%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 37 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021104518+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021104518+01'00') /Title (Rembrandt's Eyes) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4111 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Rembrandt's Eyes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mona Lisa \('the eyes follow you round the room'\), for example, has certainly been damaged by its over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposure and The Hay Wain barely survives its endless biscuit tin projection as the essence of Englishness. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contrast The Staalmeeste rs or the great self portraits exhibited in London last year slough off all traces of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentimentalism and banalization and confront us with extraordinary living power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This creates a problem for Simon Schama and for anyone aspiring to write about Rembrandt \(including the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author of this review\), namely the likelihood that the writing will be grossly inadequate in the face of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painting. Of course this is a problem for all writing about art but it is intensified where Rembrandt is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned because of his peculiar 'eloquence': his work speaks to us - emotionally, psychologically - with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directness unmatched even by masters such as Holbein, Durer and Titian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The difficulty is compounded by the paucity of documentary information about Rembrandt's life combined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the abundance of pictorial material. On the one hand, no diaries, memoirs, interviews, manifestos and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost no letters. On the other, nearly eighty self-portraits - an utterly unprecedented and unmatched visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiography - and a large, if indeterminate, number of family portraits \(his father, his mother, his brother, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saskia, Hendrickje, Titus, even baby Rumbartus\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So what is writing about Rembrandt doing? What function, exactly, is it performing and is that function )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary or justifiable? If its function is conceived in terms of 'explanation' or 'interpretation' of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning of the work it seems to me it is likely to fail, not because the work is mysterious or inexplicable but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(107)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 April, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Schama)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780713993847)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(750pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Molyneux)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6799 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it explains itself so much better than the writing can. Thus if we take Rembrandt's Bathsheba or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woman Bathing in a Stream both paintings for which the model was almost certainly his lover, Hendrickje )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stoffels, and we start writing about the feelings of the artist towards Hendrickje which the paintings express )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we need to know that any words we choose - tenderness, love, affection, sympathy, sensuality, desire etc. - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are less expressive, less precise and less powerful than the paintings themselves. If the function of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing is conceived in terms of persuading the reader of the merits of the work, then however necessary this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(task may be in relation to much contemporary work or even some neglected figure from the past, it is largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pushing at an open door where Rembrandt is concerned. Again the work has already done the job better than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any writing can.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having wrestled with this problem somewhat, I am persuaded or have persuaded myself, that two kinds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(art writing remain necessary and - just about - defensible. The first acts as a signpost. It is akin to the humble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but vital guidebook or museum p lan and is also the main function of criticism as performed by someone like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clement Greenberg \(or F R Leavis in literature\). It says, "Here lies an important visual experience", and "I, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who know something about these matters, recommend you go and have a look". It is useful and needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because we are all bombarded with so many images, so many sights, that we pay little or not attention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most of them or the attention we pay is very one sided - as when walking through the streets we frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attend only to getting where we have to go and not to most of the buildings or people - and therefore it helps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if someone says in a loud voice "Look, really look, at this!")] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second performs a function similar to the gallery itself or perhaps to a viewing platform from which to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survey a natural or urban panorama, that is it provides a context or vantage point favourable to seeing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artwork clearly. Writing does this primarily by providing technical, biographical and socio-historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information relevant to the work's production and reception. For example, Gricault's Raft of the Medusa is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mighty painting in and of itself but it is easier to 'see' it properl y, to grasp its power, if one is provided with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the information that it was painted in response to an actual shipwreck which was controversial in the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the recent Paddington rail crash and the sinking of the Herald of Free Enterprise at Zeebrugge we re )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial. \(Contextual information which would have been available to everyone at the time and which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gricault would have taken for granted.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of these two kinds of art writing the first is particularly relevant to contemporary work and the second to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work from the past but in both cases the writing must remain strictly and humbly subordinate to the actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visual experience of the art.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.976 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.976 345.651 m 180.968 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fundamental problem with Schama's book is that it is completely lacking in this necessary humility. