%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728042733+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728042733+01'00') /Title (English Presbyterianism,1590-1640) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4159 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(English Presbyterianism,1590-1640)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Early modern English Presbyterianism found its expression in two bursts of activity: during the Elizabethan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period as a movement to perfect the Reformation from the Elizabethan compromise and during the mid 17th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Civil War and Republic as a contender for the Parliamentarian settlement of the Church of England. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although English Presbyterians survived the Restoration, they, so received wisdom goes, were in a terminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trajectory of decline until they eventually fell to Unitarianism in the 18th century. A Presbyterian Church of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England was founded in 1876 \(from which the modern day United Reformed Church in part derives\) but this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was essentially a Scottish foundation deriving from congregations of workers and entrepreneurs who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigrated from Scotland to England during the Industrial Revolution and not from early modern English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roots.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the exception of a few works such as A.H. Drysdale's 1889 )] TJ ET BT 347.444 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Presbyterians in England: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Their Rise, Decline and Revival)] TJ ET BT 186.992 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a thorough but confessional history written essentially to provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justification to the new Presbyterian Church of England, the judgment of modern historians has not been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favourable to English Presbyterianism. For many decades of the 20th Century, the Elizabethan Presbyterian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign led by figures such as Thomas Cartwright, John Field and Walter Travers was seen as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremist foil to the moderate and centrist founders of Anglicanism. In the later segment of the last century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this story was challenged and, to some extent confined to the historiographical grave, at least in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1074)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 May, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polly Ha)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780804759878)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(53.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stanford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stanford, CA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elliot Vernon)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8160 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Universities, by the authoritative research of historians such as Patrick Collinson and Peter Lake. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, Collinson himself saw Presbyterianism die an effective death after the Hampton Court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conference and saw little connection between the Elizabethan Presbyterian movement and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterianism of the Westminster Assembly.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 259.664 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 259.664 752.307 m 273.656 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mid 17th-century Presbyterianism has fared far worse in historical judgement. William Shaw's turn of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century )] TJ ET BT 73.004 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Church in England during the Commonwealth)] TJ ET BT 365.012 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, following the Whig interpretation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which had its roots in Daniel Neal's massive 18th-century )] TJ ET BT 313.808 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Puritans)] TJ ET BT 424.148 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, set the parameters of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern interpretation in seeing the Presbyterianism of the 1640s and 50s as an unwelcome foreign \(i.e. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish\) theocratic import that was alien to the essentially Erastian and tolerant English national character. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In most histories since Shaw, the English Presbyterians of the period have been dismissed as 'conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and intolerant' failures and cast as the bogeymen in the story of the rise of toleration and religious pluralism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the emergence of a theologically woolly but pious popular Anglicanism. Alternatively, historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to deny the existence of genuinely committed English Presbyterians, instead seeing those that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called 'Presbyterians' as a body of Puritan clergy sheepishly following the 'Melvillian' Scots' demands for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessional uniformity. In this story the Scots provided the ecclesiological framework for an English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Puritan clergy seeking to avoid the horror of sectarian liberty by a theocratic, but politically and socially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative settlement of the Church of England. Of course, historians have good reason to make this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument: Presbyterianism clearly failed to receive widespread support in either Parliament or the country. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further, whilst historians have largely ignored the \(admittedly often long and unfathomable\) works of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Presbyterian theory by authors such as the London ministers, Charles Herle, or Samuel Hudson, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have found the tenor of English Puritanism in a more moderate tradition exemplified by Archbishop James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ussher or the idiosyncratic moderate Episcopalian pastor Richard Baxter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recent research has begun to challenge this picture by recovering and revising the history of Presbyterians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Presbyterianism in early modern England. Ann Hughes' work on Thomas Edwards and his )] TJ ET BT 491.780 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 546.440 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chief bugbear of the Whig historians, has revealed a world of clever polemic, vigorous debate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political mobilisation issuing from London Presbyterian circles. December 2011 hopefully sees Oxford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press publish Chad Van Dixhorn's five volume edition of the )] TJ ET BT 383.156 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Minutes of the Westminster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Assembly)] TJ ET BT 79.340 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a)] TJ ET BT 93.668 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source that will finally reveal the intellectual development of mid 17th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterianism\(s?\) in England and the debates, conflicts and compromises that ensued from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westminster Assembly. The forthcoming publication of Kirsteen MacKenzie's doctoral thesis promises to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show the importance of Presbyterianism and the covenants in a three kingdom context. In addition the recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(online availability of Carol Schneider's and Rosemary Bradley's magnificent and weighty doctoral theses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides cogent guides through the difficult debates of this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polly Ha's )] TJ ET BT 86.180 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Presbyterianism,1590?1640 )] TJ ET BT 264.512 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, perhaps, the bravest thesis of the current wave of studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reassessing Presbyterianism. As stated above, historians of Elizabethan puritanism have doubted any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuity between the Elizabethan Presbyterianism of Cartwright and the Presbyterians of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution. The general view of historians of the period such as Keith Sprunger, Carol Schneider and Tom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Webster is that the Jacobean and Caroline nonconformists rejected Presbyterianism in favour of a 'non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separating congregationalism' that stressed the single congregational church as the basic unit of ecclesiastical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polity. Dr Ha takes this contention head on, arguing that not only did a body of Presbyterian opinion survive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the demise of the Elizabethan Presbyterian campaign but actively contended within Puritan circles for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterian polity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Ha's arguments are made possible by her use of a number of previously unstudied manuscripts belonging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the leading Elizabethan and Jacobean Presbyterian Walter Travers found in James Ussher's collection held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Trinity College Dublin. These manuscripts include Travers' notes made whilst the pastor of the Merchant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adventurer Church in Antwerp, a church that followed Presbyterian discipline, as well as a manuscript )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrating an examination by a panel of English Presbyterians of Henry Jacob's 1616 experiment in non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separating Congregationalism. In addition the Trinity College Dublin manuscripts contain a late Elizabethan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatise on Presbyterianism as well as the lost third part of Richard Sheerwood's )] TJ ET BT 419.792 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reply)] TJ ET BT 447.116 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to Bishop George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Downame's April 1608 sermon in support of )] TJ ET BT 251.156 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(iure divino)] TJ ET BT 303.488 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Episcopacy. Alongside this rich archive, Dr Ha also )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 259.6637 752.6215 273.6557 764.5015 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7703 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws on the difficult pamphlet controversies between John Ball's circle of English nonconformists and New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England Congregationalists such as Richard Mather as well as the printed and manuscript material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding John Paget and his battles to keep the English Reformed Church in Amsterdam a bastion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterian polity. These sources have formerly been well used in Alice Clare Carter's 1964 study of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congregation )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.668 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.668 738.051 m 113.660 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 113.660 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but have been freshly examined and re-deployed by Dr Ha to provide new insights into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operation of Presbyterian discipline as well as the connections between the Amsterdam church and English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonconformists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the work, Dr Ha recognises that Presbyterianism was not a majority or widespread position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among English puritans but argues that pockets of Presbyterians provided pressure on both Episcopacy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emerging 'new disciplinary' tradition of congregational independency exemplified by Henry Jacob. