%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141124083110+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141124083110+00'00') /Title (Children?s Exodus: A History of the Kindertransport) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4406 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Children?s Exodus: A History of the Kindertransport)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A landmark moment in Holocaust history and memory occurred in 1989 when about 1,000 Kindertransport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survivors attended their 50-year reunion in London. The event commemorated the transport of 10,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children from Central Europe to safety in Britain. Launched on November 9, 1938, the transport continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a year until the Nazis ended it when war was declared in September 1939. Before they began to share )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their memories of the transport, few had thought of themselves as Holocaust survivors. After all, they had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escaped the round-ups and deportations that began shortly after November 9, 1938, when the Nazis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orchestrated )] TJ ET BT 95.660 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kristallnacht )] TJ ET BT 162.008 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(night of broken glass\), the nation-wide pogrom against the Jews, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synagogues, and businesses. None of these child refugees had suffered the ghettoes or camps. They were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the children who had been hidden with non-Jewish families or in convents, and they did not pass as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aryans with forged identity papers. And yet, as Vera Fast discovered in interviews, memoirs, and archives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite being rescued, those 10,000 children did not escape the effects of the Holocaust. Almost all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children?s parents had been killed. For the younger children, this would mean that in addition to losing their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents, they would have no memory of them to mourn. For the older children, memories could be fleeting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or remain as excruciating reminders of their loss. Of the few parents who survived, the trauma of separation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was exacerbated when reunions were painful. However, despite these losses and pain, almost all of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kinder grew up to have successful careers and rich personal lives, and they remained unequivocally grateful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the nation that saved them. Yet as memoirs and interviews reveal, their experiences were also complicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1071)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 May, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vera Fast)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781848855373)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. B. Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phyllis Lassner)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8412 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the process of adapting linguistically and socially to an alien culture and society that did not always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand the emotional needs and religious customs of these Jewish children. Their story of rescue and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adaptation is crucial to our knowledge of the Holocaust as it represents another facet of the intricate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global reach of Hitler?s designs to persecute and exterminate the Jewish people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Children?s Exodus)] TJ ET BT 125.684 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is welcome evidence of the significance of the Kindertransport story. The book?s intense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus weaves together the multi-faceted organizational efforts to launch the rescue with the experiences and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses of the Kinder. Vera Fast also sets the story in its historical contexts, including the accretion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecutory legislation in Germany once the Nazis consolidated their power. In her Preface, Fast announces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that her book is a survey of the immigration of Jewish children from the first Kindertransport in 1938 to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1948 arrival of the last displaced persons. In addition to charting the experiences of children with clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish identities, she devotes an important chapter to ?Jewish Christian children, those from mixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriages, designated by the Nazis as variations of )] TJ ET BT 280.964 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mischlinge )] TJ ET BT 337.292 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or non-Aryan Christians?. Her chapter on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war refugees addresses the lives of children who had survived in hiding or even the camps. As she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates, her study makes important use of primary archival sources to offer enriching detail about well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known aspects of the Kindertransport and adds complexity to features that had previously been discussed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among the fruits of these labors is the story of Orthodox and observant Jewish children and that of Rabbi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Solomon Schonfeld, the Orthodox rabbi who held himself responsible for their fate and welfare and whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives enable his story to come to light.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fast?s method synthesizes statements from published and unpublished memoirs, interviews, and accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gleaned from collective Kindertransport autobiographies such as Karen Gershon?s edited collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiography, )] TJ ET BT 109.340 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(We Came as Children)] TJ ET BT 215.000 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Barry Turner?s )] TJ ET BT 296.972 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(? And the Policeman Smiled)] TJ ET BT 432.956 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Leverton and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lowensohn?s )] TJ ET BT 103.004 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(I Came Alone, )] TJ ET BT 174.992 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Harris and Oppenheim?s )] TJ ET BT 317.624 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Into the Arms of Strangers. )] TJ ET BT 450.956 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She does not include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or analyze such individual memoirs as Lore Segal?s )] TJ ET BT 286.640 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Other People?s Houses )] TJ ET BT 402.956 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or Karen Gershon?s two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume memoir, )] TJ ET BT 116.348 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Lesser Child )] TJ ET BT 190.688 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London: Peter Owen, 1994\) and )] TJ ET BT 351.992 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Tempered Wind)] TJ ET BT 438.644 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 444.644 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or autobiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiction such as Gershon?s novel, )] TJ ET BT 192.656 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bread of Exile)] TJ ET BT 261.980 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 264.980 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 264.980 428.931 m 278.972 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 