%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819021618+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819021618+01'00') /Title (Sport and the Military: The British Armed Forces 1880-1960) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4556 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sport and the Military: The British Armed Forces 1880-1960)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Handley Cross)] TJ ET BT 118.676 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, an early Victorian sporting novel, Mr. Jorrocks defends fox-hunting as ??the sport of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kings, the image of war without its guilt, and only five-and-twenty per cent of its danger??.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 471.284 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 471.284 257.673 m 485.276 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 485.276 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In their co-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authored work, Tony Mason and Eliza Riedi examine this interplay between sport and war and illustrate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of sport to the British military over the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Sports history is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively new field of study, instigated by two roughly coterminous developments of the 1960s: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rediscovery of social history and its focus on everyday cultures and the infusion of new scholars into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field with new, broader backgrounds and interests.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.632 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.632 186.393 m 290.624 186.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 290.624 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Mason and Riedi?s book adds to the growing literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the history of sport, as well as our understanding of the social and cultural worlds of the late 19th through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-20th centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Mason and Riedi note, sport and sporting conduct have been associated particularly with being British, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their goal is to examine how sport became such an important part of service life in the British military. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is well organized and arranged chronologically, beginning with chapters on service sport and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officer sport before the First World War and finishing with a chapter on sport in the National Service years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 1960. The introduction lays out the organization of the book and situates it in relevant historiography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport and the military. As the authors note, there has been a lack of sport in historical analyses of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1072)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 30 April, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tony Mason)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eliza Riedi)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521700740)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(298pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erica Munkwitz)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 471.2837 257.9875 485.2757 269.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 276.6317 186.7075 290.6237 198.5875 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7746 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military, with J. D. Campbell?s 2003 work being the first serious investigation of the role of sport in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British military.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.696 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.696 780.819 m 124.688 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 124.688 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This book examines all three branches of the armed services, but focuses mainly on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army and football, the first because it provides the best records and the second because it was the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular of all service sports during this time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter examines the growth of service sport from 1880?1914, including the pursuits of boxing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(football, and rugby. Mason and Riedi note that conditions of service improved for the military in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th and early 20th centuries, but the problems of recruitment and retention, as well as the need for better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educated servicemen, remained. The growth of sport in the military was a way to raise the standards of men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serving. The authors probe how and why sport became so important to the late Victorian and Edwardian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(services and how it contributed to military efficiency while also causing new challenges and conflicts. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a separation by rank in sport, and officer sports and facilities \(as examined in chapter two\) were quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different from non-officer sport. Initiatives for sport came predominantly from individual interest and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organization, but as interest and participation increased, so did the organization of such activities, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increase of sport in individual regiments encouraging growth in the army as a whole. Sport in the navy was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different, largely because of organizational issues at sea, but boxing, hockey, cricket, and football were all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular with seamen, and navy football gained from close contact with port cities like Plymouth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portsmouth. In addition, the services helped spread sports like cricket, hockey, and football throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Empire, especially in India, where sport was introduced with some success to Indian troops in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1890s as a means of shaping these men into British models of manliness and efficiency. Did sport really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribute to increasing the efficiency of servicemen before the First World War? Before the outbreak of war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1914, the authors note, healthy recreational activities like sport helped to foster a sense of cohesion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity in new units while also keeping men physically fit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second chapter examines the role of officer sports during the same period. Born out of a separate article )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Riedi, this section focuses exclusively on equestrian sport, which was heavily criticized for wasteful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extravagance before the First World War. The officer corps was largely closed and static during this time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composed mostly of aristocracy and landed gentry, since the rates of pay were so low that officers needed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source of private income to fund their service and activities. Officers typically came from an equestrian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lifestyle of hunting and racing, supplemented by polo and pigsticking if serving abroad. By the 1880s, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were concerned by this near-obsession with polo and its related costs, with the ensuing debate focusing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the question of expenditure versus efficiency. Polo \(like horse sports in general\) was recommended for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instilling officer qualities of leadership and skill, but its role of serving as a ?social gate-keeper? was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worrisome \(p. 67\). Despite such criticism, however, the overwhelming popularity of and support for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equestrian sport defied efforts by the War Office to reform it before the First World War. The debate about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polo was not about the sport per se, but about the officers? way of life. As such, it illustrates the survival of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic and chivalric values against those of meritocracy and professionalism, as also seen in the defense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the cavalry and a horse-driven culture against the forces of mechanical modernization.