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such Presbyterianism added a presence to the debates between nonconformists and conformists and was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source of criticism and conflict in the post-Hampton Court Conference Church of England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first part of Dr Ha's book looks at Presbyterian theoretical positions in relation to the established Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of England. Monarchs such as Elizabeth and James, as well as conformist writers, had contended that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterianism, with its argument that the Church derived its power immediately from Christ as the king of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Church, was anathema to the royal supremacy. In addition, the Presbyterians's insistence on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation of congregationally elected lay elders smacked, to conformist writers, of an anti-monarchical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populism. Ha argues that Presbyterians countered this view by stressing the affinity of Presbyterianism to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal supremacy. For Ha, Presbyterian ideas on the royal supremacy can best be seen in the nexus that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connected early modern notions of mixed polity \(Patrick Collinson's 'monarchical republic'\) with ideas of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(godly magistrate and commonwealth. Against the charge of populism, Presbyterians argued that a Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruler, whilst not one of the divinely ordained officers of the Church, was set by God as a nursing father who, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Emperor Constatine, was to protect the Church when it was in peril. Presbyterians argued that their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system worked in harmony with the Christian magistrates' suppression of sinful behaviour and that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church was to provide counsel to kings and to act as a local watchman for the state. Indeed, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterians, the real threat to the royal supremacy was Episcopacy and the lordly bishops who, contrary to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their ecclesiastical calling, intermeddled in affairs of state. Dr Ha argues that Presbyterian clergy such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cartwright and Travers made common cause against the bishops with lawyers such as William Stoughton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and those barristers and judges who might hear their sermons at the Inns of Court.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second part of )] TJ ET BT 126.656 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Presbyterianism)] TJ ET BT 244.988 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( deals with Presbyterian arguments concerning the visible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church, the location of power in ecclesiastical polity and the nature of the ministry. Scholars such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosemary Bradley, Robert Paul and Tom Webster have, either explicitly or implicitly, defined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterianism exclusively around the idea of authoritative synodical government. Ha is deeply critical of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this definition and argues that other topics such as the nature of the visible Church, the attitude to Old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Testament models of polity, the location of church power and the extent of consent within the Church betray )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterian tendencies in pre-Civil War debates. This widening of the definition of Presbyterianism allows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Ha to tease out many of the arguments in notoriously difficult source material such as the 1630s debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Thomas Hooker and John Davenport with John Paget or the exchange between the New England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches and John Ball's English conference.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Presbyterianism)] TJ ET BT 152.348 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( particularly focuses on the exchange between Henry Jacob and the Presbyterian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examiners over Jacob's new direction in polity, already in the 1610s being described as 'Independency'. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ha, Jacob's idea of Congregationalist government strikingly drew on the Neo-Roman view of liberty more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonly discussed in relation to political thought by Quentin Skinner. Jacob held that any form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependency on higher assemblies such as synods constituted a bar to the liberty of a congregation as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complete Christian society. On the other hand, the Presbyterians deployed an English Parliamentary analogy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by arguing that just as early modern English cities sent their burgesses to Parliament without losing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberties granted by their charter, it was no bar to the liberty of a congregation to be represented by its elders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at a synod. For Presbyterians, the 'Church' of biblical passages such as Matthew 18:17 was the consistory of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pastors and elders and not \(as Jacob would have it\) the congregation joined with its ministers by covenant. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition Presbyterians held that the ministry were ordained into the visible church and not to a particular )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.6677 738.3655 113.6597 750.2455 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7664 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congregation and thus could operate with a degree of promiscuity by joining with other ministers and elders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for mutual assistance in ordaining, preaching or administering discipline.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the third part of her book, Dr Ha moves away from theory to discuss the practice of Presbyterianism in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English congregations in the Netherlands and the lines of communication between the networks of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonconformists and the Dutch churches. Whilst accepting that nonconformist views of church polity had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendency to veer towards congregational independency as the early Stuart period wore on, the reality for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many English churches in the Netherlands was that the political and financial reasons kept many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congregations in conformity with the Presbyterian system dominant in the Netherlands. Ha's study focuses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Travers' Antwerp congregation and Paget's Amsterdam church and stresses the fluidity between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterian and Congregationalist positions in the Netherlands and how differing circumstances