%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150629175437+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150629175437+01'00') /Title (Reason and Religion in the English Revolution: The Challenge of Socinianism) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4129 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Reason and Religion in the English Revolution: The Challenge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Socinianism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps because it was concerned with maintaining obedience and the status quo rather than provoking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent eruptions of religious fervour, Socianism has remained a relatively unstudied aspect of the pantheon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of heterodox religious beliefs during the English Revolution. Aside from McLachlan?s )] TJ ET BT 453.968 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Socinianism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seventeenth Century England )] TJ ET BT 179.660 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1951\), studies of the group have typically remained confined to the continent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving us with little understanding of its role in 17th-century English thought. Equally, those studies that do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exist have typically emerged from a Unitarian tradition which often overemphasised the connection between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Socinian and modern Unitarian beliefs. Accordingly, Mortimer?s study offers crucial insight into this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously ill-understood aspect of English history, shedding light on their influence during the mid 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Based upon the theology of Italian Faustus Socinus, whose ideas took root in Polish town of Rakow during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early 17th century, Socinianism posed a seditious challenge to both the Protestant and Catholic churches. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the core of Socinus? thought was the belief that in order to have any meaning, religion must be based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(free choice and genuine conviction, rather than resulting from a natural state of being or innate knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God. Such an attitude controversially severed any connection between nature and religion. In an equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contentious move, early Socinian writings also discounted the doctrine of grace, interpreting Christ?s life as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1073)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 May, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Mortimer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521517041)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Bell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7314 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an example of how to obtain salvation. Thus, his death and resurrection demonstrated God?s reward for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtuous life, rather than acting as a literal sacrifice for the sins of humanity. By implication, the doctrine of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Trinity was challenged. Like much of his thought, Socinus? view of the Trinity was influenced by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal background. Inspired by aspects of Roman law, he believed that God was by necessity a personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agent, rather than essence or force, acting within a legal system and bestowed with power and authority that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was transferable. Therefore, rather than forming an inherent aspect of the Godhead, Christ was a historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure to whom God?s power was delegated. From this basis, man?s relationship with God was framed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of legal rights, rather than natural imperative or law, coupling freedom of action with responsibility. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, Socinianism was a moralistic and ethical religion, in which individual Christian virtue was key.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is important to note that there were few, if any, individuals in seventeenth-century England who can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified as definitively ?Socinian?. Nonetheless, Mortimer makes an excellent case for the prevalence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Socinian ideas, both in terms of positive and negative engagement, throughout the English Revolution. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their influence that she traces, arguing that they played a central role in a number of key debates in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to integrate these ideas ?into the broader political and religious landscape of the period? \(p. 1\). Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a project necessarily rests at the intersection between politics and religion, and has potentially important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications for our understanding of these central themes in 17th-century England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter one, Mortimer offers a clear and concise outline of Socinian theology, as well as a convincing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the group?s early reception in Europe and the developments made by its second generation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinkers. Opening with concepts of justice and virtue in Socinus? writing, she tackles his radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconfiguration of the figure of Christ and his rejection of natural religiosity in favour of scripturally-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revelation assessed by individual reason. Finally, Mortimer explains how Socinus? emphasis on the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtue in salvation saw him perceive sin as a debt, giving God both the right of punishment over humanity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and also the discretion of forgiveness. Indeed, Mortimer returns to this legalistic strain of Socinianism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the book, providing an interesting comparison to previous scholarship on the group.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the chapter continues, we are introduced to early Protestant opposition to Socinianism, provoked by its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges to core aspects of Reformed belief. On the other hand, however, there were those who adopted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Socinus? doctrines as it spread across Europe, particularly to Germany and the United Provinces. