%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 31 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150725211158+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150725211158+01'00') /Title (London Low Life: Street Culture, Social Reform and the Victorian Underworld) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5278 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(London Low Life: Street Culture, Social Reform and the Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Underworld)] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Metropolitan underworlds, where the illicit and illegal rub up against the grime and extreme poverty of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the bottom of society, have always fascinated contemporaries and later audiences. This is particularly true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Victorian underworld in London. While unprecedented population and geographical growth from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn of the 19th century combined with transformative building programmes and the effects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialisation entrenched the urban slums, technological changes in the leisure industry breathed new life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into entertainments which either appealed to, or projected images of, ?low life?. 21st-century tourist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attractions continue to use this image of the seedy and dangerous underbelly to draw in visitors ? at opposite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ends of the spectrum, the London Dungeon takes paying pleasure seekers through the dark streets of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whitechapel in the footsteps of Jack the Ripper and, in its ?People?s City? gallery, the London Museum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberately juxtaposes Charles Booth?s poverty maps of London against scenes of West End glamour. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These representations are in part so attractive because they feed into a popular narrative about the Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period: while they paint an alternative picture of the Victorians \(who are so often portrayed as rather stuffy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and restrained\), their classification as part of an ?underworld? ensures that they support rather than challenge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dominance of respectable society in the nineteenth century. As the story goes, a fairly clear line marked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the respectable from low life \(which any crossover or transgressions only seemed to reinforce\), and, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century progressed, the latter was increasingly subjected to control and reform.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the one hand, the producers of the resource under review, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.260 140.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Low Life: Street Culture, Social )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.260 138.927 m 525.944 138.927 l S BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reform and the Victorian Underworld)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 124.671 m 218.012 124.671 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 221.012 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 235.004 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2010\), have used this popular interest and grand narrative to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market their product, which, in fact, has a much broader coverage than its title would suggest. However, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other hand, the primary sources digitised as part of this resource have the potential to encourage some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overdue rethinking of the way in which we conceptualise the Victorians, especially the city dwellers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offering alternative avenues for research and teaching. )] TJ ET BT 297.920 68.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Low Life)] TJ ET BT 379.940 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( draws upon the resources of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lilly Library at the University of Indiana \(Bloomington\), presenting digitised material from several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1075)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 May, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Matthew Digital)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marlborough)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosalind Crone)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 330.2597 151.5523 330.2597 151.5523 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.amdigital.co.uk/collections/~/media/Collections/LondonLowLife/London Low Life.ashx?dl=true) >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 330.2597 139.0675 525.9437 150.9475 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.amdigital.co.uk/collections/~/media/Collections/LondonLowLife/London Low Life.ashx?dl=true) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 124.8115 218.0117 136.6915 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.amdigital.co.uk/collections/~/media/Collections/LondonLowLife/London Low Life.ashx?dl=true) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7786 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important collections relating to life in the metropolis, including: Michael Sadleir?s Ephemera, Chapbooks, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Virginia Warren Collection of Old Street Cries, Rare Books, Periodicals, Tallis?s Street Views, London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maps and George Gissing?s scrapbook from the Pforzheimer Collection. Although some material dates from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 18th or 20th century \(and this has been included for good reason, to preserve the integrity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collections\), the overwhelming bulk is from the 19h century and predominantly from the Victorian period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These items are digitised to the extremely high standard we have come to expect of Adam Matthew Digital. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Each pamphlet, book, map, periodical, chapbook and poster \(to name but a few of the types of documents\) is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reproduced at high resolution in full colour, can be enlarged to reveal intricate detail and texture, and, if a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed text, is accompanied by a transcript. Users of the resource are encouraged to jump straight to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(document viewing on accessing the site. The rolling widget on the front page featuring themes under which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the documents are collated is irresistible. On clicking, as I quickly did when seeing the captivating title, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Disreputable London?, users are presented with a list of items that have been digitised. Similarly, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely tempting quick search box appears in the main header, which similarly presents users with a list of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hits for their keywords \(again, I also succumbed to this, typing in my