%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 34 0 R 45 0 R 67 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150522015331+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150522015331+01'00') /Title (The King?s Jews: Money, Massacre and Exodus in Medieval England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4800 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The King?s Jews: Money, Massacre and Exodus in Medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was a time, not so long ago, when the history of the Jewish communities of 12th- and 13th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England was a neglected subject in English historical studies. No longer. Starting with the seminal work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barrie Dobson and Paul Hyams during the 1970s, the importance of medieval Jewish history to a proper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of medieval English history has been affirmed, embraced, and demonstrated by a generation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of English medievalists that includes such luminaries as Paul Brand, David Carpenter, Barrie Dobson, John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maddicott, and Nicholas Vincent. By and large, this work has been published in specialized articles and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly books that are not likely to be read by a wide popular audience ? although David Carpenter?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(splendid survey for the Penguin History of England, )] TJ ET BT 287.660 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Struggle for Mastery)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.656 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.656 165.009 m 425.648 165.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 425.648 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is an obvious exception to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this claim. In all this work, however, the focus has been overwhelmingly on the significance of royal policies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toward Jews for what we might regard as the ?larger history? of the medieval English state. For a synthetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account that foregrounds the historical experience of English Jews themselves, readers have for long had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rely on the first five chapters of Cecil Roth?s )] TJ ET BT 252.980 109.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of the Jews in England)] TJ ET BT 411.644 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, first published in 1941 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last revised in the early 1960s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.996 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.996 93.729 m 193.988 93.729 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 2006, Richard Huscroft provided a fine, highly readable summary of this new work on Jews and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English state in a short book he entitled )] TJ ET BT 226.676 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Expulsion: England?s Jewish Solution)] TJ ET BT 411.680 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.680 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.680 53.217 m 428.672 53.217 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 428.672 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Robin Mundill now enters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1077)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 May, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robin R. Mundill)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781847251862)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continuum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Stacey)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 411.6557 165.3235 425.6477 177.2035 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.9957 94.0435 193.9877 105.9235 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 414.6797 53.5315 428.6717 65.4115 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 8927 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these same lists, aiming to attract a similar audience of general readers and students but with a topical rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than narrative focus, with )] TJ ET BT 159.656 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The King?s Jews: Money, Massacre and Exodus in Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 496.280 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Dr. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mundill is well-known to specialists working on the history of the medieval Anglo-Jewish community for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his 1998 book, )] TJ ET BT 108.020 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England?s Jewish Solution: Experiment and Expulsion, 1262-1290)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 433.340 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 433.340 752.307 m 447.332 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 447.332 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and for a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article-length studies he has written since 1990 on the changing roles Jews played in the credit markets of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13th-century England. In )] TJ ET BT 157.328 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The King?s Jews)] TJ ET BT 238.664 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, however, he aims to broaden his remit. Ever since he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participated in the making of ?All the King?s Jews,? a BBC )] TJ ET BT 323.984 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Timewatch)] TJ ET BT 376.652 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( documentary broadcast in 1990 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mark the 700th anniversary of the expulsion of the Jews from England, Mundill ?had always aimed to write )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a book which would take readers back into the world of the small colony of Jews who came to England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries? \(p. ix\). The opportunity to fulfill this ambition came when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Greenwood of Continuum Books commissioned the volume we now have before us. With a degree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of self-discipline that I can only envy, Mundill completed the book during a Lenten term of sabbatical leave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 2009 from Glenalmond College, where he is a full-time teacher and administrator.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mundill?s great strength is his unrivalled knowledge of the financial records the royal government kept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credit transactions between Christians and Jews. These records, most unpublished and likely to remain so, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are the foundation on which his book rests, and they shape the book?s contents and structure. Mundill?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account is strongest when dealing with subjects on which these archival sources shed the most light. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are useful and frequently colourful discussions of the mechanics of Jewish lending and their consequences. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers who have wondered about tallies, chirographs, bonds, quitclaims, starrs, gages, and fee debts will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find clear and authoritative explanations of these matters in chapter two, ?Jews and the economy?. In chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three, ?A community within a state?, Mundill gives a fine description of the organization of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish community as it appeared to the royal government, starting with the Exchequer of the Jews and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archpresbyter, and then working his way down through the chirographers, the sheriffs and the undersheriffs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the local Jewish communal officials who looked after the synagogues and buried the dead. On ?Saints and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(martyrs,? however, the subject of chapter four, the financial records are uninformative; instead Mundill is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thrown back upon Joshua Trachtenberg?s outdated book, )] TJ ET BT 310.628 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Devil and the Jews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.612 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.612 426.675 m 439.604 426.