278.972 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her first chapter sets collective accounts into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical, cultural, and political contexts of Jewish life in Germany going back to the 19th century. Her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the assimilation of German Jews reminds us that they had every reason to feel secure in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic, cultural, and social successes. Although antisemitism was not solely of German provenance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish emancipation did exacerbate German feelings that perhaps the Jews were taking unfair advantage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nation?s largesse. Like other historians of modern Europe, Fast shows how antisemitism became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimized not only in Germany with the rise of Hitler but throughout Central and Eastern Europe with Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquest and occupation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most of this history is very well known but it is important to Fast?s study as it demonstrates how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kindertransport originated in the same ideologies, conditions, and policies that produced the ghettoes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentration camps, and killing centers. Highlighting another connection to Holocaust victims, she shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how parents? agonizing decisions to send their children to safety resembled those of Jews wrestling with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts between recognizing the imminent threats to their lives and seeking their own safe harbor while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving behind family members who were too old, infirm, or without financial means and sponsorship to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escape. The quotas imposed on possibilities for sponsorship by the United States and Canada were, as has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been well documented, instrumental in abandoning the Jews to Nazi destruction. While the Kindertransport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated the widespread compassion of the British people, it must also be remembered that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government did not issue the same welcome to the children?s parents. A telling example of the anguish this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caused the children is Lore Siegel?s testimony of going door to door pleading with people to offer her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents work and sponsorship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of Fast?s contributions to Kindertransport history is to provide details gleaned from her archival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research that develop a comprehensive story of the complex, competitive, and contentious relations among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the various organizations that were instrumental in spearheading the rescue of the children. The paramount )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue that gave rise to dissension among the rescue organizations was the fate of the Kinder?s Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity. Concerns about placing Jewish children with non-Jewish guardians and fears of conversion were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicated by the fact that many of the children came from highly assimilated families while others were )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 264.9797 429.2455 278.9717 441.1255 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8178 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeply devout and observant. Moreover, as Fast reports, ?while there were too few vacancies in Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homes, the non-Jewish community opened its doors wide? \(p. 86\). While she confirms this point by citing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the unsuccessful efforts by Jewish community leaders to pressure and plead with Jewish families, the issue is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more complex. What remains to be investigated is whether there were too few Jewish homes, too few Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volunteers, or Jewish families of too little means and those with too many responsibilities. Another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension to this issue calls for research into the attitudes of British Jews across the range of assimilated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secular, liberal, and Orthodoxy toward the child refugees and how these attitudes were shaped by their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Jewish social, cultural, and economic conditions. For this historical context and its intellectual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological underpinnings, it is surprising not to see such important works consulted as Todd Endelman?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Jews of Britain 1656-2000)] TJ ET BT 182.684 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Geoffrey Alderman?s )] TJ ET BT 295.976 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern British Jewry)] TJ ET BT 401.300 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Richard Bolchover?s )] TJ ET BT 511.280 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jewry and the Holocaust )] TJ ET BT 156.668 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the study of )] TJ ET BT 229.328 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Holocaust and the Liberal Imagination )] TJ ET BT 441.332 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Tony Kushner.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.320 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.320 652.515 m 542.312 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fast?s access to Rabbi Schonfeld?s papers leads to extensive discussion of both his heroism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parochialism. On the one hand, his relentless efforts included winning the support of the Home Office to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guarantee the rescue of hundreds of Austrian children and find them homes. But his laudatory commitment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Orthodoxy also led him to accuse other organizations of ?discriminating against religious Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children? \(p. 99\). Although Fast gives more attention to the Orthodox experience than has been previously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored, it should be noted that much of the Schonfeld story, including use of his archive, as well as that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Jewish rescue organizations was covered by Pamela Shatzkes in her book )] TJ ET BT 407.936 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust and Rescue )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 518.252 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 518.252 552.723 m 532.244 552.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 532.244 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is not consulted. What Fast does accomplish is to examine the many facets of this conflict with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scrupulous attention to individual personalities and the structures of Jewish community economic, social, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cultural power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, there are elements of her analysis of this experience that hint of special pleading and require )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interrogation. She claims, for example, that ?Orthodox children survived the ordeal of separation and new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginnings better than any other group [because they] knew who they were; persecution was not unknown in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own lives and [?] they had this unshakable belief in a God whose children they were? \(p. 112\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Immediately following this point, she quotes a non-Orthodox Jewish )] TJ ET BT 366.668 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kind )] TJ ET BT 393.008 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who celebrates Orthodoxy as ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(huge force for civilization, not just for the preservation of monotheism but also for Jews to survive as Jews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([?]