and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals could cause congregations to change their position. Dr Ha also provides an in-depth study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workings and membership of the Amsterdam church and argues that whilst the eldership of the congregation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was essentially elite, the poor members actively participated in the discipline by initiating cases or giving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence against wrongdoers. Of particular interest is Ha's analysis of poor members long running disputes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the consistory. Ha deploys case studies to show how the Presbyterian discipline worked in practice and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the consistory's control of poor relief could be used as a weapon of reformation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As one of Dr Ha's arguments is that Presbyterians concealed themselves in the period after the collapse of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Elizabethan Presbyterian movement, the inevitable criticism is that Ha is making an argument for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuation of Presbyterianism from a convenient silence. Ideas do not have feet, and the existence of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscripts in Ireland written in bad handwriting \(as Travers' apparently is\) does not prove that anyone read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them or their ideas were disseminated in any way. In anticipation of this potential charge, Dr Ha traces out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections between the Presbyterian churches in the Netherlands with nonconformists in early Stuart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England. Starting from John Paget's connections back to his native country, Ha argues that pockets of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterian, or at least Presbyterian-leaning, ministers can be discerned in areas known for Puritanism as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Cheshire, Northamptonshire and London. Many of the figures discussed by Ha as being connected to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paget in the 1620s and 30s, particularly Simeon Ashe, William Rathband, John Brinsley, and Julines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herring, would reveal themselves as committed Presbyterians during the early 1640s and the inference can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be drawn that their close connection to Paget \(Herring, Ashe, Brinsley and the Newcastle minister Robert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jennison would be chosen as candidates to replace Paget in 1639\) meant that they held Presbyterian views )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prior to the mid 17th-century crisis. I personally found myself crying out for more information on, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples of, these connections, and I would recommend Carol Schneider's PhD thesis as a supplement to Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ha's book for suggestions as to how William Rathband and other individuals in John Ball's circle could trace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a nonconformist heritage through Arthur Hildersham and John Dod back to Cartwright and Travers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 513.932 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 513.932 314.883 m 527.924 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, Polly Ha's thesis provides a welcome corrective to the historical orthodoxy that has developed over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past 30 years. By showing that nonconformists had a wider range of distinctions, and a higher level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtlety, in their internal debates on ecclesiastical polity than the one-dimensional issue of the power of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synods, Dr Ha has re-opened a field that has been dominated by a monolithic definition of nonconformist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views on polity as 'non-separating congregationalist'. Indeed, Ha's analysis of early Stuart Presbyterian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes goes a long way to show how in the early 1640s Presbyterian material such as the Smectymnuus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tracts or the works of authors such as John Bernard or Charles Herle did not arise from a desire to please the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scots, from a nebulous moderate Episcopalianism or an equally unified nonconformist and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congregationalist tradition but from intellectual foundations that had long been debated in Puritan circles in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and the Netherlands.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is clear, however, that some criticism must arise. At a banal level, Dr Ha has allowed a few small and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careless errors to creep into )] TJ ET BT 168.968 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Presbyterianism)] TJ ET BT 287.300 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: for example, the mid-century Presbyterian leader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edmund Calamy, has been misnamed as Edward Calamy \(p. 107\). On a deeper level, Dr Ha's use of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labels 'Presbyterians' and 'Congregationalists' can sometimes feel overwrought, especially when it is clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these labels are used to describe a very small number of people at any one point in time. At times I felt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Dr Ha drifted into implying that Henry Jacob's theories of church polity were the source of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congregationalist ideas, especially when commenting on Westminster Assembly Congregationalism. In )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 513.9317 315.1975 527.9237 327.0775 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 6173 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempting to make the connection between Jacob and later Congregationalism we should always remember, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Murray Tolmie had to concede in his )] TJ ET BT 227.984 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Triumph of the Saints)] TJ ET BT 352.664 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that the 'Independents' of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westminster Assembly never cite Jacob.