favourite search term, ?Punch and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judy?, which returned 23 items, most of which I had never seen before\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My experience of working on other digital resources and of teaching students how to use them suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergraduates especially find lists of source material either off-putting or very difficult to interpret, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes seizing on the inconsequential rather than viewing the resource as a whole. This is no criticism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 70.688 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Low Life:)] TJ ET BT 120.032 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the editors have followed current trends in web design, based on usage research, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aim to get users to relevant information with as few clicks of the mouse as possible. But what works for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information heavy websites does not necessarily function so well in humanities resources which are meant to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encourage individuals to interpret evidence they are presented with from different angles. Contextualisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is fundamental in this process; and clicking more can aid in the critical appraisal of the documents. In other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words, this is largely a pedagogical issue which the wider digital humanities community may wish to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider in due course.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly the students or researchers accessing )] TJ ET BT 260.624 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Low Life)] TJ ET BT 342.644 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have not been left without supporting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material to guide them through the collections. In particular, under ?Further Resources?, users are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged to ?find your feet in Victorian London with our consultant editors? essays?. These are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptionally useful for understanding the collections that have been digitised and I would strongly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encourage both students and researchers to begin their exploration of this resource right here. Similarly, all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(users should be made aware of the useful dictionaries under this section and the bibliography \(which I hope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Matthew Digital will continue to update\). An alternative method for exploring the scope of )] TJ ET BT 505.952 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Low Life)] TJ ET BT 76.364 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can be found in the visual resources section, which contains both image galleries \(by theme\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(online exhibitions. The latter, necessarily short exhibitions which are text light and image heavy, can only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever hope to glide briefly across a tiny sample of the material in the database, but do suggest some starting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points for viewing the material and arouse anticipation and enthusiasm for getting stuck in \(even if I thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was far too little blood in the third exhibition!\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This brings me to the meat of this resource: the digitised documents. Apart from the quick access points on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the front page, the documents in )] TJ ET BT 191.660 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Low Life)] TJ ET BT 273.680 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can be viewed via searching or browsing. Given the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity of material the search facility is necessarily limited to general keywords or specific keywords from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the title or author of an item, with some options to restrict results by either collection or document type. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assist users who want to experiment with searching, the editors have provided a list of ?popular searches?, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature that students let loose to find material for projects will certainly appreciate. As an active researcher in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this area, I found that I enjoyed browsing much more, using the various categories provided by the editorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(team to limit my lists \(collection, document type and theme\) because this process gave me both an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the richness of the collection, its potential uses and the implications of its digitisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, the digitised holdings in )] TJ ET BT 194.684 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Low Life)] TJ ET BT 276.704 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( amount to around 1386 items, some of these being quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial \(for example, books and Gissing?s scrapbook\) while a large number are single sheets or small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pamphlets. These latter items are of particular value. The resource contains a wide range of ephemeral )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8154 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material, from advertisements and broadsides to picture cards, chapbooks and cheap fiction. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ephemera may well have comprised the bulk of reading material in previous centuries because it was cheap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and widely circulated, its fragile quality and the tendency of contemporaries to discard these items once they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had served their purpose has meant that much has been lost to us. Digitisation of ephemera is thus of great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance, most obviously for reasons of preservation, but also, by increasing access to limited collections, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it will deepen our understanding of both culture and the workings of daily life for nearly every level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society. While browsing through the lists of contents, I was especially excited to find a copy of )] TJ ET BT 492.956 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beeton?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Penny Book of Cab Fares )] TJ ET BT 161.000 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(c.1872/4\), a directory, rather than, say, a poster, but an item with a set shelf life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the primary user. Only recently have historians begun to pay sufficient attention to these sources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing how books of cab fares and railway timetables were designed in particular ways to communicate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information rapidly and develop skills of literacy, and I hope that the inclusion of )] TJ ET BT 427.640 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beeton?s)] TJ ET BT 471.632 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material in )] TJ ET BT 88.676 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Low Life )] TJ ET BT 173.696 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will encourage researchers to continue to use ephemera in more creative ways.