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So it was the Great War that saw sport formally integrated into the military for both training and leisure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purposes, as Mason and Riedi argue in their third chapter. The outbreak of war destroyed the largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informal structure of these activities, but such organization was reestablished by 1915 once the military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation stabilized. Sports remained an unofficial, grass-roots effort, with limited facilities and scarce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equipment, typically provided by the players themselves, but it was soon embraced by the military as its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefits, especially to a largely civilian army engaged in total war, became apparent. Sport improved fitness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels, relieved boredom, provided a distraction from the horrors of war, built morale, fostered officer-men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations, and solidified unit cohesion and identity. Sport provided a common language and frame of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference for all men, and following the reorganization of the army into platoons in 1916, it helped to form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical loyalty within one?s unit and to the larger group as a whole. Sport was made an official part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army system by 1916, and helped to smooth the transition to demobilization in 1918. Not only did sport help )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fill the leisure hours in the shift between war and peace, but it also helped cement good relations with other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries, as exemplified by British participation in the Inter-Theatre of War games in 1919. As Mason and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Riedi argue, if sport did not win the First World War, it certainly played a crucial role in the experience for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 110.6957 781.1335 124.6877 793.0135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7410 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary servicemen. It was a distraction, an amusement, and a link with home and civilian life, and it helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make the war bearable for many.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite economic cuts in the military and the uncertainty of the military?s role in peacetime, the years from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1919?39 were ?curiously propitious? to such activities, as the authors examine in their fourth chapter \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(112\). In fact, Mason and Riedi argue that the social and sporting atmosphere of the pre-war era was mostly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reestablished in these 20 years. This period saw the implementation of amateur ideology and ethics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service sport, with a permanent ban on money prizes and an emphasis on moral values as opposed to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degrading influences of professionalism. This shift was marked by the establishment of the Army Sports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Control Board in 1918, followed by similar efforts in the navy and the newly established Royal Air Force. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This centralized control was important to instilling discipline \(especially for the navy\) and emphasizing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporate identity \(as in the RAF\), but enforcing these new standards initially proved problematic, as many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilians were more influenced by examples of professionalism that stressed winning than they were by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military?s example of teamwork, sportsmanship, and playing a good game. As noted, inter-war sport was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marked by competition with foreign teams, but such interaction also illustrated problems with the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on amateurism. By the 1930s, Belgian and French teams were far superior to British counterparts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because these armies encouraged sporting development along professional lines. Both the Belgian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French armies, which enforced conscription, found their countries? best sporting players serving time in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military, in which they were carefully groomed for competition. The British army, being a volunteer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organization, could not compete against such rivals, and this conflict between professional and amateur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sporting ideologies led to the British breaking off sporting relations with the French. But sports were a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draw for the British army, in terms of recruitment, against declining pay standards and limited promotion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prospects. To support this attraction, the British forces increased funding for sports through non-public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service funds, rather than forcing payment through games subscriptions or gate money. As Mason and Riedi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclude, service sport was an important element of the inter-war years as it became better organized and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funded, but by the 1930s, the new German threats led to criticism of service sport as a preoccupation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversion rather than a necessary and valuable training tool. The problem was that as British forces reduced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in peacetime, British service sport became less relevant to national sporting life. This distancing was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical for amateur sports like equestrianism, but it did have serious consequences for games that developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a strong civilian emphasis on professionalism, like football. As the authors conclude, it would take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another war, the Second World War, to bring service sport back into the mainstream of British sport and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mason and Riedi address the development of modern organized sport in Britain and the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilian-military interaction in the late 19th and 20th centuries in their fifth chapter. Military attitudes toward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilian sport were initially hostile, but sporting activities could improve these working relations, as seen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the example of association football and the figure of Reginald John Kentish. Playing with civilian athletes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped raise military sporting standards, and the military sports control boards? affiliation with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated civilian governing bodies encouraged the development and organization of service sport. As the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors demonstrate, the importance of improving civilian-military interaction during the years before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War was crucial in resolving tensions inherent in the debate over professionalism in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(services while also strengthening the role of sport in the military.