%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 34 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150629191514+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150629191514+01'00') /Title (Galileo: Watcher of the Skies) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4097 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Galileo: Watcher of the Skies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Wootton discloses to the reader on page 182 that his aim is to provide an intellectual biography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Galileo Galilei. But this book does not. Wootton's aim is rather to re-enter, re-open or even unhinge the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures of all arguments about the so-called Galileo affair that have been written until now. His aim is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position himself in the debate concerning the relation between Galileo and the Church and, moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between science and religion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is a long and vibrant oration which demonstrates that Galileo was an ungrateful person and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his ingratitude was directed toward the Roman Catholic Church. In a reverse reconstruction, Wootton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intends to show how Galileo developed a sort of esoteric, almost too esoteric view of God to allow us to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider him a deist. Moreover, he reconsiders and endorses Pietro Redondi's thesis concerning Galileo's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atomism and its ?negative? consequences with regard to the dogma of transubstantiation. Finally, he shows, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by means of a very detailed analysis, how Galileo, first, was Copernican even before the end of the 16th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, second, remained Copernican even after the prohibition of the doctrine of Copernicus in 1616, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third, did not make appropriate use of his chances to continue investigating within the frame of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Copernican doctrine after Maffeo Barberini became Pope in 1623 under the name of Urban VIII.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In other terms, according to the author, objectively Galileo was in danger of landing in the fire of damnation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the one of the inquisitors\) and therefore his abjuration of 1633 should be considered as a particularly lenient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1070)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 May, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Wootton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300125368)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(354pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matteo Valleriani)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7698 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way of punishing him. Galileo should have been grateful to the Church for that.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Wootton worriedly interrogates himself about the reasons for Galileo's behavior. Galileo?s scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence went notoriously against the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic worldview \(excluding his tides theory\), but not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really in favor of any of the other two candidates, Tycho's and Copernicus' systems. Why did Galileo not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept this )] TJ ET BT 88.004 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(reasonable)] TJ ET BT 141.332 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( perspective? Why did he insist on recognizing only the Copernican system? Why did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he not add a lengthy chapter to his 1632 )] TJ ET BT 228.992 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dialogue)] TJ ET BT 273.656 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to clearly describe the limits of the human intellect, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Urban VIII would have liked? Worse, considering the charges that the Inquisition could have brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against him, why did he remain so firm on his own theoretical convictions without accepting the )] TJ ET BT 499.640 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(reasonable)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compromise offered by the Pope to handle the Copernican doctrine as a mathematical hypothesis? Here, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author departs from all standard accounts and adopts a very novel approach to these questions. His answer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns Galileo's ability \(or inability\) to behave )] TJ ET BT 271.808 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(reasonably)] TJ ET BT 325.136 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and his approach is new because it is based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reconstruction of Galileo's psychological profile. Galileo was: 1\) a person who tended to create his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world without perceiving what was really going on around him \(p. 19\), 2\) an introvert because of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansive and invasive character of his mother \(p. 95\), 3\) subject to psychosomatic and hysterical illnesses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 145?6\), 4\) subject to surges of anger \(p. 163\), 5\) the victim of a conflictual childhood \(p. 234\) described )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the following way: ?the paternal conflict between experience and reason and the maternal conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between power and impotence? \(p. 255\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Galileo remained an indomitable Copernican, not because he was convinced about issues and aspects related )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his scientific research or to its results. He did so because of his mother and father who caused such an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alteration of mind that he was not able to receive and interpret the friendly messages coming from Rome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, at the same time, was even looking for pretexts to attack Christianity \(p. 48\). Following modern habits, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author also offers further psychological profiles of people close to the patient: parents, relatives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friends.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The argument makes use of a great deal of historical evidence and the author instrumentally ranges over a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide variety of subjects, treated in the frame of four main sections, to achieve his goal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first section ? ?The mind's eye? ? focuses especially on Galileo's youth and on the time of his first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic position, between 1589 and 1592, at the University in Pisa as a lecturer for mathematics. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author chose not to follow a chronological order, but rather a thematic one. Sudden flashbacks to Galileo's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paduan years \(1592?1610\) are not infrequent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section, with the same title as the book, concentrates on Galileo?s Paduan stay and on the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years after his move back to Florence. This long section is fundamentally devoted to Galileo turning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly to astronomic investigations and touches all classical related subjects like the appearance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nova in 1604, the telescopic observations and the publication of )] TJ ET BT 342.980 280.