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 624.003 m 48.008 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the discovery of )] TJ ET BT 134.660 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beeton?s)] TJ ET BT 178.652 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the list of holdings immediately led me to question how much of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resource was focused on ?Low Life?? And so I conducted a rough survey based on the themes selected by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the editors to describe the items in the collection. There seemed to be a good deal of crossover ? one item )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have multiple theme tags. However, it was notable that those themes most obviously connected with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(low life were associated with a relatively small proportion of items: for example, just over six per cent were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tagged as ?crime and justice?, around 4.5 per cent were tagged as ?disreputable London?, and slightly fewer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than 11 per cent were tagged as ?sex, prostitution and charity?. By far the largest number of items were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tagged as ?street literature and popular print?, around 66 per cent; this is unsurprising given the large number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of chapbooks and the collection of street cries included. Many of these could be said to provide colour to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?low life?, being images of street sellers contained in the street cries or being literature read by the lower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes or slum dwellers. But a few more clicks revealed that the second largest theme in the resource was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?geography and the built environment?, with around 30 per cent of items tagged as such.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This experimentation with the thematic terms leads me to make two points with respect to this resource and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its use. First, that )] TJ ET BT 119.360 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Low Life)] TJ ET BT 201.380 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contains a vast array of material that is more about life in London than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically ?low life?. No doubt this material serves to provide context to those items that do focus on low )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life, but it also has tremendous value apart from that, and I hope that the title of the resource does not limit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its take-up or the great uses that this material could be put to in both teaching and research. Second, there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an element of messiness in this tagging by theme which I feel the editors have shied away from at times \(for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, they should not be afraid of grouping fast guides with tourist guides under the heading tourism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they did serve that purpose\), but which they should relish. This is precisely where a large part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value of this resource lies: in its problematisation of the term ?low life?. What were the boundaries of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian underworld? Who was defined as low life ? participants in illicit or illegal activities, or slum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dwellers, or both? How should we define ?participation?? These were questions which the Victorians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrestled with and which we still have not yet satisfactorily answered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of the material in )] TJ ET BT 150.332 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Low Life )] TJ ET BT 235.352 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defies rigorous categorisation as the following summary of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents demonstrates. This resource contains a range of items, often crude, produced by printers or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entertainers in the lower classes for consumption by the lower classes, which did not contain overtly violent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or pornographic content \(themes usually associated with the ?low?\), revealing evidence of a culture that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not necessarily respectable but also not offensive to those values. Next, we have a large number of similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(products or entertainments, again produced by the people and for the people, that did draw upon ?low? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes, for example broadsides or penny fiction focusing on crime, human tragedy or scandal. Yet the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producers and consumers of each of these were not necessarily exclusive. Similarly, some of the publishers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of street literature were also involved in producing, alongside others of a slightly higher class background, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of publications and entertainments which boasted semi-pornographic or scurrilous content and were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(targeted at a predominantly male and middle to upper class market. Moreover these producers found their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(copy and directed their consumers to activities in both low and high life. Finally, we are presented with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large number of publications produced by those who were not of the lower classes but presented street life, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 624.3175 48.0077 636.1975 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7225 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially slum life, to respectable audiences, from the colourful vignettes of city wanderers or flneurs to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the exposs of the charitable and religious reformers, all of which offered captivated audiences a form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vicarious participation in ?low life?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In other words, given the range of sources and possibilities, ?low life? had many dimensions and was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the Victorian period, a shifting category, which, in different forms, permeated every level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society. Clear boundaries between the respectable and the unrespectable never existed. This is where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of digitisation, and the options it offers us in viewing evidence from different angles, might help us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to better understand the term, and its role in Victorian society. The editors of )] TJ ET BT 405.296 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Low Life )] TJ ET BT 490.316 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided us with some signposts and suggestions, most notably in their use of interactive maps.