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 228.980 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 228.980 766.563 m 242.972 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 242.972 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Likewise, one need only compare together the various treatises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on church polity of leading Congregationalists in England and New England to see substantial varieties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas and justifications within the Congregationalist position. In a similar vein, whilst Dr Ha adroitly reveals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important common threads in Presbyterian thought, she does not provide for differences of emphasis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst Presbyterians. This may be because )] TJ ET BT 251.648 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Presbyterianism)] TJ ET BT 369.980 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( stops in 1640 and thus infers too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much continuity into the 1640s discussions on ecclesiastical polity, but one need only look at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westminster Assembly's February 1644 debate on the crucial passage of Matthew 18:17 to show that, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Viscount Saye and Sele commented, the English Presbyterians 'agree not in opinion among themselves'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 533.288 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 533.288 666.771 m 547.280 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These minor criticisms aside, I applaud Polly Ha's attempt to provide a wide ranging corrective to the current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of early Stuart nonconformity. Whilst some will no doubt find the conclusions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Presbyterianism)] TJ ET BT 152.348 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( disconcerting there is much food for thought in this book and one that will keep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of early Stuart nonconformity busy for a good deal of time to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.243 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Collinson, )] TJ ET BT 129.368 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Elizabethan Puritan Movement)] TJ ET BT 300.356 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1967\), pp. 464?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 432.332 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 432.332 532.227 m 486.320 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alice Clare Carter, )] TJ ET BT 157.988 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Reformed Church in Amsterdam in the Seventeenth Century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Amsterdam, 1964\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.000 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.000 503.715 m 214.988 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. G. Schneider, )] TJ ET BT 146.672 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Godly Order in a Church Half-Reformed: The Disciplinarian Legacy, 1570?1641)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Unpublished Harvard University PhD thesis, 1986\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 316.988 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 316.988 475.203 m 370.976 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Tolmie, )] TJ ET BT 121.352 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Triumph of the Saints)] TJ ET BT 246.032 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1977\) p. 90. Hunter Powell of Selwyn College, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge is in the last stages of a doctoral thesis promises to show the theological development of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Assembly's Congregationalists.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.508 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.508 432.435 m 286.496 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See J. Lightfoot, )] TJ ET BT 146.348 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Whole Works of the Rev. John Lightfoot. Vol.XIII)] TJ ET BT 403.988 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. R. Pitman \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1824\), pp.159?170; G. Gillespie, )] TJ ET BT 224.672 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Notes of Debates ... of the Assembly of Divines)] TJ ET BT 448.988 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. D. Meek )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Edinburgh, 1846\), pp. 21?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 203.000 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 203.000 389.667 m 256.988 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 364.805 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 345.823 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 328.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 328.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1074)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 326.649 m 328.316 326.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 301.672 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.272 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5454)] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.872 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 228.9797 766.8775 242.9717 778.7575 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 533.2877 667.0855 547.2797 678.9655 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 432.3317 532.5415 486.3197 544.4215 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 160.9997 504.0295 214.9877 515.9095 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 316.9877 475.5175 370.9757 487.3975 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 232.5077 432.7495 286.4957 444.6295 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 202.9997 389.9815 256.9877 401.8615 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 326.9635 328.3157 338.8435 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1074) >> endobj xref 0 49 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000543 00000 n 0000000625 00000 n 0000004836 00000 n 0000004945 00000 n 0000005055 00000 n 0000005164 00000 n 0000008725 00000 n 0000008853 00000 n 0000008937 00000 n 0000009021 00000 n 0000017234 00000 n 0000017264 00000 n 0000017392 00000 n 0000017428 00000 n 0000017512 00000 n 0000025268 00000 n 0000025298 00000 n 0000025425 00000 n 0000025461 00000 n 0000025545 00000 n 0000033262 00000 n 0000033292 00000 n 0000033420 00000 n 0000033456 00000 n 0000033589 00000 n 0000039815 00000 n 0000039845 00000 n 0000039973 00000 n 0000040009 00000 n 0000040039 00000 n 0000040167 00000 n 0000040203 00000 n 0000040331 00000 n 0000040386 00000 n 0000040514 00000 n 0000040569 00000 n 0000040697 00000 n 0000040752 00000 n 0000040880 00000 n 0000040935 00000 n 0000041063 00000 n 0000041118 00000 n 0000041246 00000 n trailer << /Size 49 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41342 %%EOF