%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 28 0 R 39 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916200741+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916200741+01'00') /Title (Peacemaking in the Middle Ages: Principles and Practice) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1795 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Peacemaking in the Middle Ages: Principles and Practice)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1069)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 May, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jenny Benham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719084447)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John France)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8158 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book analyses the process of peacemaking in the Angevin world and the kingdom of Denmark in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period when they were ruled, respectively, by Henry II and his sons \(1154?1216\) and Valdemar I and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1157?1241\). The conjoining of these two zones is justified by the author on the grounds that their rulers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry II and Valdemar I, each came to power after bitter civil conflicts, faced problems with the Church, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and owed allegiance for some of their lands to a powerful neighbour; in the case of Denmark this was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emperor. However, as Benham readily admits, they were very different entities, with England being ?one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the richest and most highly bureaucratised kingdoms of the medieval West?, while Denmark was ?an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upstart? \(p. 7\). This seems to undermine the very basis of the book?s focus, especially as it is made very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear that only exiguous documentation on diplomacy has survived from Denmark. Moreover, the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers events both earlier than 1216 and later than 1241. In fact, there is quite a lot of reference to other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of Europe so that when this somewhat eccentric focus is reasserted the reader may be rather surprised. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book appears to be founded upon the author?s doctoral thesis, so this focus was presumably intended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make it ?doable?, an important characteristic of such an undertaking. However, the author at times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates much wider knowledge and her scholarship, with references to early medieval, late medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even Roman peacemaking practices, is very impressive. It is a pity, therefore, that this study is so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confined because a wider take on the subject, of which she is demonstrably capable, could have produced a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better-balanced study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book takes as its point of departure \(p. 4\) the notable article by C. W. Holdsworth, ?Peacemaking in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twelfth century? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.328 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.328 514.467 m 129.320 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 129.320 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which drew attention to the very limited modern work on peace-making in the Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ages. In fact, since it was published rather more studies, even in the two areas under consideration, have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared, notably the work of Eickels and Gillingham, so that the relatively empty landscape remarked on at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the start of this book is now rather more populated.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.320 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.320 471.699 m 293.312 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 293.312 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Benham?s book, however, is a noteworthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to this growing literature, especially in its emphasis on the personalised nature of the process, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the need to see it through the eyes of the individual rulers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main thrust of the book lies in understanding the principles and practice of peacemaking. Her perception )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that making peace, like making war, was an essentially personal function in which high-ranking individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came together and entered into a relationship is a reflection of her accurate knowledge of the nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval ?state?. One aspect of this is made very clear in part one \(pp.19?68\) where Benham demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the care with which sovereigns selected places to meet. The underlying concern was that each needed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoid any appearance of subordination or weakness such as would be apparent if one crossed into the lands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the other. As a result, rulers often chose to meet on islands in a river, on bridges or even on boats. Very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different considerations came into play when it was a case of a meeting between a superior and one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inferior rank, in which case the latter was expected to approach the former in his territory. This process had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its subtle variations. English kings did not always demand that Welsh princes come to their heartlands, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used places like Worcester and Gloucester in acknowledgement of the high status of those with whom they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were treating. It might be added that even to this apparent principle of preserving the sense of equality there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were exceptions. Benham alludes \(pp.75?6\) to the meeting of the Emperor Henry II and Robert II of France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Meuse in 1023, which advisors on both sides felt should take place on an island or on boats. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Glaber tells us that Henry took the initiative and crossed to Robert who returned the visit on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morrow.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 75.008 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 75.008 203.091 m 89.000 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 89.000 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This could surely be seen as a subtle assertion of supremacy by Henry. In this discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benham shows herself to be well aware of the weak structure and diversity of the medieval state which ruled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out frontiers in the modern form of ?lines on a map?, and she points out that kings chose to meet where their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spheres of influence came together: the Elm of Gisors was one of these for the French and English kings. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And she further points out that territorial agreements were made in terms of delineating which important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vassals and holders of castles were subordinate to whom. There is, however, little stress on the internal effect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this in subordinating vassals to rulers by, as it were, narrowing their options. The interplay between peace-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making and state-building, which has been explored in a notable article by E. Pascua, is therefore not really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed in this book.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.688 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.688 89.043 m 156.680 89.