? \(pp. 112?3\). While this latter quote clearly expresses a deeply felt response, it cannot be made to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corroborate either the statement that precedes it or to represent the wide ranging attitudes and experiences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other non-Orthodox )] TJ ET BT 132.668 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kinder)] TJ ET BT 166.004 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Since the experience of adaptation to British culture also depended on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes of host families and staff at hostels, attention must be given to the effects of this social and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interaction. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fast?s third chapter, ?Strangers in your midst?, surveys how the first steps towards this adaptation were in so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many cases very painful for the children. The method of selection consisted of inviting sponsoring couples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the lunch hour at the entry camps to choose a child. Labeled ?the market?, the process was pragmatic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designed to resettle the children as quickly as possible \(p. 41\). Although rescue organizations did their best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to screen foster families, questionnaires and even home visits could not guarantee caring, empathetic, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible care. Moreover, there was neither sufficient time nor staff to offer individual guidance to host )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families about the children?s religious or psychological profiles or needs. Younger children were preferred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they were thought to be malleable. Older children, particularly adolescent boys, were the hardest to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place, as were those boys and girls who were not physically attractive. After weeks of waiting and being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejected by individual families, these children finally found a welcoming home and often a more satisfying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience in youth hostels. Separating siblings who could not be placed together exacerbated the trauma of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separation and loss. Lore Segal?s memoir )] TJ ET BT 236.984 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Other People?s Houses )] TJ ET BT 353.300 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers a graphic picture of this painful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process. Remembering the tense waiting to be chosen, she records:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I turned, eager to charm. An enormous, prickly-looking fur coat rose sheer above me. An old )] TJ ET BT 64.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman looked at me with a sour expression from behind her glasses. She frightened me. She )] TJ ET BT 64.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a small, gray, untidy face with a lot of hat and hair and spectacle about it. I had imagined )] TJ ET BT 64.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the family who would choose me would be very special, very beautiful people. I signaled to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 528.3197 652.8295 542.3117 664.7095 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 518.2517 553.0375 532.2437 564.9175 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7398 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lady with the list that I wanted to go with someone else, but she didn?t see, because she was )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attending to the woman in the fur coat, who said, ?How old is she? See, we wanted to have one )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about ten years old ? you know, old enough to do for herself but not too old to learn nice ways?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 752.307 m 78.008 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fast comments in her preface that ?a memoir can offer the reader no more than one individual?s experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of larger phenomena?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 141.644 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 141.644 699.795 m 155.636 699.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 155.636 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet as this passage from Lore Segal reveals, there is much to learn from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely observed and examined memory of a child?s perspective. Representing the child?s emotional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response humanizes the historical survey through the graphic language of felt experience. And while one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response cannot represent the whole, it does provide psychological depth and complexity by validating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(child?s perception and endowing her with a voice. The adult writer looking back at herself as a child is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore granted the status of witness to her own experience and in turn, the memoir is granted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotional and narrative power of testimony. There is also a concomitant value in quoting illustrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passages from individual memoirs rather than piecing together bits from different writers as Fast does. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(string of partial quotes elides individual responses and voices while it cannot construct or depict a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalized depth of feeling. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to examining the problems encountered by the various rescue organizations in finding places for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the children, Fast offers perspectives from the wide range of geographically, socially and economically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situated host families. In general, she finds, most families did their best to provide clean, welcoming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environments. Drawing upon published collective autobiographies, but few individual ones, she also offers a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectrum of the children?s experiences. These range from their initial encounters with potential host families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to being exploited as unpaid labor and reminders that they must comport themselves with gratitude even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when they were billeted in homes that were primitive compared to the comfortable middle class homes they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to abandon or subjected to emotional indifference and neglect. Fast?s survey of these difficulties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes the case of older children being sent to do manual labor when their middle and upper-middle class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families had instilled expectations for higher education and entering the professions or business. There were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also cases of sexual abuse but Fast asserts that these were exceptional. Further problems ensued as Fast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delineates the evacuation of school age children during the bombings which intensified the Kinder?