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 439.604 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which leads him to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assume that evidence Trachtenberg drew, rather haphazardly, from an uncritical assemblage of late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval, mostly German sources can be used to illuminate the attitudes of 13th-century English Christians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toward such matters as )] TJ ET BT 146.660 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mezzuzot)] TJ ET BT 189.992 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 213.320 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kabbalah)] TJ ET BT 260.660 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 71\). Chapter five, ?Christians and Jews,? returns us to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13th-century financial markets, where Mundill notes persuasively the extent to which Jewish lending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately redounded to the profit of Christian courtiers and financiers. Chapter six, ?Church and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synagogue,? is the least successful chapter, for reasons I discuss below. Finally, in chapter seven, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Dissolution and diaspora,? Mundill turns to the expulsion of the entire Jewish population from England in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1290, which he sees as a long-contemplated plan, perhaps originating as early as 1275, motivated by a long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(list of causative factors, including ?religious animosity, antipathy and angst ? complicated by religious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social perceptions as well as political interests, and of course the bitterness and determination of Archbishop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Pecham that the Jews should be continually punished for the death of Christ? \(p. 159\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The idea for this book has been long in gestation; but the book nonetheless shows signs of haste. None of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulting mistakes is fatal, of course; but their cumulative effect does undermine confidence. Chapter six, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Church and synagogue? is particularly badly served. On pp. 141?2, two versions of the same sentence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow each other )] TJ ET BT 120.992 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(seriatim)] TJ ET BT 160.328 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and every single endnote from 40 to 96 is misnumbered. The note that should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been endnote 40 was apparently omitted altogether; and so thereafter, note 41 in the text corresponds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with endnote 40; note 42 in the text corresponds with endnote 41; and so on to the end of the chapter. Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentences don?t make good sense \(p. 143, for example: ?Some communities had as much disregard for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apostates as they had hatred for an informer?.\) There are also inconsistencies between this chapter and others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the volume that treat the same subjects. On p. 133, for example, Mundill declares that the Jewish badge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?had been officially enforced in England since 1218?, whereas in chapter seven he declares, correctly, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the badge was not ?officially enforced by the state? until 1253 \(p. 151\). In neither place, however, does he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cite Nicholas Vincent?s definitive article on the imposition of the badge.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 382.304 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 382.304 86.787 m 396.296 86.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 396.296 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In chapter four \(pp. 90?2\), he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses the infamous coin-clipping charges of 1278?9, as a result of which some 300 Jews \(ten to 15 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent of the entire Jewish population\) were hanged; but he does so without taking into account Paul Brand?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 433.3397 752.6215 447.3317 764.5015 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.6117 426.9895 439.6037 438.8695 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 382.3037 87.1015 396.2957 98.9815 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 8232 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important reconstruction of these events, to which Mundill alludes in chapter six \(p. 137 n. 59, )] TJ ET BT 490.640 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(recte)] TJ ET BT 514.628 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( n. 60\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is also a degree of casualness in the way Mundill represents the views of the authors whose work he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cites in his notes. On p. 135, for example, Mundill cites Joe Hillaby?s 2009 article demolishing the claim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there was ever a ?House of Converts? at Bristol, while asserting in the text that there was indeed such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(house \(pp. 8, 135\). He also seems to believe that there was a ?House of Converts? in Oxford \(pp. 134, 135\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another misunderstanding corrected by Hillaby in the same article, but again not noticed by Mundill.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More often, however, authors with views different from Mundill?s own are simply not cited at all. This is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of course, an author?s prerogative; and it is understandable that in an account written for a popular audience, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an author would not wish to weigh down his narrative with the petty disagreements of professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. Readers should nonetheless be aware that this is not a book on which they can rely for an up-to-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(date summary of current historiography. Quite the contrary: the number of citations to and quotations from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outdated authors is surprisingly high, and occasionally \(as on p. 99, where Mundill quotes the Rev. L. B. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Larkin, a 19th-century clergyman and local antiquary\) these quotations lend a jarring tone to a book whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author is a paragon of tolerance and good will.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Usually, this odd reliance on outdated authorities is simply puzzling. But sometimes it leads to errors of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more significant kind. Mundill?s account of Bishop Robert Grosseteste?s attitudes toward Jews \(pp. 14, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(129?30\) is based almost entirely on L. M. Friedman?s 1934 study, )] TJ ET BT 355.328 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Robert Grosseteste and the Jews)] TJ ET BT 511.976 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 514.976 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 514.976 542.979 m 528.968 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 528.968 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the circumstances of 1934, it is perhaps understandable why an author might wish to portray a saintly 13th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century bishop?s attitudes toward Jews in the most favorable light possible: fascist anti-Semitism certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed no encouragement. 