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Socinianism would soon come into contact with Arminianism and the Remonstrants. Mortimer identifies a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second generation of Socinianism, who developed on the ideas of their forebears in this context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological interaction. Johan Crell, in particular, was responsible for developing upon Socinus? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of God?s relationship with man in terms of rights, notably completing )] TJ ET BT 443.660 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Vera Religione )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1630\), previously left unfinished by the deceased Jan Volkelius. Also of importance was Hugo Grotius, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch jurist and Remonstrant who, despite opposing certain aspects of Socinus? thought, was soon drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into good-natured discussion with Crell. This lead to a relationship of mutual respect and influence with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second generation of Socinians, helping them develop a view of man?s relationship with God that allowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a greater emphasis on the role of human society and community while still retaining an emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluntary faith. Importantly, both Grotius and Crell remain central to Mortimer?s narrative, and it is perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telling that the former cannot be precisely defined as Socinian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite its influence on the continent, Socinianism failed to have much of an impact in England before about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1630. Chapter two charts how high hopes for successes in England were scuppered by a cold reception in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1609 and the subsequent disinterest in the 1610s and 1620s. Mortimer confidently explains this turn of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events by emphasising the idiosyncrasies of political and religious conflict in England at this time. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following Nicholas Tyacke?s lead, she focusses on the distinctions between Dutch Arminianism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English ?anti-Calvinism?, particularly the latter?s lack of concern with individual faith and morality and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on church unity. Equally, she notes, English Calvinism had less of the rigour prominent in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch counterpart, and thus drove fewer theologians to alternative modes of Christianity. It was not until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1630s that Socinianism became a concern in English circles. Even then, it was initially only singled out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a polemical target by men such as John Dury who were engaged in a mission to reconcile the Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7183 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not until chapter three that our attentions are turned to positive engagements with Socinian thought by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those involved in increasing opposition to Calvinism in the 1630s, detailing its attraction to those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought an ethical alternative to rigorous predestination. Arguing that the influence of Socinianism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly prevalent outside the academic and clerical worlds, Mortimer focuses on certain members of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tew Circle. Here she offers a interesting explanation for the apparent discrepancy between the Circle?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation for tolerant, liberal thinking and their emphasis on sovereignty, explaining it through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconfiguration of the relationship between God and man offered by Socinian ideas. Of particular note was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Chillingworth who, alongside the Second Viscount Falkland, made use of Socinian writings when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticising the role of the church in scriptural interpretation. Ultimately, this lead them to a conviction in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of individual agency and reason in religion that owed much to Socinianism, inherently criticising both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic monopolization of scriptural understanding and Puritan notions of election. Furthermore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chillingworth took a legalistic view of Christianity, making use of distinctly Socinian language.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, one might question the extent to which Chillingworth was representative of the Tew Circle. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, the objections raised by some of the group at Chillingworth?s flirtation with Socinianism place a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strain on the chapter?s conclusions. While the diversity of thought in the Tew Circle is acknowledged, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mortimer does little to explain how her attempts to use Socinianism to reconcile the Circle?s liberalism with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their belief in sovereignty stands up to the recognition that few of its members were sympathetic to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sect?s views. Nonetheless, this chapter certainly succeeds in demonstrating how elements of Socinianism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be adopted in England at this time, and the repercussions this could have.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four discusses Royalist interest in Socinian ideas, especially during the Civil Wars. Neatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sidestepping the issue of the Trinity, these men made particular use of Socinian arguments against resistance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in order to support the King. Mortimer demonstrates how these ideas, many novel in an English context, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owed more to Socinianism than previously appreciated. In particular, it is noted that certain members and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affiliates of the Tew Circle, including Chillingworth and Dudley Digges, were able to use their familiarity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Socinianism to combat Parliamentarian resistance theories grounded in natural law. Specifically, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputed the responsibility of self-preservation cited by Parliamentarians as justification for opposing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King, recasting it as a right of self-defence that was forfeit when entering civil society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Mortimer?s argument for the relevance of Socinianism is tempered somewhat by the recognition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this phenomenon was confined to a relative minority of Royalists. Others, like John Maxwell, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficiently unnerved to speak out against them. Equally, one is left to wonder to what extent these men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really engaged with Socinian ideas on as a theological doctrine, as they are often portrayed as adopting them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for political expediency rather than experiencing internalised religious conviction. Some interrogation of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue would surely have proved illuminating. Nonetheless, Mortimer has met with considerable success in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shedding light on this important, if not dominant, fixture in Royalist political rhetoric.