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite beginning by quoting Paul Valry's injunction that "We should apologize for daring to speak about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painting", Schama proceeds to ignore the warning and speaks about painting and everything else without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apology and without restraint for seven hundred pages. How does he fill these seven hundred pages? Not by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing a systematic account of the history of the times or the structure of the so ciety, nor a rigorous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography, nor a location of Rembrandt's work in its artistic and cultural context. Rather Schama offers a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strange hybrid of history, biography and art history yoked together into an apparently seamless though jerky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and incomplete n arrative. The whole unwieldy structure is sustained by three main procedures each of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which seems to me highly dubious.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first is the piling up of adjective upon adjective, phrase upon phrase, \(in\)significant detail upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(in\)significant detail so as to generate the illusion of seeing, in the words of the dust jacket "through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rembrandt's own eyes". Thus we are offere d this description of Amsterdam:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From a seagull's gliding attitude, the great city resembled a half moon; a rat-gnawed cheese; a cradle lying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with its base to the southern meadows, the top open to the dark waters of the IJ; the tubby hull of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noorvaarder aw aiting masts and sail, sheets and shrouds, so that it might be off a about its business; a straw-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(filled bolster indented with the weight of heavy heads. [p.311])] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 166.9757 345.9655 180.9677 357.8455 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6608 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Followed by:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, the Zuider Zee itself, sucked through the inlet of the IJ, washing against the slimy double row of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(palings separating the inner from the outer harbour, carrying with it a load of tangled wrack and weed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worthlessly sma ll fish, and minute crustaceans generating a briny aroma of salt, rotting wood, bilge-water )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the tide-rinsed remains of countless gristly little creatures housed within the shells of periwinkles and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barnacles. [p.311])] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Which, in turn, is followed by two pages on Amsterdam's supposed smells, three pages on its sounds, two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages on its tastes, another two on its 'straight edges' and 'flowing curves' and three more on its sights. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merits of such prose are doubtless a matter of opinion. Peter Conrad in The Observer \(31.10.99\) called it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("ravenously gustatory" and said it left him "pining for a dose of Alka Seltzer". Jonathan Israel, in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise highly critical review in the TLS \(5.10.99\), referred to "his facility with words" and "renowned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetorical skills" as "Schama's great strength". Personally I find it extremely unappealing. More importantly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the whole exercise is a misguided venture, based on dreadful hubris, for it is not Schama but Rembr andt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who has enabled us to see "through Rembrandt's eyes".)] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schama's second procedure is to leave no digression unpursued. His two hundred page digression on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rubens, leads to a sub-digression on Rubens' parents, Jan and Maria, and Jan's bedding of Anna of Saxony, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even a sub-sub-digression on Jan's father ' Bartholomeus, the apothecary' who 'had died when Jan was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still a child' [p.42]. His description of Leiden leads to a discussion of the town's textile industry and thence to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state of 'the raw wool, dense, greasy and matted [which] came to the city in hanks of sheared fleece', and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in turn to 'the plank floors of workshops \(often the front parlour of the smaller houses\) where the raw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wool was washed, carded, combed and spun' and to how 'the doors of these little houses were left open to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(street so that on breezy days the fluff hung over the streets like dandelion seeds' until at last the cloth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerges 'as lengths of serge, baize \(not the green stuff of our billiard tables but a fine twill cloth\), or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worsted, depending on how the fibres were laid and twisted and what merchants said the clothiers in Paris, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frankfurt and Cologne were currently seeking' [p.200]. Schama continues in this vein down every nook and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cranny throughout his immense book and in the process displays a truly staggering quanti ty of knowledge, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but to what point? The job of the historian, as E H Carr argued in What is History? is to distinguish between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('facts' that are historically relevant and those that are not and this Schama repeatedly fails to do.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirdly, wherever there is a gap in the narrative or there is insufficient evidence for the dramatic effect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schama desires, he simply makes things up. He imagines what 'perhaps' was the case, what 'must have' or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('might have' taken place and inserts th e fantasy scenario into the story in such a way that the distinction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between fact and fiction is repeatedly blurred. The book's first paragraph reads:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After thirty salvos the cannon were obliged to cool off. So perhaps it was then that Constantijn Huygens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought he heard nightingales fluting over the artillery! The windows in the headquarters of Frederik )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hendrik, the Pri nce of Orange, commanded a remote but panoramic prospect of the stege. Had he been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asked, Huygens would have been in a perfect position to draft one of those grandiose bird's-eye views of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operations of war, engraved to document the commander's genius , his worthiness to be remembered as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equal of Alexander or Scipio. Some like to describe such scenes as theatres of valour. And to an eye as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary as Huygens's, the distant view from his tower chamber might well have seemed like a great masque, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(b lazing with pyrotechnics and noisy with the work of contraptions; a flamboyance of banners. But he also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knew that for all its appearance of a rout, such festive parades were actually conducted according to a strict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(program: first the pipers and drummers; then horses, fantastically comparisoned; then mountebanks and men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in lion skins; the pasteboard dolphins and dragons; and finally triumphal cars l'antique, pulled by garlanded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxen or the occasional camel. [p.3].)] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Already in these opening lines we have a 'perhaps', a 'had he been', a 'would have been' and a 'might well )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 6897 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have'. The overall effect of the passage is to make it almost impossible to tell what is real history here and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what is the product of Schama's a ll too vivid imagination. Nor is this just some opening rhetorical flourish. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schama continues in the same vein right to the closing paragraphs where he 'imagines' Rembrandt's daughter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornelia in Batavia 'on that December day' looking at her sleeping ch ild 'as if he were silently, seriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversing with himself as to how he had come to be baptized with so peculiar a name as Rembrandt' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([p.702]. In between the technique is put to work creating the impression that Schama has a hot line to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind of R embrandt nearly four centuries ago. Thus:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rembrandt was giving his full attention to the matter of painting, and in particular to a small patch of plaster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a corner of the walk-up studio. At the point where the wall met the upright beam of the doorjamb, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projecting into the room, plaster had begun to flake and lift, exposing a triangle of rosy brick... Rembrandt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liked this. From the beginning he was powerfully drawn to ruin He enjoyed tracing the marks left by the bite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of worldly experience He liked to toy with th e poignant discrepancies between outsides and insides In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corner of his room, Rembrandt's eye ran over the fishtail triangle of decomposing wall. [p.12-13].)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Ackroyd in The Times \(28.10.99\) finds this stuff convincing, "[Schama] is able to enter his subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his own imagination so that we seem to be standing beside the artist as he places his brush upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canvas". I find it false, border ing on the dishonest. For me it tends to destroy my confidence in the book as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole and to undermine its genuine merits.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such merits do exist. On the one hand, as I have already said, there is the prodigious amount of information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that has been absorbed and processed. Even if the facts are not one hundred per cent reliable - Jonathan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israel, who has infinitely more expe rtise in the matter than I do, says there are "numerous astounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inaccuracies" and identified seven or eight of them \(TLS 5.10.99\) - this remains a considerable achievement. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand there are a number of cogent, closely argued and inte resting readings of individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works - the exceptionally detailed analysis of The Night Watch [pp.480-500], especially the exposition of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compositional structure [p.496] is outstanding, but I also have in mind his discussions of the Dana and th e )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nude etchings [pp.383-401] and of the wondrous Jewish Bride [pp.663-68]. By the time I reached these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passages I was so out of sorts with Rembrandt's Eyes that it took a while to realize that a qualitative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvement had occurred. But it was as if having a definite image in front of him to work on temporarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relives him of the necessity to invent and fantasize and word spin. This does not mean I regard Schama's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations as definitive or even necessarily correct, for example I se e a critical element in The Night )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Watch he would deny, but they are serious and challenging contributions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But enough of the merits and demerits of Rembrandt's Eyes structure, prose and research, what of its general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case about Rembrandt, its overall intellectual argument? In fact, for a book of this size, there is remarkable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little of such argument. There is, of course, the contention that the example of Rubens was of overwhelming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance for Rembrandt's development. To say that this point is stressed is an understatement since it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asserted and built into the structure, woven into the narrati ve, for hundreds of pages, but it is not really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued for. That is to say it is not argued for in the way that a historian or art historian should argue, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering counter arguments and alternative possibilities and the views of other authorities. In the end one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is left with the feeling that while Rubens must have been a significant influence \(like Czanne on Picasso or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Picasso on Pollock\) Schama is overstating and rather forcing his case. What is not offered, however, is any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general consideration o f the relationship between Rembrandt's work and the rest of Dutch art in the 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century \(Hals, van Ruysdael, de Hooch, Vermeer etc. are conspicuous by their virtual absence\). Nor is there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a general argument about the relation between Rembrandt and Dutc h society. This might seem strange in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of the obsession with the infinitesimal details of the physical environment but it is as if the unending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on the trees substitutes for an overview of the wood. Then again, there is a sense in which the ass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ertion of the non-existence, in the final analysis, of a relation between Dutch society and Rembrandt's art )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(except as 'background' or 'context'\) is the book's central theoretical proposition.