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In their sixth chapter, Mason and Riedi examine the role of sport during the Second World War and how it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared and contrasted with the role of sport during the First World War. As a result of its role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict between1914?18, sport had been accepted as an important part of military routine for both training )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and leisure purposes. As the authors argue, however, the military?s faith in sport as a means to increase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morale was encouraged despite the possible detriment to overall military efficiency. The role of sport as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversion and entertainment was emphasized on both the war and home fronts, especially in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectator matches. British footballers were even sent on tours throughout the Empire to boost morale. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such an overwhelming focus on spectator sport resulted in preferential treatment for some athletes who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(removed from action and safely placed in the army?s Physical Training Corps. While there was a definite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on spectator sport during the Second World War, the military?s commitment to participatory sport for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7727 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all servicemen did not entirely disappear, and equipment and facilities were provided as much as possible. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sport was also important to British service men in POW camps; as in the case of Stalag 383, sport was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means for men to fill their time and confirm their identities. How much time was spent on sport varied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to units and locations, but by the summer of 1945, the military began to reemphasize a broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in service sport instead of focusing on spectator matches. As with the First World War, sport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was important to smoothing the slow demobilization process and helping to solidify working relations with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other countries after the war, as seen in the Inter-Allied Athletics Championship held in Berlin in 1946. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the final chapter shows, sport had been firmly incorporated into the British military well before the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Second World War, but the institution of conscription following the National Service Act of 1947 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiated important changes and challenges. As civilian males between the ages of 18 and 26 were eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required to serve two years in the armed forces, sport marked an important way to make the experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bearable and positive. As seen during the Second World War, promising sportsmen did receive preferential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment as they rotated through their service. However, the increase of professionalism in civilian sports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant that not all sportsmen were enthusiastic about participating in National Service sport, since they could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make more money playing outside of the service rather than in it. Nevertheless, conscription did lead to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important changes in service sport during these years. It improved teamwork and unit cohesion, helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improve sporting standards in all branches, and strengthened civilian-military ties. While national service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped raise the visibility and importance of service sport to the outside world, there was the question of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to give professional and regular servicemen the same sporting chances. Again the tensions of professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versus amateur ideology surfaced, increased by the fact that there was a wider gap in abilities between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional athletes \(often from civilian backgrounds\) and ordinary players. The result was that military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport remained a voluntary activity during the national service era, but the practice of such activities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradoxically led to the increased development of professionalism in terms of the military?s better facilities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and special treatment of promising athletes. Another way in which the national service era helped to redefine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service sport was through the inclusion of women following their retention in the military after the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War. As Mason and Riedi argue, women?s continued work in the military helped provide a context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through which their participation in sport was made acceptable. Some criticized such participation for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeminizing aspects, but the military was quick to stress its benefits for women while limiting their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation to suitable sports. Were the years between 1945 and 1960 the summit for service sport? In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of providing better facilities, encouraging more opportunities for both men and women, and creating a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong working relationship between the civilian and military sporting worlds, the authors answer in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affirmative. But they also acknowledge that star athletes of this time did not represent sporting levels for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military as a whole, and since turnover was high due to the two-year terms, sporting standards varied during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the national service years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main goal of the book is to emphasize the ways that sport contributed to the British military from 1880 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 1960, and this the authors do admirably, stressing four major themes. First, they admit that the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport as a preparation for war is open to interpretation, but they argue that the importance of sport for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military was less about instilling aggression than about building physical fitness, morale, and unit cohesion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Total war was not a ?sporting? practice, and as the Victorian sportsmen who compared it to a greater game )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were replaced by those who had experienced the battles of the Great War, the analogy of sport as war \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war as sport\) was replaced by admission of sport?s tangible benefits for the military, both during war and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peacetime. Second, Mason and Riedi confirm that sports contributed to increasing morale and strengthening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(esprit de corps in important ways. All three branches of the British military recognized these benefits, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated by the formation of sport control boards following the First World War. Third, the authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question whether sport had any tangible benefits for military recruitment and acknowledge that the answer is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unclear. While sport may have made joining the military attractive, it is true that there were other perks, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though the availability of facilities, equipment, and time to play were certainly appealing. Finally, Mason )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Riedi conclude that sport did increase and improve civilian-military interaction. Sport was a bridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between both worlds and the prestige of good sportsmen created a positive public image for the military. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There were certainly conflicts about the role of sport in the military, including the level of focus on sport as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed to military priorities and the tension between professional and amateur ethics, but it was an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 6155 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important part of military life between 1880 and 1960.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although this book is a fine examination of sport in British service, there are a few minor criticisms. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, the second chapter examines pre-war officer sport but focuses only on equestrian activities. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these were certainly important, examining other sports played by officers would broaden the themes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments raised in this chapter and continued throughout the book. Also, the context for the development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and formation of the Royal Air Force would smooth its sudden entrance into the fourth chapter. And while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the end date of 1960 is explained by the end of national service, the somewhat abrupt ending of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion could have been strengthened by a few lines about the role of sports in the military post-1960. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition, while the role and popularity of cricket is highlighted in other works, discussion of the game is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interestingly muted here.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.668 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.668 654.771 m 167.660 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 167.660 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, these criticisms are small and should in no way detract from Mason )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Riedi?s very fine work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, this book is a strong contribution to the literature on sports and military history. Mason and Riedi?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is a beautiful examination of how sport became so integral to the British military between the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian and the post-Second World War eras. Well-written and well-organized, with lively and engaging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prose, this book will be appreciated not only by historians of sport and the military, but also by anyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in Britain?s social and cultural life throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 523.731 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 493.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R.S. Surtees, )] TJ ET BT 129.020 493.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Handley Cross; or, Mr. Jorrocks?s Hunt)] TJ ET BT 324.668 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1854\), p. 130.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 441.992 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 441.992 491.715 m 495.980 491.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 478.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See D. L. Lemahieu, ?The history of British and American sport. A review article?, )] TJ ET BT 467.600 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Comparative )] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Society and History)] TJ ET BT 208.676 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 32, 4 \(1990\), 838?4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 311.996 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 311.996 463.203 m 365.984 463.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 450.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. D. Campbell, ?The Army isn?t all work: physical culture in the evolution of the British Army, 1860-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920?, \(Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Maine, 2003\). See also his article, ??Training for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport is training for war?: sport and the transformation of the British Army, 1860?1914?, )] TJ ET BT 492.632 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(International )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of the History of Sport)] TJ ET BT 211.688 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 17 \(December 2000\), 21?58.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 355.316 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 355.316 406.179 m 409.304 406.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, see Ross McKibbin, )] TJ ET BT 230.336 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Classes and Cultures: England 1918?1951)] TJ ET BT 437.012 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.660 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.660 391.923 m 555.656 391.923 l S BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 377.667 m 78.008 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors are happy to accept this review and do not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is also now available in paperback at a rather more affordable 19.99.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 300.293 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 286.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 271.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 270.387 m 270.668 270.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 271.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 267.055 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 249.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 249.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1072)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 247.881 m 328.316 247.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 222.904 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.504 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5448)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.104 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=414875&sectioncode=26)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 153.6677 655.0855 167.6597 666.9655 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 441.9917 492.0295 495.9797 503.9095 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 311.9957 463.5175 365.9837 475.3975 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 355.3157 406.4935 409.3037 418.3735 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 515.6597 392.2375 555.6557 404.1175 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 377.9815 78.0077 389.8615 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 270.7015 270.6677 282.5815 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=414875§ioncode=26) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 248.1955 328.3157 260.0755 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1072) >> endobj xref 0 48 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000568 00000 n 0000000664 00000 n 0000005272 00000 n 0000005381 00000 n 0000005491 00000 n 0000005600 00000 n 0000009161 00000 n 0000009289 00000 n 0000009373 00000 n 0000009402 00000 n 0000009530 00000 n 0000009566 00000 n 0000009595 00000 n 0000009723 00000 n 0000009759 00000 n 0000009843 00000 n 0000017642 00000 n 0000017672 00000 n 0000017800 00000 n 0000017836 00000 n 0000017901 00000 n 0000025364 00000 n 0000025429 00000 n 0000033209 00000 n 0000033342 00000 n 0000039550 00000 n 0000039580 00000 n 0000039708 00000 n 0000039744 00000 n 0000039872 00000 n 0000039927 00000 n 0000040055 00000 n 0000040110 00000 n 0000040238 00000 n 0000040293 00000 n 0000040421 00000 n 0000040476 00000 n 0000040602 00000 n 0000040657 00000 n 0000040784 00000 n 0000040915 00000 n 0000041043 00000 n trailer << /Size 48 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41139 %%EOF