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ongoing feelings of dislocation. The internment of refugees considered ?enemy aliens? was perhaps the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heinous of the British government?s restrictive policies. Those over 16 years old were interned regardless of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the traumas they had already suffered and without distinguishing between their being German Jews and non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish Germans. Although most were sent to camps on the Isle of Man, some of the young refugees were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sent as far as Canada and Australia under brutal conditions, complete with beatings and robberies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fast?s chapter ?In Later Years? reveals that most of the Kinder remained in Britain and those who had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sponsored by Youth Aliyah went to Israel once the State was declared. About 25 per cent went to the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States, Canada, and elsewhere. Marriage and family became principal goals, many choosing spouses among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fellow refugees. The story of their successful adult lives also embeds prevailing tensions between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assimilation to British culture and society and the expression of their Jewish identities. Assimilation led to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division within the Anglo-Jewish community and many never stopped feeling that they remained outsiders. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, Fast?s research leads her to conclude that ?most of the Kinder, especially the younger ones )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing up in English homes, felt accepted and comfortable in England? \(p. 171\). This conclusion might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been more complex had the special issue of the journal )] TJ ET BT 326.288 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shofar )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.292 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.292 176.835 m 375.284 176.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 375.284 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( been consulted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vera Fast?s historical survey takes its place among an increasing number of studies that are making use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives and memoirs to develop comprehensive histories that demonstrate the multilayered and vast reach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Holocaust. As a result, the Kindertransport is now recognized as key to understanding how survival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its aftermath represent a continuum of Holocaust history, experience, and memory. By implication, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Children?s Exodus )] TJ ET BT 128.684 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also reminds us that individual testimony and memoirs represent the lives to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical narratives owe their significance. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 752.6215 78.0077 764.5015 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 141.6437 700.1095 155.6357 711.9895 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 361.2917 177.1495 375.2837 189.0295 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 4234 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lore Segal, )] TJ ET BT 122.336 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Other People?s Houses)] TJ ET BT 235.652 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1964\); Karen Gershon, )] TJ ET BT 435.596 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Lesser Child )] TJ ET BT 509.936 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1994\); )] TJ ET BT 98.348 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Tempered Wind)] TJ ET BT 185.000 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Evanston, IL, 2009\); )] TJ ET BT 294.320 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bread of Exile)] TJ ET BT 363.644 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 444.968 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 444.968 729.555 m 498.956 729.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Todd Endelman, )] TJ ET BT 147.008 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Jews of Britain 1656?2000 )] TJ ET BT 300.680 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Berkeley, CA, 2002\); Geoffrey Alderman, )] TJ ET BT 511.292 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Jewry )] TJ ET BT 131.348 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1992\); Richard Bolchover, )] TJ ET BT 307.316 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Jewry and the Holocaust )] TJ ET BT 465.644 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge,)] TJ ET BT 528.968 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993\) )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tony Kushner, )] TJ ET BT 139.004 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Holocaust and the Liberal Imagination )] TJ ET BT 351.008 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 426.656 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 426.656 686.787 m 480.644 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pamela Shatzkes, )] TJ ET BT 151.004 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust and Rescue)] TJ ET BT 258.320 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 360.980 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 360.980 672.531 m 414.968 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Segal, p. 49.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 123.680 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 123.680 658.275 m 177.668 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, p. xiv.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 119.684 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 119.684 644.019 m 173.672 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shofar)] TJ ET BT 96.020 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 23, 1)] TJ ET BT 126.020 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET BT 133.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fall 2004\), )] TJ ET BT 188.684 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kindertransporte 1938/9 ? Rescue and Integration)] TJ ET BT 432.344 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Wolfgang Benz, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claudia Curio, Andrea Hammel.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 220.328 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 220.328 615.507 m 274.316 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 590.645 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 571.663 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 553.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 553.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1071)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 552.489 m 328.316 552.489 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 527.512 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5443)] TJ ET BT 34.016 498.712 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 444.9677 729.8695 498.9557 741.7495 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 426.6557 687.1015 480.6437 698.9815 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 360.9797 672.8455 414.9677 684.7255 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 123.6797 658.5895 177.6677 670.4695 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 119.6837 644.3335 173.6717 656.2135 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 220.3277 615.8215 274.3157 627.7015 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 552.8035 328.3157 564.6835 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1071) >> endobj xref 0 54 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000561 00000 n 0000000643 00000 n 0000005101 00000 n 0000005210 00000 n 0000005320 00000 n 0000005429 00000 n 0000008990 00000 n 0000009118 00000 n 0000009202 00000 n 0000009286 00000 n 0000017751 00000 n 0000017781 00000 n 0000017909 00000 n 0000017945 00000 n 0000018036 00000 n 0000026267 00000 n 0000026297 00000 n 0000026425 00000 n 0000026461 00000 n 0000026491 00000 n 0000026619 00000 n 0000026655 00000 n 0000026753 00000 n 0000034204 00000 n 0000034234 00000 n 0000034360 00000 n 0000034396 00000 n 0000034426 00000 n 0000034554 00000 n 0000034590 00000 n 0000034620 00000 n 0000034748 00000 n 0000034784 00000 n 0000034910 00000 n 0000039197 00000 n 0000039325 00000 n 0000039380 00000 n 0000039508 00000 n 0000039563 00000 n 0000039691 00000 n 0000039746 00000 n 0000039874 00000 n 0000039929 00000 n 0000040057 00000 n 0000040112 00000 n 0000040240 00000 n 0000040295 00000 n 0000040423 00000 n trailer << /Size 54 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40519 %%EOF