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7845 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the point Schama emphasizes in his interview in The Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 355.664 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 355.664 783.075 m 369.656 783.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 369.656 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and in the key theoretical section of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book entitled 'New York 1998'. He is at war with 'fashionable' determinism)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 412.940 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 412.940 768.819 m 426.932 768.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 426.932 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and his battle-cry is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Rembrandt as genius'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now the concept of 'genius' has long played a major role in cultural history and criticism and has been much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debated in the last thirty years or so. My own view is that the word itself is not a problem. If it is taken to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mean simply 'someone who is e xceptionally, outstandingly good at something' then Shakespeare was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genius at writing plays, Einstein was a genius at theoretical physics, Marx was a genius at social theory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kasparov is a genius at chess and Czanne and Rembrandt were geniuses at paint ing. Fine! But genius is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently taken to mean much more than this. It carries with it connotations of belonging to a higher order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of humanity than ordinary mortals, of divine inspiration, of innate superiority, of asocial, supra-historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcen dence. And with this concept of genius there most certainly is a problem. To put the matter bluntly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is both mystical and not far removed from the idea that some people are born to rule. Yet it is precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this latter meaning that Schama chooses to adopt and apply to Rembrandt.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was a time, not so very long ago, before the anachronism police had been sent out on monograph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patrol, when "genius" and "Rembrandt" seemed to belong in the same sentence. For the unnumbered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(millions who respond intuit ively to his painting applying the G word to Rembrandt seems no more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incongruous than awarding it to Shakespeare, Raphael, Cervantes, Milton or Bernini, all of whom predate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Romantic recoining of the word. It was the way in which Michelangelo was refe rred to both inside Italy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and beyond. Not long after his death, biographies of artists made a habit of identifying those who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inexplicably exceptional as prodigies whose gifts seemed so incommensurably greater than those of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporarie s that they must have been marked by a touch of divinity. [p.24my emphasis - JM])] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In making his case that Rembrandt is a genius in this sense Schama commits, I believe, two intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(errors. The first is to equate the evident uniqueness of Rembrandt's art with its social inexplicability.[pp25-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26]. This misses the fact th at we are all of us, in certain respects, unique and that what makes the work of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular artist uniquely 'great' is not that it is asocial but that it gives especially intense and powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression to profoundly social themes. This is what happens in Aeschylus' Agamemnon, in Michelangelo's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David, in Picasso's Guernica, in Eliot's Waste Land and in Rembrandt's Staalmeesters.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.448 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.448 376.419 m 462.440 376.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 462.440 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify conformity with being a product of society and rebellion wi th being outside or above society. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical error here was exposed by Marx when he wrote, "The existence of revolutionary ideas in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular period presupposes the existence of a revolutionary class".)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 363.836 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 363.836 333.651 m 377.828 333.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 377.828 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Conformists and rebels, Manchester )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Libe rals and Chartists, Versaillese and Communards, fascists and communists, Edmund Burke and Tom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paine, Ingres and Manet are equally products of their given society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Underlying these confusions is Schama's failure to grasp, failure even to attempt to grasp, the contradictions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Dutch society. That would involve dealing with the structure and nature of that society as a totality, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something Schama never does either in Rembrandt's Eyes or in his earlier, much superior, work The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Embarrassment of Riches. In my opinion the starting point for understanding both the nature of Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society in the Golden Age \(its amazing dynamic novelty and its cold cruelty \) and the nature of Rembrandt's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(art \(its no less amazing humanity and originality and its profound sadness\) is that the Dutch Republic was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world's first properly capitalist society and state, the result of the first successful bourgeois revolution. S )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ubjectively, the birth of capitalism, emerging from the interstices of feudal society, was experienced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society's most sensitive antennae, and perhaps also by the mass of its population, as both an immense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberation and a profound loss, a profound increase in alienation. This is what lies at the root of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shakespeare's tragedies and Michelangelo's sculptures, both David and the slaves. It is what permits us to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand how Rembrandt could be both enthusiast for Dutch socie ty and rebel against it, painter of The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anatomy Lesson of Dr Tulp and etcher of himself as beggar.