust?s victims primarily in terms of the perpetrators? own definition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their Jewish ?enemies?, and, intimately connected to this, as an important component of Germany?s war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort, Stone repeatedly stresses that the Nazi genocide also had large numbers of victims belonging to other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnic communities or groups, including Roma, Poles, Ukrainians and Soviet prisoners of war, as well as, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a smaller extent, Jehovah?s Witnesses, Black Germans and homosexuals. Far from reducing the Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1068)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 May, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dan Stone)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florin Lobont)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 481.9637 200.9635 495.9557 212.8435 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 6979 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genocide to the annihilation of the Jewish population, he examines, in terms of comparative genocide, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of the extremely brutal Nazi occupation of Eastern Europe and of the Third Reich?s general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial and demographic visions. In the context of recent debates about Nazi genocidal ideology, Stone gives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a philosophical dimension to the centrality attributed to the Jews within the Nazi genocide. Thus, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance was ?metaphysical? both in general-ontological, and human-ontological, essentialist terms:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They were not just considered as racially inferior \(like Romanies\), deviants \(like homosexuals\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or enemy nationals standing in the way of German colonial expansion \(like Slavs\). In the Nazi )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Weltanschauung)] TJ ET BT 144.008 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(world view\), history was understood as the struggle between good and evil, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented by the ?Aryan? and ?non-Aryan? races, in particular Germans and Jews? They were )] TJ ET BT 64.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not mere )] TJ ET BT 109.340 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Untermenschen)] TJ ET BT 184.652 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(sub-humans\) to be contrasted with the Nazi dream of the )] TJ ET BT 466.928 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bermensch)] TJ ET BT 64.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?overman? or superman\), but were regarded as a )] TJ ET BT 304.256 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gegenrasse)] TJ ET BT 360.908 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a ?counter-race?, that is to say, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not really human at all \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Based on the vast bibliographic research material surveyed, Stone examines in detail the various ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the Nazi )] TJ ET BT 109.664 563.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Weltanschauung)] TJ ET BT 189.656 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( regarded history as the titanic clash between Aryans and Jews. Throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book, but especially in one of its central chapters, ?Race Science: the basis of the Nazi worldview?? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter four\) Stone unveils the racial character of The Third Reich and analyses in depth a wide range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms in which its racialized view of the world permeated the realms of public and private life under Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Nazi regime encouraged and supported race science and constantly based its legitimacy on it. Yet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany was not a premire or an isolated case of cohabitation between fascism and race science. It is not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secret, writes Stone somewhere else )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.972 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.972 449.955 m 223.964 449.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 223.964 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that in the two decades that preceded the Holocaust, calling oneself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a fascist was far from inviting the stigma this notion bears \(or should bear\) today; fascism appeared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing especially to large numbers of intellectuals who were easily captivated by its verdicts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(message.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The importance of eugenic ideas for the development of fascism is widely acknowledged; apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradoxically, this has not hindered the seduction exercised by eugenics upon intellectuals, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialists and even communists. Race science has copiously nurtured extremist movements from South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America to Germany, from Scandinavia to Romania, which were built around the biologizing concept of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?social body?. And even though the sweeping destruction caused by the Holocaust was not the direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcome of race science, the latter was one of its important conditions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stone deepens the cut between eugenics and Nazi ideology by demonstrating convincingly the false )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compatibility between the Nazis? apocalyptic view of racial struggle, on the one hand, and biology \(even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the flawed form of the study of racial difference\), on the other. His inquisitive scrutiny of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive amount of relevant literature shows that eugenics and antisemitism were not necessarily related )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that the Holocaust was motivated more by the latter than by the former. Behind the Nazi anti-Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions Stone finds not the trumpeted triumph of modern eugenics, science and technology, but mystical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antisemitism and political conspiracy theories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stone consistently argues that this metaphysical-anthropological and mythological-political grounding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazis? \(and their ideological allies?\) attitude towards the Jews renders the Holocaust its distinctive character )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the genocide of the Jews. He also stresses repeatedly that this finding excludes neither the fact that other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups ? primarily Gypsies and Slavs ? were victims of the genocide, nor its devastating consequences. On )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other hand, he argues, even the mass murder of Jews cannot be studied without understanding the Nazis? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general demographic view.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The complex radiography carried out throughout )] TJ ET BT 271.304 75.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histories of the Holocaust)] TJ ET BT 397.640 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( points out, as main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristic of Holocaust literature, the central place occupied by race ? regarded either from scientific, or )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 209.9717 450.2695 223.9637 462.1495 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6214 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mystical points of view ? and grasps the change in contemporary historical studies, that is, the shift from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social history to the study of ?ideology? in general, and that of ?race? in particular. At the same time, Stone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detects the recent indicators that signal the beginning of the latter?s marginalisation too. He opposes those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who reject the literal approach but also queries the coherence of Nazi discourse which places race at the core )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Third Reich.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The philosophical-anthropological scrutiny of documents and archival material leads Stone to the conclusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, despite all historiographic trends, the analysis of antisemitism qua ideology remains essential to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the Nazi program of total extermination and detects a strong support of this approach in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works belonging to the ?voluntaristic turn?, according to which the Nazi rule was exercised by consensus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than terror \(pp. 4, 162, 285\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike many previous approaches to the Holocaust, Stone focuses mostly on the perpetrators?without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglecting their victims?arguing that the examination of the former is crucial to the understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust and the beliefs that motivated the Nazi decisions \(pp. 244-275\). )] TJ ET BT 64.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([B]ureaucratic rationality, polycratic competition, division of labour, and technology alone )] TJ ET BT 64.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot account for the [Holocaust]. The mission to kill the Jews was the prerequisite for this )] TJ ET BT 64.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massive effort, not a product of it? \(pp. 156-7\)? [Those who carried it out], the perpetrators on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ground were not automatons who simply followed instructions from Berlin: they were much )] TJ ET BT 64.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worse?active agents who drove the murder process at every stage. Yet ... the leadership... )] TJ ET BT 64.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([provided the] process [with] perspective... [T]he development of the radicalizing dynamic that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ended in a continent-wide genocide against the Jews provides a broader canvas for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding the unfolding of events \(pp. 111-2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The relatively recent Holocaust literature also endorses this perspective, as Stone?s comprehensive review of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most significant writings belonging to the so-called )] TJ ET BT 301.340 410.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tterforschung)] TJ ET BT 375.344 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(perpetrator research\) demonstrates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, Stone refers often to the necessity of ?modernizing? the ?victim research? ? still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominantly descriptive and insignificantly influenced by the terms of recent cultural history \(pp. 277?83\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he brings to the reader?s attention the few historic-cultural studies of victims and salutes them as innovatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applications of cultural theory and anthropology, able to provide insights into many traumatic dimensions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the horror. Yet, he stresses,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I wanted my historiographical account to accord with Saul Friedlnder?s ambition of creating an )] TJ ET BT 64.016 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?integrated? history of the Holocaust, in which the perpetrators and victims are discussed side )] TJ ET BT 64.016 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by side. Nevertheless, ... in understanding any genocide our most urgent task as historians is to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(try to understand those who carried out \(p. 5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this context, Stone insists on the necessity of in-depth study of Nazi culture, regarded not as a self-defined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject or just as one of Nazism?s facets. If we want to deepen our understanding of the Holocaust, we have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 179.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to treat is as a problem of cultural history as well \(chapter six\), and thus try to understand the symbolic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 165.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?webs of meaning? created by the Nazis in order to allow their values to interact with longer-established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German narratives in a way that rendered exclusion and then genocide meaningful and possible \(p. 247\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 124.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author warns us that his book cannot offer a comprehensive survey of the literature on the Holocaust or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 110.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on National Socialism \(the standard bibliography of the latter already numbered over 37,000 titles more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 96.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ten years ago, whereas Holocaust literature is even vaster\): ?What I have covered in this book gives an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indication of the main lines of inquiry, but is still necessarily only a starting point? \(p. 285\). But, despite his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 67.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modesty, what the historian-philosopher Stone generously provides us with is an original way ? elaborated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 53.