80 years later, however, it is harder to understand how Mundill can read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grossteste?s vituperative letter to the Countess of Winchester, urging her either to expel outright a refugee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish community that had recently settled in her half of Leicester, or else to confiscate all the Jews? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property and force them to work at menial occupations in servitude to Christians, and conclude from it that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Grosseteste had a firm but enlightened attitude towards the Jews? \(p. 130\) or that Grossteste?s letter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?display[ed] his knowledge of the Jewish people? \(p. 129\), unless this latter remark was meant ironically. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is equally difficult to understand how Grosseteste?s successful efforts to claim jurisdiction over 45 Oxford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students, who had been arrested by the sheriff and imprisoned in the royal gaol for robbery and assault upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Jews of Oxford, showed how Grosseteste ?clearly tried to keep a balance between the two religions? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(130\). Soon after the students were handed over to him, Grosseteste freed them all without charge, ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence being held insufficient to convict them of felony?, in the graceful words of Cecil Roth.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 495.608 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 495.608 357.651 m 509.600 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Far from being ?benign and enlightened? with respect to Jews \(p. 130\), Grosseteste was an extremist whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-Jewish animus was equaled among 13th-century English bishops only by John Pecham, the Franciscan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archbishop of Canterbury under Edward I. Grosseteste was certainly not the only churchmen who took the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view that all lending at interest was immoral and that the ?perpetual servitude? ostensibly imposed upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews as punishment for the death of Jesus should be interpreted in the most literal manner possible. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grosseteste?s views on these subjects were far more severe than was contemporary canon law, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permitted Jews to lend at moderate rates of interest and opposed the expulsion of Jewish populations from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian territory, stressing instead that Jews had a protected, albeit subordinate, place within Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society as the people of the ?Old Law.?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canon law is not Mundill?s strength. Nor is his handling of the narrative evidence entirely secure. Mundill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retells the story of the ?Jew of Tewkesbury? \(p. 69\) as if it were fact, without mentioning that this tale, of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jew who falls into a latrine but whose reverence for the Sabbath leads to his death, was an exemplary story )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told in Christian sermons all over northern Europe between the 12th century and the 14th. It is interesting, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and worthy of remark, that this story not only found an English audience, but was also retold in an English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context, with recognizable historical actors, including Earl Richard de Clare of Gloucester, being assigned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent roles in it. But there is absolutely no reason to think that any such event occurred, either in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England or elsewhere.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 140.984 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 140.984 91.299 m 154.976 91.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 154.976 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In a similarly literal vein, Mundill reads Richard of Devizes? satirical account of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ritual crucifixion allegation at Winchester as evidence that an actual allegation of ritual crucifixion was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lodged there in 1192. He also takes seriously William of Malmesbury?s report of King William Rufus?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declaration that he would convert to Judaism if Jews won a religious debate with Christians; Mundill )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 514.9757 543.2935 528.9677 555.1735 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 495.6077 357.9655 509.5997 369.8455 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 140.9837 91.6135 154.9757 103.4935 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 8907 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that since Rufus did not convert, the Christians must have won the debate \(p. 125\). Here as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere, Mundill treats 12th-century accounts of Jewish-Christian disputations as being records of actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates that took place between real Jews and real Christians with conversionist purposes, rather than seeing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these tracts as Christian literary and theological productions, written for Christian audiences and reflecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little or no knowledge of contemporary Judaism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not easy to organize a book that aspires to cover the 200-year history of an entire medieval Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community. Huscroft organized his book chronologically, with a single topical chapter, squarely in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle, on ?Jewish life and lending.? As a result, his book has a strong narrative thrust, but offers relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little fine-grained description or analysis of Jewish life. Mundill?s book, by contrast, is organized topically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by chapters, and then chronologically within each chapter. This too is an effective strategy, but one that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes with some costs. Description outweighs argument; there is much about how things worked, but less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about why the Jewish community in England developed as it did, or about the peculiarities of its history in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison with other Jewish communities elsewhere in medieval Europe. The book?s topical arrangement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also makes it harder to explain the interconnectedness of events: the ways in which, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments in Jewish lending during the 1240s and 1250s \(discussed in chapter five\), combined with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crushing weight of royal taxation during these same decades \(discussed in chapter seven\), led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proliferation of anti-Jewish and anti-Semitic myths \(discussed in chapter four\), and ultimately produced a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis within the Jewish community that resulted in conversions on a hitherto-unprecedented scale \(discussed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in chapter six\). Nor is there always a clear sense of change over time, of how much the early 12th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish community differed from the community under Henry II and Richard I, or of how different Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life was in 1250 from what it was in 1150. As Mundill portrays it, Jewish life in medieval England was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped largely by factors and influences external to the Jewish community itself and that did not change very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much between 1100 and 1290.