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The influence of Socinianism was not limited to anti-resistance theories, however, and in chapter five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mortimer discusses its use in defending the Church of England, with a particular emphasis on Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hammond. Challenging traditional perceptions of Hammond as Arminian, Mortimer sets out to highlight tell-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tale signs of Socinian influence in his writing, particularly in his concerns with moral theology and as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mode of defence for his ecclesiology, making note of his use of Grotius? ideas. One of the most useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of this chapter is the analysis of the the differences between Arminian and Socinian theology, as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as their synthesis at the hands of the Remonstrants, usefully placing Socinus? ideas in a familiar intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context. Indeed, the real success here is not so much in relabelling Hammond as Socinianism rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arminian, but in demonstrating how Calvinism?s English opponents drew from a range of continental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, adding further nuance to our understanding of this doctrinal conflict.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At this point, Mortimer?s focus shifts from Royalist engagements with Socinianism to its role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentarian thought following the Civil Wars. Following the upheaval of the 1640, debates over church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement highlighted divisions over what constituted the ?fundamental principles? of Christianity \(p. 147\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In particular, Mortimer identifies the challenge Socinianism posed to those attempting to establish a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7317 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trinitarian church based on scripture parsed by human reason that fell under the authority of the civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magistrate. Indeed, it is in the debates over the Trinity in the 1640s and 1650s that she identifies the impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Socinianism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six sets out to outline the increase in scholarly objections to the Trinity in the 1640s and 1650s. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begins with an insightful account of the contemporary European context, offering an explanation of Socinian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Remonstrant antitrinitarian arguments. Of particular note is Crell?s objection to the separation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essence and substance of God, and his reinterpretation of biblical texts typically associated with trinitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments, tactics that would later be used by English thinkers. Indeed, in the most interesting section of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, Mortimer demonstrates the influence of Socinian ideas on English antitrinitarians such as Paul Best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and John Biddle. Two particular objections to the Trinity are identified here: firstly, that it was a doctrine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoted by clerics in order to bolster their power; and, secondly, that it was a relatively recent addition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity, unknown to early believers. Consequently, many of these Englishmen, like the Socinians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that the Trinity was at best inessential to true religion, and at worst idolatrous. Mortimer also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifies strands of such thought in the academic realm, uncovering some particularly interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpublished tracts by Oxford scholar Robert Grebby that show signs of a serious engagement with Socinian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, this chapter is an excellent example of Mortimer?s use of sources, which she approaches in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thorough and sensitive manner. Although, by its very nature, the study predominantly draws from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary printed material, it greatly benefits from occasional analysis of correspondence and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related manuscript material, such as Grebby?s tracts. At times, however, the reader is placed at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disconcerting distance from the evidence, as Mortimer tends to be more explanatory than demonstrative. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps, therefore, the arguments might have benefited from more thorough quotation and overt textual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis, allowing us to see more of how evidence was used and conclusions reached.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter seven, Mortimer briefly and subtly recasts the toleration debate of the 1640s and early 1650s in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to demonstrate why Socinianism became such an important polemic concept in later years. Thus, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigates the discussions surrounding liberty of conscience, and the problems faced in drawing a line that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would divide those doctrines which were included from those that were not. Here she suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent ministers in particular sought to define heresy in a reaction against Presbyterian moves to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemn heterodoxy, which often assumed that this was a self-evident concept. Thus, they were faced with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the challenge of sketching the fundamentals of Christianity and asserting the right of the authority of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil magistrate in matters of religion. Such a project, which was to be underpinned by scripture, faced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges from antitrinitarianism, which continued to prove hard to adequately discredit on the basis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biblical reading. For this reason, Independents such as John Owen turned to Socinianism as a convenient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polemical target. Mortimer suggests that by pursuing an unpopular group whose held numerous beliefs he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wished to oppose in the early 1650s, Owen hoped to promote his view of a trinitarian settlement, whilst also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemning certain problematic heresies. Although met with mixed success, it was a tactic that would gain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some momentum in subsequent years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Accordingly, chapter eight follows this theme further into the 1650s, examining importance of Socinianism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in debates about the future of the church in Cromwellian England. Here Mortimer argues that the spectre of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Socinianism gained corporeal form, developing from a polemic tool into a genuinely perceived threat to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent vision of church settlement. With a continued focus on John Owen, this chapter demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how in the early 1650s, Socinianism continued to serve as a useful polemic target for discrediting multiple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological positions at once, particularly religious individualism and the separation of nature and religion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet by 1653, Socinian ideas appeared to develop into a legitimate challenge to Independent ideals, thriving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a time of ?growing disillusionment? with Calvinism as core texts began to spread throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic and clerical world \(p. 212\). Indeed, in the mid-1650s, positive \(yet selective\) engagement with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific Socinian ideas appears more common, the practical and ethical implications of its reconciliation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grace and human freedom appealing to those English theologians frustrated by the doctrine of predestination. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Accordingly, Mortimer identifies Socinianism elements within clashes over what constituted reasonable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of scripture, particularly in the case of Biddle?s scripturally grounded yet highly contentious )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 4170 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejection of the Trinity, as well as within religious debates surrounding the Instrument of Government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout this chapter, Mortimer?s arguments remain compelling, offering the nuanced and original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of theological influence in these familiar debates. Nonetheless, there is a sense in which, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than featuring at the centre of these debates, Socinianism appears to have been a minor \(yet surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant\) part of a wider milieu of continental thought from which English ?anti-Calvinists? drew specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas to formulate their opposition. In many cases, such as with John Goodwin, Mortimer struggles to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify any direct interaction with Socinian ideas. This is often influence by one remove, filtered through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Remonstrant writers \(such as Grotius\)who many of these Englishmen certainly read. Unfortunately, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without evidence of direct interaction, it can be hard to equate similarity of thought to Socinian influence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which somewhat jeopardises Mortimer?s argument that the sect?s theology was ?central? to political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious debate at this time \(pp. 2, 240\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, this is an issue which arises throughout the book. In some senses, it feels as though the case for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Socinianism?s centrality in the debates discussed is somewhat overstated. As already noted, Socinian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence within the Tew Circle or the Royalist camp was actually limited to a few individuals. Equally, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussing antitrinitarianism, Mortimer is forced to broaden her scope beyond Socinianism, as it only formed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a small aspect of this debate, at least until being adopted as a polemical target. That said, if Mortimer does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overstate her point, the lens of Socinianism nonetheless allows her to make a number of significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions to the intellectual, political and religious history of 17th-century England. Her greatest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successes lie not so much in demonstrating the centrality of Socinianism, but instead in successfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadening our understanding of the repertoire of intellectual influences at play in continental anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calvinism, antitrinitarianism and the impact this had on the English context. Accordingly, there is much to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be learnt from this impressive study about a whole range of interrelated debates that were of central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance to the religious and political developments of the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author thanks Dr Bell for his thoughtful review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 387.343 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 369.563 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 369.563 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1073)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 368.169 m 328.316 368.169 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 343.192 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5451)] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.392 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 368.4835 328.3157 380.3635 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1073) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000585 00000 n 0000000667 00000 n 0000004848 00000 n 0000004957 00000 n 0000005067 00000 n 0000005176 00000 n 0000008737 00000 n 0000008865 00000 n 0000008949 00000 n 0000009014 00000 n 0000016381 00000 n 0000016446 00000 n 0000023682 00000 n 0000023747 00000 n 0000031117 00000 n 0000031201 00000 n 0000035424 00000 n 0000035552 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35648 %%EOF