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly with the help of history, anthropology, and cultural-philosophical criticism ? of examining the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6780 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various approaches of the Holocaust.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This ... obviously requires history to be painted with a broad brush, but I hope to show in my )] TJ ET BT 64.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overview of the historiography that the Holocaust developed differently in different places; the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraordinary geographic spread of persecution cannot be understood if one thinks in terms of a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blueprint for genocide. I show too that although there was no clear plan for genocide until as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late as 1941?42, nevertheless the logic of the Nazi )] TJ ET BT 307.964 701.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Weltanschauung)] TJ ET BT 387.956 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ... [was] inherently )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genocidal. \(p. 6\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although it was a ?purifying? programme devised by the Nazis, the ?Holocaust? is presented by Stone as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generic term that circumscribes local ?versions? of persecution directed against the Jews. He analyses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazi \(especially SS\) vision of Europe?s demographic future via the terms of a multi-layered ?pan-European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial community? with the Germans and their racial allies at the top and the Slavs, turned into slaves, at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bottom. This picture does not include any Jewish element, which implied, ultimately, their disappearance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 62?3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another merit of the book consists in the lucid and extremely well-informed analysis of the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretative disputes in historiography, mainly those between ?intentionalists? and ?structuralists?, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those between ?modernity? and ?ideology? theorists \(chapter three\). Stone does not subscribe to the views of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationship between modernity and the Holocaust put forward most notably by Raul Hilberg, Detlev )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peukert, Gtz Aly Susanne Heim, or Zygmunt Bauman. For instance, the latter, in his much-discussed book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernity and the Holocaust)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 178.004 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 178.004 478.467 m 191.996 478.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.996 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, borrowing a rather schematized version of Weberian terminology, argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Holocaust was the product of a bureaucratic and rationalized world. It was ?one of its hidden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibilities?, an attempt to replace spontaneity \(p. 121\), and it was carried out without hatred, representing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the finest example of the modern tendency to devise blueprints for the world, designed to purify the world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by removing unaesthetic or unassimilable elements. That argument is seen by Stone as valuable, in particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its closeness to ?functionalist? historians who analyze the history of race-thinking, eugenics, and medicine in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany and elsewhere, and in its implication that the Third Reich did not represent an aberration in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise enlightened world. In fact, argues Stone, Bauman?s book is so effective because it asserts that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world that created Auschwitz is basically still with us; indeed, the possibility of even greater genocides is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(real because our world is even more rationalized and technologically administered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bauman?s argument is deconstructed by Stone who shows that it does not suggest why only some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernities end in genocide. Along the same lines, Stone criticizes Bauman?s failure to account for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology. ?Why the Jews?? is a question that is not satisfactorily answered by the claims about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernization. But most importantly, Bauman?s theory does not account for the non-purposive aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hatred and genocide. His theory suggests that increasing domination over nature \(the Enlightenment\) has led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inexorably to the domination over human beings through the ?biopower? of the modern bureaucratic state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that the murder of the Jews could have been the extreme outcome of bureaucratic culture \(p. 122\). But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evidence Stone finds has justifiably led him to the conclusion that antisemitism and genocide are never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implemented coolly, without passion. Rather, irrespective of the use of ?factory-line killing methods? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(something that accounts for only half of the Holocaust?s victims anyway\), Stone argues that antisemitism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 20th century has been a product of modernity for a different reason, and that the genocide of the Jews is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an indictment of modern society, but not for the reasons Bauman points out. Stone does not dispute the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of biopower, or the history of race-thinking and eugenics which, in fact, are crucial to his analysis. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, although he examines approvingly the structuralist argument that denies the existence of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model of genocide or an ?untwisted road? to Auschwitz \(p. 69\), Stone does not fail to add and demonstrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a genocidal fantasy lay at the core of Nazism from its very beginning:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([T]he more we discover about the penetration of Nazi antisemitic indoctrination into every )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 178.0037 478.7815 191.9957 490.6615 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 7156 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sphere of life in the Third Reich, the more it becomes clear that whilst policy-making and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual decisions may have been made on an ad hoc basis, they were made within a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework of vicious, paranoid Jew-hatred... The Holocaust was ?modern? insofar as it took )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place in a ?modern? society, was organized bureaucratically and relied in part on technological )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killing methods... [Yet] the deep essence of the Holocaust was an outburst of transgressive )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence that owed more to fantasy-thinking than to the logic of reason, ?biopower? or the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?dialectic of Enlightenment?. But, as I show, thinking about the Holocaust in these terms does )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not exculpate modern society altogether; rather, the rationalized structures of modernity not )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only channelled but created the fantasies of Nazism \(p. 7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following the logical consequences of these debates, Stone examines race science and its impact on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust. Although it fully benefitted from the ?respectability? cast by academic race science onto the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mystical theories about the Jews, the Nazi regime started to distance itself from it, as its empirical findings, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classifications and distinctions ? such as that between ?race? and ?)] TJ ET BT 353.276 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Volk)] TJ ET BT 375.272 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? ? threatened to undermine the Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial-mystical propaganda.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a consequence, Stone argues, the essence of the Holocaust cannot be unproblematically viewed as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequece of race science. He insists that, despite the numerous non-rational presuppositions identified by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians as forming the basis of race science, it would be a mistake to overestimate its importance to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazi leaders. He demonstrates at length how the modern themes of race science, technology and bureaucracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coalesced with the transgressive ideological violence of conspiracy theory, mysticism and ?thinking with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blood?. In this context, Stone criticizes another, major recent study, Giorgio Agamben?s )] TJ ET BT 461.288 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Homo Sacer)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.940 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.940 488.211 m 537.932 488.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 537.932 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Agamben?s ?sacred man? has the status of an outsider who can be killed by anyone, but is not subject to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacrifice or homicide. Like Bauman, Agamben relies on a Foucauldian notion of ?biopower? which sees the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust as the culmination of the gradually increasing power of the modern state to decide on the life or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death of its citizens \(pp.115-6\). As Dominick LaCapra?to whom Stone refers repeatedly and approvingly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a number of his writings?notes, this approach, whilst highly stimulating, does not do justice to certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of the Holocaust that cannot be subsumed within the logic of modernization conceived in these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(essentially Weberian\) terms. LaCapra writes that Agamben?s work ?coincides with an often exaggerated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on confined, positivistic, relatively antiseptic notions of biology, medicalization, and eugenics? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which echoes Foucault?s notion of biopolitics. Whilst this certainly accounts for one important strand that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drove the impetus to genocide, it ?does not account for Nazi quasi-ritual horror at contamination, elation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victimization, regeneration or redemption through violence, fascination with extreme transgression, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equivocation or even at times ambivalence with respect to the Jew \(who was seen as abject ? even as a germ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or vermin ? but to whom erotic energies and incredible powers of world conspiracy were also imputed\)?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 537.572 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 537.572 302.883 m 551.564 302.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His careful analysis of a vast material regarding the genocide of the Roma population, the sterilization laws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the Euthanasia project, leads Stone to the conclusion that these actions possess, from the perspective of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negative eugenics, much more coherence and sense than the genocide of the Jews. Further, he shows how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dynamic of cultural stereotypes about the Jewish race had gradually transferred the responsibility of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?scientific? confirmation from the natural sciences to the social sciences \(p. 198\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further, Stone?s analysis places the Holocaust within the context of comparative genocide studies \(chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(five\). To the ?uniqueness of the Holocaust? thesis, which was for a long while indisputable within academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circles, Stone suggests an alternative perspective: although it does not represent an appropriate ?ideal type? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for reflecting on genocide in general, the Holocaust was a genocide, albeit a radical one, sharing many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features with genocides that occurred in the past and on other continents:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What remains clear, however, is that the murder of the Jews was not a total break with what had )] TJ ET BT 64.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gone before but was a radical version of experiences that have taken place throughout modern )] TJ ET BT 64.