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fundamentally, therefore, this isn?t so much a book about the Jews of medieval England as it is a book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about how Christians and Jews interacted in their business dealings, and the effect those interactions had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon their relationships with one another. Mundill?s goal, to ?take readers back into the world of the small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colony of Jews who came to England between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries?, is an admirable one, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-deserving of an important book. To fulfill that goal, however, we will need a history that takes us into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hearts, the homes and the lives of this small but extraordinarily well-documented Jewish population. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That is a history that remains to be written; but until it is written, we will need to continue to rely on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ageing works of Cecil Roth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 309.891 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 279.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Carpenter, )] TJ ET BT 149.660 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Struggle for Mastery: Britain 1066-1284)] TJ ET BT 366.656 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 447.980 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 447.980 277.875 m 501.968 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cecil Roth, )] TJ ET BT 121.688 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of the Jews in England)] TJ ET BT 280.352 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(3rd edition, Oxford, 1964\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.332 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.332 263.619 m 471.320 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Huscroft, )] TJ ET BT 152.996 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Expulsion, England?s Jewish Solution: Edward I and the Jews)] TJ ET BT 453.992 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stroud, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 529.988 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 529.988 249.363 m 557.648 249.363 l S BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 235.107 m 90.344 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robin Mundill, )] TJ ET BT 141.032 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England?s Jewish Solution: Experiment and Expulsion, 1262?1290)] TJ ET BT 465.356 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 206.595 m 149.000 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joshua Trachtenberg, )] TJ ET BT 169.652 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Devil and the Jews)] TJ ET BT 281.636 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 1943\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 403.940 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 403.940 192.339 m 457.928 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Vincent, ?Two papal letters on the wearing of the Jewish badge, 1221 and 1239?, )] TJ ET BT 503.264 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jewish )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Studies)] TJ ET BT 150.356 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 34 \(1994?6\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.676 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.676 163.827 m 271.664 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 150.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. M. Friedman, )] TJ ET BT 149.012 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Robert Grosseteste and the Jews)] TJ ET BT 305.660 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, 1934\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 428.312 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 428.312 149.571 m 482.300 149.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 136.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cecil Roth, )] TJ ET BT 121.688 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Jews of Medieval Oxford)] TJ ET BT 263.000 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1945?6\), p. 127.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 388.976 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 388.976 135.315 m 442.964 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Bale, )] TJ ET BT 137.012 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Jew in the Medieval Book: English Antisemitisms, 1350?1500)] TJ ET BT 455.324 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2006\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 23?53. Mundill cites Bale?s book, but does not note its implications for his treatment of this story.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 92.547 m 118.004 92.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 67.685 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 447.9797 278.1895 501.9677 290.0695 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 417.3317 263.9335 471.3197 275.8135 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 529.9877 249.6775 557.6477 261.5575 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 235.4215 90.3437 247.3015 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 206.9095 148.9997 218.7895 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 403.9397 192.6535 457.9277 204.5335 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 217.6757 164.1415 271.6637 176.0215 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 428.3117 149.8855 482.2997 161.7655 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 388.9757 135.6295 442.9637 147.5095 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 39 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 92.8615 118.0037 104.7415 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 42 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 69 0 R ] /Contents 68 0 R >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Length 627 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 805.999 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 788.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 788.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1077)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 786.825 m 328.316 786.825 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 761.848 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.448 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5468)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.048 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 787.1395 328.3157 799.0195 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1077) >> endobj xref 0 71 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000573 00000 n 0000000676 00000 n 0000005528 00000 n 0000005637 00000 n 0000005747 00000 n 0000005856 00000 n 0000009417 00000 n 0000009545 00000 n 0000009629 00000 n 0000009658 00000 n 0000009786 00000 n 0000009822 00000 n 0000009851 00000 n 0000009978 00000 n 0000010014 00000 n 0000010043 00000 n 0000010169 00000 n 0000010205 00000 n 0000010303 00000 n 0000019283 00000 n 0000019313 00000 n 0000019441 00000 n 0000019477 00000 n 0000019507 00000 n 0000019635 00000 n 0000019671 00000 n 0000019701 00000 n 0000019827 00000 n 0000019863 00000 n 0000019961 00000 n 0000028246 00000 n 0000028276 00000 n 0000028404 00000 n 0000028440 00000 n 0000028470 00000 n 0000028598 00000 n 0000028634 00000 n 0000028664 00000 n 0000028791 00000 n 0000028827 00000 n 0000028974 00000 n 0000037934 00000 n 0000038062 00000 n 0000038117 00000 n 0000038245 00000 n 0000038300 00000 n 0000038428 00000 n 0000038483 00000 n 0000038609 00000 n 0000038664 00000 n 0000038791 00000 n 0000038846 00000 n 0000038974 00000 n 0000039029 00000 n 0000039157 00000 n 0000039212 00000 n 0000039340 00000 n 0000039395 00000 n 0000039523 00000 n 0000039578 00000 n 0000039704 00000 n 0000039759 00000 n 0000039843 00000 n 0000040522 00000 n 0000040650 00000 n trailer << /Size 71 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40746 %%EOF