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schama would reject this starting point out of hand as old fashioned Marxist dogma \(or would it be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashionable determinism\). Indeed he has already cut himself off from the most minimal use of insights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derived from a Marxist perspective when he denies at the start of The Embarrassment of Riches that the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 355.6637 783.3895 369.6557 795.2695 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 412.9397 769.1335 426.9317 781.0135 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 448.4477 376.7335 462.4397 388.6135 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 363.8357 333.9655 377.8277 345.8455 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R ] /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 5688 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch burgher was a bourgeois on the spurious grounds that 'the burgher was a citizen first and homo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oeconomicus second'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.824 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.824 780.819 m 152.816 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is this rejection which prevents Schama, for all his labours, from producing a coherent or convincing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of Rembrandt's art as a whole and which, combined with his overwhelming ambition to be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian superstar, results in him filling his pa ges with lists of every fowl to be found in Amsterdam game )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pie and every smell he can imagine rising from the Amsterdam canals. Fortunately Rembrandt's art rises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effortlessly above the cacophony.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.035 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 633.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is another kind of writing about art which is quite widespread and, I think, legitimate, where art )] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is mentioned as part of a wider historical, sociological or philosophical analysis of a period, theme or )] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue. But this is different in that t he aim is not to illuminate the art but to use the art to illustrate the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider argument. Thus Marx's observation that, 'Rembrandt painted the Mother of God as a Dutch )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasant woman', \(L Baxandall and S Morawski eds, Marx, Engels: On Literature and Art ; New York )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1977 p.60\) was designed to make a point about ideology and material conditions in a debate about )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom of the press.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 165.320 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 165.320 546.483 m 219.308 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("I've moved back to a more old-fashioned view of Rembrandt that, while requiring substantial )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amounts of history, wants to say that there are limits to what history can explain. It's a view that looks )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at how paint lands on the canvas and leaves mor e space for the pure powers of original invention. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History doesn't really have any explanatory forms for that, I believe". The Times \(28.10.99\) )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 507.656 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 507.656 489.459 m 547.652 489.459 l S BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 475.203 m 78.008 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Personally, determinism strikes me as profoundly unfashionable at the moment but conservative )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideologists always like to present themselves as rebels against dominant left wing orthodoxies.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 518.312 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 518.312 446.691 m 558.308 446.691 l S BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 432.435 m 78.008 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seeing all art, great and mediocre alike, as social, does not involve embracing as mechanical or )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolute determinism. For a discussion of determinism in general and its application to art in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, see John Molyneux, 'Is Marxism Deterministic ?' International Socialism 68, Autumn 1995.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 375.411 m 118.004 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K Marx and F Engels, The German Ideology, London 1985 p.65.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 376.640 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 376.640 361.155 m 430.628 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S Schama, The Embarrassment of Riches, London 1987, p. 15.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 365.984 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 365.984 346.899 m 419.972 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 322.037 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 303.055 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 285.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 285.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/107)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 283.881 m 322.316 283.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 258.904 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.504 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/677)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.104 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 138.8237 781.1335 152.8157 793.0135 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 165.3197 546.7975 219.3077 558.6775 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 507.6557 489.7735 547.6517 501.6535 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 475.5175 78.0077 487.3975 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 518.3117 447.0055 558.3077 458.8855 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 432.7495 78.0077 444.6295 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 375.7255 118.0037 387.6055 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 376.6397 361.4695 430.6277 373.3495 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 365.9837 347.2135 419.9717 359.0935 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 39 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 284.1955 322.3157 296.0755 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/107) >> endobj xref 0 60 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000533 00000 n 0000000615 00000 n 0000004778 00000 n 0000004887 00000 n 0000004997 00000 n 0000005106 00000 n 0000008667 00000 n 0000008795 00000 n 0000008879 00000 n 0000008963 00000 n 0000015815 00000 n 0000015845 00000 n 0000015973 00000 n 0000016009 00000 n 0000016074 00000 n 0000022735 00000 n 0000022800 00000 n 0000029750 00000 n 0000029855 00000 n 0000037753 00000 n 0000037783 00000 n 0000037911 00000 n 0000037947 00000 n 0000037977 00000 n 0000038105 00000 n 0000038141 00000 n 0000038171 00000 n 0000038299 00000 n 0000038335 00000 n 0000038365 00000 n 0000038493 00000 n 0000038529 00000 n 0000038676 00000 n 0000044417 00000 n 0000044447 00000 n 0000044575 00000 n 0000044611 00000 n 0000044739 00000 n 0000044794 00000 n 0000044922 00000 n 0000044977 00000 n 0000045103 00000 n 0000045158 00000 n 0000045286 00000 n 0000045341 00000 n 0000045467 00000 n 0000045522 00000 n 0000045649 00000 n 0000045704 00000 n 0000045832 00000 n 0000045887 00000 n 0000046015 00000 n 0000046070 00000 n 0000046198 00000 n trailer << /Size 60 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 46293 %%EOF