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sidereus nuncius)] TJ ET BT 424.640 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1610)] TJ ET BT 463.976 280.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 469.976 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to feel the need to justify the attention he gives to the important episodes of early modern astronomy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with Galileo. With an original approach, however, he does not justify it by remarking on their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevance, but by mentioning, at the beginning, the fact that a recent scholarly paper \(of which the author of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the present review is co-author\) has been published, whose aim was to investigate the origins of Galileo's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Two New Sciences)] TJ ET BT 123.344 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Wootton implicitly suggests that because this paper does not deal with the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(astronomy, it seeks to convey that Galileo therefore played no role in this. This seems to be the reason why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wootton chooses to deal with this subject at length.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third section ? ?The eagle and the arrow? ? covers the time from 1616, a time when it was forbidden by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Roman Church to treat Copernicus' doctrine as a physical theory, and also the time of the publication of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Galileo's )] TJ ET BT 79.172 125.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dialogue)] TJ ET BT 123.836 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1632. The plot of this most fundamental section, as is the next and last section, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on the 1616 sources concerning the condemnation of Copernicanism as a physical theory and Galileo's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trip to Rome, where he negotiated the boundaries within which he could continue to investigate in the frame )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Copernican doctrine. As all Galileo's scholars are aware, it is still an open question whether one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textual sources concerned with the 1616 events is genuine or whether it is a text produced in 1633, during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Galileo's trial, in order to create legal justification for Galileo's final condemnation. This debate is touched )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6352 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(but only touched\) upon in this book and then quickly dismissed by mentioning one single paper dealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the question and stating that historians have reached an almost unanimous opinion in favor of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1616\) authenticity of that textual source \(p. 162\). The unproven 1616 injunction against Galileo becomes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, in Wootton's argument, an indubitable historical fact \(p. 169\) and, one page later, even Galileo's 1616 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?condemnation?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth section ? ?Prisoner to the inquisition? ? exposes the major events of Galileo's life, from the trial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1633 to the end of his life. It is in this section that the real aim of the author becomes evident; it is here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Galileo's lack of faith in the Catholic God is stated, so that in the )] TJ ET BT 368.156 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(coda)] TJ ET BT 391.484 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the author is allowed to conclude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Galileo was ?disloyal and ungrateful? \(p. 266\). Galileo's lack of faith is systematically demonstrated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means of sources and inferences. First, Galileo apparently liked a book by Giovanni Nardi published in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1641. The book ? )] TJ ET BT 121.004 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De igne subterraneo physica prolusio)] TJ ET BT 302.324 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? is a mental exploration of the subterranean world, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, Wootton says, represented an alternative to Dante's vision of the underworld, evidently influenced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious issues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second inference concerns Clemente Settimi, who took care of the aging Galileo between 1639 and 164, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and some other members of the same religious order as Settimi. Settimi was called before the Inquisition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because he was suspected of having read Galileo's )] TJ ET BT 278.108 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dialogue)] TJ ET BT 322.772 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and of believing that the universe had no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creator. He was cleared but subsequently sent to Sicily. But the accuser, Mario Sozzi, another member of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same order, who at the end of the story was given the position of general of the order, denounced Settimi and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his companions again for teaching Galileo's science to their best pupils. Wootton develops this argument at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(length, starting from a 1615 letter of Galileo and ending in 1691. The overall message is that Galileo was at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least morally responsible for the teaching not only of his scientific results, but also for imparting principles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an unchristian worldview. The same author, however, admits that these are all just conjectures and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their power in his argument is limited, at least in comparison with the last of the textual evidence he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyzes. This is a letter by Galileo's pupil Benedetto Castelli written in 1639, from which the reader can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evince, according to Wootton, that Galileo had finally converted to the Roman faith, )] TJ ET BT 441.956 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ergo)] TJ ET BT 463.952 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that before this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(date he was an unbeliever. This letter might appear as persuading evidence to support Wootton's perspective. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, in the context of the entire correspondence of Galileo, its content and the expressions it contains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might also sound like an ordinary series of positive statements within which religious aspects are simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(routinely quoted. After having reread the letter, I personally tend toward the second option. However, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following Wootton's reading, the question remains open as to why Galileo bothered to search for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative to Dante's vision of the underworld and, especially, why he should have promoted unchristian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principles in 1641, that is, two years after his supposed redemption.