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, especially in the European overseas colonies \(p. 8\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 523.9397 488.5255 537.9317 500.4055 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 537.5717 303.1975 551.5637 315.0775 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 6441 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His argument acknowledges the main theories by which in recent years a new generation of scholars started )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to demonstrate their ability to respect the extremity of the Holocaust as well as the specificities of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genocides. Stone surveys perspectives that encompass the history of racism, colonialism, imperialism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation-building, as well as anthropological and sociological theories of violence. He agrees with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing number of scholars from outside Europe who have vehemently protested against European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship?s tendency to view \(albeit implicitly\) European forms of genocide, including the Holocaust, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradigmatic, archetypal, or more ?authentic?, due to their being committed ?in the heart of civilized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last chapter of the book represents a convincing application of cultural history as a way of understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims and especially perpetrators. The author demonstrates that recent approaches to the Third Reich as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?consensus dictatorship? represent a remarkable development in the historical study of the Holocaust as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals deep historical connections between the Holocaust and previous periods of anti-Jewish persecutions; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this perspective contributes, writes Stone, to a deeper understanding of Nazi fantasies about the Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existential ?threat? to the security of the ?Aryan race?. By shifting the accent from ?modernity?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?rationality?, and ?race science? to the study of such fantasies the author concludes that the main dynamo of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Holocaust was the Nazis? capital insistence on what, inspired by R. G. Collingwood, he calls ?thinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the blood?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By using a complex interdisciplinary perspective ? informed mainly by philosophy, literary theory and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthropology ? Stone?s intellectual history ultimately puts forward a convincing plea in favour of a deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflective historical practice focusing on ?methods, sources and style?. He entitled his book )] TJ ET BT 475.604 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histories of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust)] TJ ET BT 83.348 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( not only as an acknowledgment of the numberless \(complementary or rival\) historical narratives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Holocaust, but also as an assertion of the impossibility \(and the necessity of this impossibility\) of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(total historical narrative, or a ?final historiographical solution?. The ?unfinishing? with the past by its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constant ?renewal? via fresh meanings, is regarded by the gifted and original historian from Royal Holloway )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as ?the historian?s contribution to the variety of ways of being human and thus of promoting freedom? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stone does not leave aside the tremendous impact of the Holocaust on Western culture, our obsession with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory, or the post-war hypocrisy and fascination toward the genocide of the Jews. His impressive number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of books and articles already recommends him as an authority in the field, a remarkable analyst of what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calls, following Dan Dinner, the event that ?shattered the elementary bases of civilization and culture? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(286\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a conclusion, the author warns us that, instead of increasing our optimism and comfort \(entailed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deepening the knowledge of human condition\), reflection on the Holocaust should ?chill us to the bone? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we increasingly realize that the resources employed for the ?final solution? are similar to those so familiar to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us today ? ?censuses and the categorization of people, technology, medicalization, ?biopower?? ? and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our ?rational? lives are in fact impregnated with ?magical? thinking which ?under the right circumstances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be put to terrible use: fear of immigrants and disease, hygiene fetishism, body-culture obsession? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(287\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The six chapters of the book, ??The final solution?: a German or European project?? \(1\); ?The decision-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making process in context? \(2\); ?The Holocaust: child of modernity?? \(3\); ?Race science: the basis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazi world view??\(4\); ?Genocide, the Holocaust, and the history of colonialism? \(5\); and ?The Holocaust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an expression of Nazi culture? \(6\) converge to a conclusion \(?Into the abyss?\) revolving around the idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, ultimately, efforts to understand the Holocaust will entail the confirmation, constantly deepened and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicated, of its definition given by Hannah Arendt as early as 1946: that of ?an organized attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eradicate the concept of the human being? \(p. 287\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 3030 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Marrus, )] TJ ET BT 146.996 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Holocaust in History)] TJ ET BT 268.664 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 349.988 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 349.988 743.811 m 403.976 743.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dan Stone, )] TJ ET BT 120.344 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Breeding Superman: Nietzsche, Race and Eugenics in Edwardian and Interwar Britain)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Liverpool, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 152.336 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 152.336 715.299 m 206.324 715.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zygmunt Bauman, )] TJ ET BT 157.016 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernity and the Holocaust)] TJ ET BT 298.004 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Ithaca, NY, 1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 397.640 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 397.640 701.043 m 451.628 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giorgio Agamben, )] TJ ET BT 157.004 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