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Matthew Digital has not only digitised over 100 maps of London in the period c.1700 to c.1920, but, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in partnership with Axis Maps LLC, they have brought these maps to life. For instance, by combining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection of Tallis Street Views with a base map, 19th-century London is represented in 3-D: in much the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same way as the well-known Google Street View, users are able to walk down the streets of London. If that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(function proves to be an excellent method for engaging students \(which no doubt it will\), the maps dealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with historic data, twinning population information with the provision of institutions and illustrating change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over time, will certainly help to deepen their knowledge. However, for researchers, these interactive maps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have the greatest potential when they attempt to chart the ?data? provided by the sources contained in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resource. It is possible to generate a map which shows the location of a number of entertainments \(or parks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or monuments\) described in the documents. The editors have chosen to keep the representation of the data )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visual ? at the moment, the entertainments that appear on the map are ones for which there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanying illustrations \(and these are displayed when the icons on the map are activated, in a similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way to ?street view?\). This data thus adds to the attempt to make Victorian London ?come alive?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But I did wonder whether it might be possible to map ?low life? in a similar way. For instance, we could use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maps to compare tourist guides and fast guides, to highlight the differences and similarities in the paths that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these distinct types of pleasure-seekers travelled. A rapid keyword search for one of my favourite 19th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century entertainments, Madame Tussaud?s waxworks, revealed that the museum featured in both tourist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guides and fast guides. How often did these two paths cross? Did some tourists have access to multiple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guides, sampling pleasures from each if they found themselves in particular neighbourhoods? \(I am sure they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did, but some visual evidence would be helpful to back up what can only be supposition.\) This is far from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism of )] TJ ET BT 92.012 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 128.684 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Low Life.)] TJ ET BT 177.032 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Rather, the editors should be congratulated for encouraging researchers in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area to think about their source material in new ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In sum, this is an engaging and timely resource. In particular, it complements, without duplicating, a number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of other resources released in the last three years, including the)] TJ ET BT 336.272 292.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( John Johnson Collection: An Archive of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Printed Ephemera, Old Bailey Online: The Proceedings of the Old Bailey)] TJ ET BT 388.304 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 411.632 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Library Nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Century Newspapers.)] TJ ET BT 137.348 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( By exposing source material previously difficult for many students and researchers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access, and encouraging users to employ technology as part of the analytical process, these resources have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the potential to change the way we have approached the Victorian period and imagined life in London.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 200.355 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 169.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, as part of the recently funded AHRC project at Reading University, ?Designing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Information for Everyday Life, 1815-1914?. Key publications emerging from that project include )] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mike Esbester, ?Nineteenth-century timetables and the history of reading?, )] TJ ET BT 426.944 141.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Book History,)] TJ ET BT 493.604 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 12 \(2009\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(156?185 and Paul Dobraszczyk, ?Useful reading? Designing information for London?s Victorian cab )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passengers?, )] TJ ET BT 127.328 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Design History, )] TJ ET BT 258.992 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21 \(2008\), 121?141.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 356.312 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 356.312 111.315 m 410.300 111.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 86.453 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 72.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 67.471 526.499 1.500 re S endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 356.3117 111.6295 410.2997 123.5095 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 751 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1075)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 795.075 m 328.316 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.098 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5461)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.amdigital.co.uk/collections/~/media/Collections/LondonLowLife/London%20Low%20Life.ashx?dl=true)] TJ ET BT 34.016 712.642 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 795.3895 328.3157 807.2695 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1075) >> endobj xref 0 35 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000585 00000 n 0000000688 00000 n 0000006018 00000 n 0000006127 00000 n 0000006237 00000 n 0000006346 00000 n 0000009907 00000 n 0000010035 00000 n 0000010119 00000 n 0000010247 00000 n 0000010400 00000 n 0000010528 00000 n 0000010681 00000 n 0000010808 00000 n 0000010961 00000 n 0000011026 00000 n 0000018865 00000 n 0000018949 00000 n 0000027156 00000 n 0000027186 00000 n 0000027312 00000 n 0000027348 00000 n 0000027432 00000 n 0000034710 00000 n 0000034838 00000 n 0000034893 00000 n 0000034977 00000 n 0000035780 00000 n 0000035908 00000 n trailer << /Size 35 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36004 %%EOF