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That this book is not an all-encompassing intellectual biography becomes particularly evident while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyzing the way the author involves Galileo's research, efforts and results on mechanics in his arguments. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the reader wishes to understand Galileo's lifelong research towards the foundation of a new dynamics, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not the appropriate book. Wootton does not disregard any of the classical )] TJ ET BT 399.296 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(topoi)] TJ ET BT 423.968 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( concerning Galileo's work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on mechanics, considered here in the widest possible sense: his studying Euclid and Archimedes, his early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies on dynamics while lecturing on mathematics in Pisa, his technological turn during the Paduan years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, finally, the Two New Sciences. However, these aspects are treated cursorily, often leaving the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression that they do not really contribute to the argument.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7172 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Galileo's )] TJ ET BT 79.172 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discorsi)] TJ ET BT 119.840 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( published in 1638, for example, is dealt with in five pages. Galileo's Two New Sciences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are presented fully de-contextualized. Wootton does not recognize that behind Galileo's science of materials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was the urgent and real need to avoid the frequent collapsing of buildings and wooden machines, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which were built following a schema of linear-proportional and scalar building from model to real size. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not recognize either that behind Galileo?s theory there were other theoretical approaches formulated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators on Aristotle's )] TJ ET BT 171.836 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mechanical Questions)] TJ ET BT 279.488 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Concerning Galileo's dynamics, Wootton fails to stress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of the debate concerning the study of the trajectory of projectiles which framed the research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Galileo and of many other scholars and which was basically rooted in the experience accumulated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artillerists on the early modern battlefields. Instead, Wootton limits himself to the statement that Galileo's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?preoccupation with resistance? came from the ?conflicts of his childhood? \(p. 234\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By basing the argument on the reconstruction of psychological profiles, the overall narrative of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often follows the rules of a modern crime novel, in places even suggesting the feeling of a conspiracy. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author often seeks to build a sort of conspiratorial relationship with the reader. The latter, whether she/he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likes it or not, is simply placed on the high-backed chair of the Inquisitor. As it might have been at Galileo's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, the reader-inquisitor does not actively search for suspects of heresy. The inquisitor sits and waits for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence to be submitted by people willing to denounce other people, like friends, members of the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order, colleagues, superiors, often with the objective to eliminate in this way possible competitors, as might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been the case with Mario Sozzi. The reader waits and Wootton submits.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Denouncers are never unconcerned and never really furnish evidence in a neutral way. They filter the pieces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of information and what is submitted is always provided with an interpretative layer. Recurring on his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruction of psychological profiles, the author seems willing to show that he has almost spoken to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical protagonists, that he has shown that they \(Galileo\) had alternatives and, therefore, that they cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be excused, pardoned, cleared.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wootton discloses also his own psychological profile when he endorses an explanation of the reasons for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Galileo's trial and defeat furnished by Orazio Grassi, a Jesuit with whom Galileo undertook a long scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispute about the nature of the comets. Grassi reputedly held Galileo to be the cause of his own misfortune )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because, in Wootton's words, ?he had fallen in love with his own arguments and had paid no attention to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views of others? \(p. 225\). In other terms, Galileo would have been better off had he made proficient use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the well-known techniques of simulation and dissimulation. This is the working context of inquisitors. Do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we really want to join them?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 278.883 m 270.668 278.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Popular Science)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.popularscience.co.uk/reviews/rev572.htm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 250.371 m 291.980 250.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 294.980 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cosmos Magazine)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/reviews/4026/galileo-watcher-skies)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 221.859 m 371.300 221.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 374.300 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotsman)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://living.scotsman.com/books/Book-Reviews-Galileo-Watcher-of.6583751.jp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 193.347 m 423.992 193.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 426.992 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frozen Yozurt)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://frogenyozurt.com/2010/12/galileo-watcher-of-the-skies-a-biography-by-david-wootton/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 164.835 m 484.940 164.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 487.940 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(List of other reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.watcheroftheskies.org/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 136.323 m 200.660 136.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 203.660 137.717 Td /F1 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