%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140708112107+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140708112107+01'00') /Title (From Viking Stronghold to Christian Kingdom. State Formation in Norway, c. 900-1350) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4320 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(From Viking Stronghold to Christian Kingdom. State Formation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Norway, c. 900-1350)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book examines the emergence and nature of the medieval kingdom of Norway. Professor Sverre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bagge?s study commences in the late 9th century when the earliest poetic sources first tell of one ruler, King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harald Fairhair, who extended his authority over coastal Norway at the expense of other regional rulers. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early 14th century Norway was a unified, relatively well-ruled, kingdom and an integral part of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christendom. The )] TJ ET BT 123.680 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(terminus ante quem)] TJ ET BT 218.336 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the book around the year 1350 or in the middle of the reign of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King Magnus Eriksson, who had inherited the crowns of both Norway and Sweden, and at the eve of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Black Death which devastated the Norwegian governing class. At the end of the 14th century Norway )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a part of the Kalmar Union and thereafter through various historical permutations, the kingdom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained under Danish, and subsequently Swedish, authority until 1905. Between the early phase of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwegian state-formation and the kingdom?s decline \(and foreign domination\) in the later Middle Ages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is the period c.1240?1319, which in the historiographical tradition has been represented as the high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(watermark, or even the golden age, of pre-modern Norwegian history. In this ?Age of Greatness? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwegian kings ruled over an empire of a kind which included the Norse colonies of the North Atlantic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fascinating story of state-formation which led up to this period as well as the perceived dramatic decline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Norway thereafter explains why Norwegian historians have traditionally focused more on the Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ages than their counterparts in Sweden and Denmark. The question which inevitable lurks in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1076)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 May, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sverre Bagge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9788763507912)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(441pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Museum Tusculanum Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Copenhagen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haki Antonsson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8275 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background is why, considering the successful establishment of a relatively strong kingdom in the period)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(c.1000?1300, did Norway not enter the Early Modern period as a separate and independent political identity?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first part of the title, ?)] TJ ET BT 160.328 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Viking Stronghold)] TJ ET BT 277.664 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 282.992 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 288.992 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refers to the fact that the kingdom of Norway, unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of neighbouring Sweden and Denmark, was essentially the creation of Viking leaders. In the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(995?1066 the returning Vikings, Olafr Tryggvason \(995?1000\), Olafr Haraldsson \(1015?28\) and his half-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brother, Harald Hardrada \(1047?66\), laid the foundations for the Christian realm of medieval Norway. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears fairly obvious that it was chiefly wealth accrued from Viking activity ? raiding in conjunction with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most lucrative form of extortion racket ? which funded this early phase in the expansion of Norwegian royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power. But old habits die hard and in 1103 King Magnus Barelegs was ambushed and killed by irate natives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following a botched Viking-style campaign in Ireland, and as late as the early 1150s, another Norwegian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King, Eysteinn Haraldsson \(d.1157\), raided England and Scotland. The title of Bagge?s book is arguably a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slight misnomer for it principally deals with the Norwegian kingdoms in the 13th and the first half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14th centuries or when Norway had, by any measure, become a Christian kingdom. The real focus of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work is on the development and nature of royal and ecclesiastical administration in this later period. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on the later phase reflects to a considerable degree the dearth of native written sources prior to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second half of the 12th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The principal theme of )] TJ ET BT 146.660 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Viking Stronghold to Christian Kingdom )] TJ ET BT 374.684 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the Europeanization of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwegian realm. In a sense the work can be read as a regional, in depth case-study of a peripheral land of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the kind that Robert Bartlett has treated more generally in his)] TJ ET BT 330.980 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-known monograph )] TJ ET BT 448.964 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change, 950-1350)] TJ ET BT 346.700 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 352.700 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 352.700 500.211 m 366.692 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 366.692 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Norway emerged as a Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingdom during the second major phase of conversion to Christianity which occurred around the turn of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First Millennium. In this period eastern and northern Europe adopted what Sverre Bagge refers to as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?European packet? which included a new religion, a different form of literacy, the codification of laws, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the establishment of a royal and ecclesiastical bureaucracy. The source of political power shifted away from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charismatic rulership with pagan roots to a kingship which, with time, became underpinned by divine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy. Apart from the relevant section in the recent )] TJ ET BT 305.960 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Christianization and the Rise of Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monarchy: Scandinavia, Central Europe and Rus? c. 900-1200)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 341.984 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 341.984 400.419 m 355.976 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 355.976 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, this is the first book published in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English which introduces and engages with this topic from a Scandinavian perspective.