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part two \(pp. 69?114\) Benham discusses the rituals of peacemaking. She accords such acts as gift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchanges and gestures of submission some importance, but intelligently emphasises that they have to be )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.3277 514.7815 129.3197 526.6615 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.3197 472.0135 293.3117 483.8935 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 75.0077 203.4055 88.9997 215.2855 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.6877 89.3575 156.6797 101.2375 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8437 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen in the context of the numerous other activities which surrounded making peace. Prominent amongst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these, as she shows in part three \(pp.115?42\), was the role of envoys and negotiators. Here Benham is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sceptical of the idea that in the 12th century there was a distinction between plenipotentiary envoys whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masters were bound by their decisions and others who needed to seek ratification for their agreements. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were always, she suggests, escape clauses by which royal masters could renege on unwelcome agreements. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This description of )] TJ ET BT 127.676 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(realpolitik )] TJ ET BT 180.680 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is surely correct. When, after the battle of Hattin, Saladin reproached Raynald )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Chtillon, for breaking treaties, he responded: ?This is how kings have always behaved: I have only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed the path of custom?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.996 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.996 695.283 m 190.988 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 190.988 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In fact what was most important, as Benham says, is that envoys were very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important figures: ?Quite simply, envoys and mediators were the most trusted servants of their masters? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.137\). In part four \(pp.143?78\), ?Guaranteeing the peace?, the ubiquity of the oath, with its appeal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worldly and religious piety, is stressed, but of course it was never enough, and in the second chapter of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section she traces the way in which territorial sureties tended to replace hostages in the process of reaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreements, and connects this with the rise of Roman law. In part five \(pp.179?200\), ?Treaties, terminology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the written word?, Benham argues very soundly that far more treaties were made than have survived, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and goes on to stress the sheer difficulties of medieval terminology. The words used by chroniclers and those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in actual surviving documents are very varied, and this makes defining a ?treaty? remarkably difficult ? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem which, it must be said, afflicts many fields of study.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 325.664 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 325.664 566.979 m 339.656 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 339.656 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Further, many treaties have been preserved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only in the works of chroniclers, and here the historian needs to disentangle their take on the subject from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what may or may not have been contained in the original. This point is very well made in Benham?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely able discussion of the treaty between Richard of England and Tancred of Sicily \(pp.74?8\). In her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion \(pp. 201?16\) Benham argues that historians have too often judged the success or failure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treaties with the benefit of hindsight, and makes a plea for them to be seen through the eyes of the makers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in their immediate context. Thus in 1177 Henry II and Louis VII came to terms on some matters, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously disagreeing and even fighting about others, but clearly, because they avoided a general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflagration, this was seen by both parties as in some sense satisfactory. Similarly she argues that Le )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goulet was quite a success for John and Phillip II, and that only hindsight has led to its damnation by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. Benham makes a very good case for seeing peace-making as provisional and conditional, and as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something which was intended to meet the needs of the moment rather than to provide a long-term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework for relations, and in this she is surely right.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an interesting and perceptive book, and the author is capable of very careful and subtle analysis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrating an excellent knowledge of the realities of European politics and recognising that peace and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war were not opposites. Yet one is obliged to ask how far the evidence it cites is representative of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice and how far, therefore, the book merits its title. It is at its strongest on the Capetian-Angevin world, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it might have been better to make that the sole focus, but perhaps over a longer period. The evidence for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Danish experience is very limited, and while in itself interesting, contributes little to the general picture. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, the issue of time-span is important, because change and development over time may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred. Benham suggests that knowledge of Roman law became critical, and she at least implies that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice in Italy was more advanced because the practice of Roman law was more widely diffused there. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely the case that there is something in that idea, but it is here simply left hanging. This is largely because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the self-imposed limitations of the book, but it is also because the highly analytic pattern adopted tends to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscure any pattern of change over time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 12th century war and peace were inevitable concomitants. No European power, royal or other, could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoid war, but nor could any wage total war or even sustain it uninterruptedly over long periods. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clausewitzan triumphs on the field of battle were rare, and much conflict resembled a process of bloody )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nagging, interrupted by truces and peaces but rarely given a decisive end. Benham clearly understands this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and given the evident intelligence of the book and the importance of its subject it is to be hoped that she will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(return to peacemaking because there is plenty of evidence. A key source is Gilbert of Mons, for he was at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very centre of European diplomacy in the late 12th century and his )] TJ ET BT 357.284 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chronicle of Hainaut)] TJ ET BT 459.956 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is valuable for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of peacemaking of war and peace in Western Europe.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.916 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.916 86.787 m 375.908 86.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 375.908 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Moreover, Gilbert?s master was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a king and this directs attention to peacemaking in Europe at a very different but still very important level. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The later stages of the English civil war under Stephen saw major nobles negotiating treaties amongst )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 176.9957 695.5975 190.9877 707.4775 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 325.6637 567.2935 339.6557 579.1735 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 361.9157 87.1015 375.9077 98.9815 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 6910 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves and this pattern may have been more common than we think. At a quite different level, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusades witnessed frequent peace-making and the development of agreements of friendship such as those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which established Italy city-states in the major cities of the Holy Land. In addition, even there, and despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the driving hatred generated by crusade and )] TJ ET BT 246.956 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(jihad)] TJ ET BT 271.628 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, peace had to be made because, as in Europe, no power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could wage anything like total war, and the process of peace-making has begun to command substantial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic attention.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 127.328 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 127.328 723.795 m 141.320 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 141.320 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Benham?s )] TJ ET BT 197.312 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peacemaking in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 355.280 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is best regarded as a very valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconnaissance of an important topic. It is to be hoped that the author will return in force for a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discursive treatment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 661.779 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. W. Holdsworth, ?Peacemaking in the twelfth century?, )] TJ ET BT 344.636 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Norman Studies)] TJ ET BT 454.304 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 19 \(1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.296 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.296 629.763 m 550.292 629.763 l S BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 615.507 m 78.008 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Notable recent works are K.van Eickels, )] TJ ET BT 260.624 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vom Inszenierten Konsens Systematisierten Konflict)] TJ ET BT 511.280 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Stuttgart, 2002\); J.Gillingham, ?The meetings of the Kings of France and England, 1066?1204?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Normandy and its Neighbours, 900?1250)] TJ ET BT 263.024 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. D. Crouch and K. Thompson \(Turnhout, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 514.328 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 514.328 572.739 m 554.324 572.739 l S BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 558.483 m 78.008 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rodulfus Glaber, )] TJ ET BT 149.672 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Five Books of the Histories)] TJ ET BT 301.328 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. France \(Oxford, 1989\), pp. 108?1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 499.952 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 499.952 544.227 m 553.940 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Pascua, ?Peace among equals: war and treaties in twelfth-century Europe?, in )] TJ ET BT 452.252 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War and Peace in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ancient and Medieval History)] TJ ET BT 208.328 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. de Souza and J. France \(Cambridge, 2008\), 193?210.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 499.280 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 499.280 515.715 m 553.268 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani \(1125/519 ? 1201/597\), )] TJ ET BT 298.304 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ciceronian Eloquence on the Conquest of the Holy )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(City)] TJ ET BT 84.020 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(translated\), in )] TJ ET BT 160.004 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Arab Historians of the Crusades)] TJ ET BT 316.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. F. Gabrieli \(New York, NY, 1957\), p.134.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 472.947 m 118.004 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 460.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example, D. Bachrach, ?English artillery 1189?1307: the implications of terminology?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 190.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 121 \(2006\), 1408?30.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.336 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.336 444.435 m 353.324 444.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 431.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La chronique de Gislebert de Mons)] TJ ET BT 234.332 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. L. Vanderkindere \(Brussels, 1904\) has recently been )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translated into English by L. Napran as Gilbert of Mons, )] TJ ET BT 337.988 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chronicle of Hainaut)] TJ ET BT 440.660 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 401.667 m 118.004 401.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 388.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Y. Friedman, )] TJ ET BT 130.676 388.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encounter between Enemies: Captivity and Ransom in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem)] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Leiden, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.332 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.332 373.155 m 192.320 373.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 348.293 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 329.311 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 311.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 311.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1069)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 310.137 m 328.316 310.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 285.160 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.760 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5434)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.360 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 127.3277 724.1095 141.3197 735.9895 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.2957 630.0775 550.2917 641.9575 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 615.8215 78.0077 627.7015 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 514.3277 573.0535 554.3237 584.9335 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 558.7975 78.0077 570.6775 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 499.9517 544.5415 553.9397 556.4215 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 499.2797 516.0295 553.2677 527.9095 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 473.2615 118.0037 485.1415 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 299.3357 444.7495 353.3237 456.6295 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 401.9815 118.0037 413.8615 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 138.3317 373.4695 192.3197 385.3495 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 41 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 310.4515 328.3157 322.3315 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1069) >> endobj xref 0 66 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000558 00000 n 0000000640 00000 n 0000002487 00000 n 0000002596 00000 n 0000002706 00000 n 0000002815 00000 n 0000006376 00000 n 0000006504 00000 n 0000006588 00000 n 0000006693 00000 n 0000014904 00000 n 0000014934 00000 n 0000015062 00000 n 0000015098 00000 n 0000015128 00000 n 0000015256 00000 n 0000015292 00000 n 0000015322 00000 n 0000015448 00000 n 0000015484 00000 n 0000015514 00000 n 0000015641 00000 n 0000015677 00000 n 0000015775 00000 n 0000024265 00000 n 0000024295 00000 n 0000024423 00000 n 0000024459 00000 n 0000024489 00000 n 0000024617 00000 n 0000024653 00000 n 0000024683 00000 n 0000024809 00000 n 0000024845 00000 n 0000025006 00000 n 0000031969 00000 n 0000031999 00000 n 0000032127 00000 n 0000032163 00000 n 0000032291 00000 n 0000032346 00000 n 0000032472 00000 n 0000032527 00000 n 0000032655 00000 n 0000032710 00000 n 0000032836 00000 n 0000032891 00000 n 0000033019 00000 n 0000033074 00000 n 0000033202 00000 n 0000033257 00000 n 0000033384 00000 n 0000033439 00000 n 0000033567 00000 n 0000033622 00000 n 0000033749 00000 n 0000033804 00000 n 0000033932 00000 n 0000033987 00000 n 0000034115 00000 n trailer << /Size 66 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34211 %%EOF