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bagge?s usual method is to present the historical problem along with the relevant sources that are invariably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in short supply. This then leads to Bagge?s own interpretations which in a number of instances disagree with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the findings of earlier scholars in the field. For example, Bagge has little time for the Marxist-inspired view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Norwegian medieval history which views the royal office \(in cahoots with the Church\) as essentially an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instrument of the magnates that was wielded against the interests of an oppressed and largely passive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasantry. In general Bagge adopts a middle ground, or perhaps more specifically his own ground, between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the strict empiricism of Professor Knut Helle, the other doyen of Norwegian medieval studies, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model-building of the aforementioned ?Marxist school?. A particularly noteworthy feature is how Bagge?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion is frequently enriched by his awareness of developments in other fields of European medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies, such as recent trends in saga studies, while his engagement with ideas of other scholars allows the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader to place the author?s own interpretation within the context of previous literature. Although the detail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with which Bagge discusses some of the issues may appear slightly less than inviting to the uninitiated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader, he does provide clear and concise summary chapters at the end of each thematic section along with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an extensive concluding chapter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bagge leads the reader step by step through the complex problems associated with the sources and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation on military organisation, the importance of literacy and law and the development of Crown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Church as bureaucratic organisations. This is where Sverre?s main qualities as an historian come to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fore: he combines a clear logical and forensic examination of complicated issues with a talent for placing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwegian scenario within a wider Scandinavian and indeed European context. It hardly needs emphasising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these qualities are extremely useful for readers seeking an introduction into Norwegian medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. Indeed Bagge seeks at every turn to compare the development of the Norwegian monarchy with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rest of Europe. In this respect the kingdom of Denmark provides the obvious comparative point of view in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 352.6997 500.5255 366.6917 512.4055 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 341.9837 400.7335 355.9757 412.6135 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7731 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light of the similar \(at least superficially\) historical trajectory of the two countries from the Viking Age )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onwards. For the later period, the 13th and the first half of the 14th century, parallels and differences are also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made with the more developed kingdoms of Europe such as England, especially in relation to literacy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Bagge draws out the similarities between Norway and the other relatively newly converted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingdoms of Europe, he also emphasises the )] TJ ET BT 249.992 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sonderweg )] TJ ET BT 304.988 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Norwegian monarchy. Most notably, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12th century the kingdom emerged as a hereditary monarchy although one that still included the residual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(element of royal elections. In contrast, Denmark and Sweden were, at least in theory, elective monarchies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the Middle Ages. Moreover, the Norwegian kings ruled a comparatively poor kingdom in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison to their Danish counterparts which still retained some features of its Viking-age origin. Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably, in the 13th and the first half of the 14th century the Norwegian rulers relied on a military system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that had not changed fundamentally since the Viking Age: the king?s levies were geared towards defence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than offence warfare. As Bagge demonstrates, the kings were quite adept at playing the weak hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had inherited. Thus they were through necessity forced to tread a narrow path between diplomacy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the application of force; whereas the Valdemars of Denmark embarked on an expansionist adventure in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltic, the Norwegian kings carefully consolidated their authority at home and in Norse North Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies. By the end of the 13th century they were at least nominally in control of the Northern Isles, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Faroes, Iceland and Greenland. But it was perhaps in the codification of laws that the Norwegian kings were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in advance of their Scandinavian and, as Bagge shows, arguably most of their European counterparts. Thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1270s the Norwegian king issued a single law-code that extended over the whole kingdom and which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represents one of the earliest of its kind in medieval Europe. In the closing pages Sverre Bagge attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answer the question referred to earlier: why did Norway not emerge from the Middle Ages as a strong, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent kingdom Bagge argues that, perhaps somewhat paradoxically, the successful unification of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norway from the Viking Age onwards actually made it easier for foreign authorities to rule the kingdom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the end of the 14th century onwards. Yet Bagge makes it clear that this development was far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitable, as some economically-inspired historians have suggested.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In one sense this book sums up and presents an overview of Sverre Bagge?s immense and varied work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwegian medieval history in the last few decades; the bibliography contains no less than 50 of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published items between 1975 and 2007. It is difficult to find a fault with this volume which distils Sverre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bagge?s mastery of Norwegian medieval history into a coherent whole. The book is written in a clear and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functional rather than elegant style. Only occasionally does the narrative stray near an ?auto-pilot mode? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where the author appears more concerned to tell us what he knows \(which is a lot\) rather than what we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strictly need to know. There is, for instance, nothing wrong with the survey of the pre-Christian religion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scandinavia \(pp. 137?48\) but one might question if it is really necessary to treat this well-known subject at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a length for the purposes intended. And, in general, the quality of the work would hardly have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affected if an editorial trimming had been made here and there. The one topic which does, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguably deserve more detailed discussion is the involvement of the Norwegian kings in the establishment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and promotions of towns. This topic is, admittedly, touched on in a number of chapters but its importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would seem to justify a separate treatment. As alluded to earlier, there is also the inevitable problem of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disparity of sources between the early period for which we have no Norwegian written sources, and the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period for where we have a relative abundance of written records. This, perhaps inevitably, results in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slightly unbalanced book which in reality is primarily focused on the period c.1240?1350 and in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of Norwegian weakness in the later Middle Age looms ever larger as the work progresses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sverre?s principal conclusion is that foreign innovations were adapted according to the specific, local, needs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Norwegian monarchy. This by itself is hardly a startling or novel conclusion. The principal value of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the work lies elsewhere, namely in the extremely learned and thorough way in which Bagge demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how this adaptation occurred in each of the spheres of royal \(and indeed ecclesiastical\) activity. This he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successfully achieves while never loosing sight of the larger historical context)] TJ ET BT 408.620 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 414.620 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A particularly successful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of this approach can be seen in Bagge?s discussion of laws where the native and the traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were blended with the foreign and the international to create something wholly unique. Although )] TJ ET BT 502.952 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From )] TJ ET BT 34.016 47.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Viking Stronghold to Christian Kingdom)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 2176 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may not present a radical new departure for Norwegian and )] TJ ET BT 322.592 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scandinavian medieval history, the book will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deservedly take its place as one of the most significant works published in the field; and it is certainly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most important book on the subject to date published in English.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.059 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Bartlett, )] TJ ET BT 141.680 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change, 950?1350 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 686.787 m 196.328 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Christianization and the Rise of Christian Monarchy: Scandinavia, Central Europe and Rus? c. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(900?1200)] TJ ET BT 112.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Nora Berend \(Cambridge, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.308 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.308 658.275 m 348.296 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 633.413 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 614.431 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 596.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 596.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1076)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 595.257 m 328.316 595.257 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 570.280 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 555.880 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5465)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.480 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 687.1015 196.3277 698.9815 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 294.3077 658.5895 348.2957 670.4695 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 595.5715 328.3157 607.4515 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1076) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000586 00000 n 0000000668 00000 n 0000005040 00000 n 0000005149 00000 n 0000005259 00000 n 0000005368 00000 n 0000008929 00000 n 0000009057 00000 n 0000009141 00000 n 0000009232 00000 n 0000017560 00000 n 0000017590 00000 n 0000017718 00000 n 0000017754 00000 n 0000017784 00000 n 0000017912 00000 n 0000017948 00000 n 0000018013 00000 n 0000025797 00000 n 0000025895 00000 n 0000028124 00000 n 0000028252 00000 n 0000028307 00000 n 0000028435 00000 n 0000028490 00000 n 0000028618 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28714 %%EOF