%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930214009+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930214009+01'00') /Title (Inside America's Concentration Camps: Two Centuries of Internment and Torture) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4388 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Inside America's Concentration Camps: Two Centuries of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Internment and Torture)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Dickerson should be commended for tracing the theme of American concentration camps through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the 17th to the 21st century. It is all too easy to slip into the comfortable approach of examining events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in isolation, when they are in fact but one more example of how a nation has failed to learn from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistakes of its past. Dickerson reminds us of the fact that people have been locked up without trial for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries, drawing comparisons between the treatment of Native Americans in the 18th and 19th centuries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of Japanese ancestry \(including American citizens born to one or more Japanese parent\) during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War, and concludes his tour of American history with modern-day Immigration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naturalization Service \(INS\) detention centres and the infamous camp at Guantanamo Bay.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dickerson has written a range of non-fiction books and has worked as writer and journalist since leaving his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first profession of social work. )] TJ ET BT 183.992 125.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inside America?s Concentration Camps)] TJ ET BT 376.316 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( follows ?hot on the heels? of his last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foray into American history, where he examined the dark world of Mississippi hate crimes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 471.608 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 471.608 110.241 m 485.600 110.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 485.600 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Dickerson?s work has been of a lighter nature, such as biographies of the film stars including Nicole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kidman and Russell Crowe, some have been more serious works such as those on adoption, or cirrhosis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the liver. There seems to be nothing that the author will not turn his hand to, and in terms of historical works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he has undertaken, he appears to favour the ?expos? approach with his stories of Southern hate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1078)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 May, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James L. Dickerson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781556528064)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago Review Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel Pistol)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 471.6077 110.5555 485.5997 122.4355 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7633 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mississippian resistance to racial integration, and now, American concentration camps. Of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentration camps did exist at other times, and Dickerson has done well to draw the corresponding ties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history together between the periods he discusses in his latest offering. There can be no doubt to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriousness with which Dickerson has applied himself to the subject, as the extensive bibliography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates. Dickerson has tackled a subject that is relevant to modern society and highlights the dangers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that threaten the innocent civilian by the government?s failure to learn from history. Unless the common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man or woman is aware of the threats, there is little that can be done to change the pattern which America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears to have fallen into.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, where Dickerson fails is when he embarks upon a journalistic flow and fails to truly make his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points clear. To take an example from the middle section of the book, where he is focussing on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internment of those of Japanese ancestry living in the United States, Dickerson discusses the benevolent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitude of Governor Carr of Colorado towards the internees. Governor Carr was indeed one of the few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(westerners in public office who could ?look back with pride and satisfaction on the posture [he] had assumed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with regard to Evacuation.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.652 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.652 597.747 m 180.644 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 180.644 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, it is misleading to suggest, as Dickerson does on pages 171 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(172 of his book, that the reason those of Japanese American ancestry were able to undertake agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work outside the camp or leave permanently to embark upon college courses was due to Carr?s influence. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact, internees from all of the ten internment camps were able to undertake paid agricultural work outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(camps subject to vetting procedures and demand from local farmers, and students from all camps were able )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to obtain permanent leave from internment if they could secure a place at an American college outside of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West Coast exclusion zone. The only camp where there was no such mobility was Tule Lake, in northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(California, but only after it became a segregation camp in the aftermath of the disastrous ?loyalty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questionnaire? debacle. While some camps were run more effectively and inspired a more positive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of internment, all camps had their various difficulties and problems. However, the treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of Japanese ancestry in Colorado was certainly more positive than in some other states.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inside America?s Concentration Camps)] TJ ET BT 226.340 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( begins with the premise that concentration camps and torture are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indigenous to America but that:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Both were imported by white immigrants who either had a predisposition to torture and detention, based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural experiences in their homelands where torture and detention were an accepted means for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments to control those of different races and religions, or who, in a darker psychological twist, had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been tortured and detained in their homelands and then exiled to America, only to succumb, during times of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis, to their baser instincts to do unto others as others have done unto them. When you look at U.S. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that for Americans whose families were desensitized by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generations of abuse, government advocacy of torture and detention was a culturally acceptable means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposing their will on people of different races, religions, and political beliefs? \(p ix\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a bold statement, to say the least. Dickerson begins his story with the graphic recounting of torture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tactics during the ?Killing Time? in Scotland and how it led to the emigration of many from Scotland to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America. The emphasis on different methods of torture is supposed to set the scene for Americans? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingness to torture and confine various ethnic groups over the past two centuries.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 436.292 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 436.292 219.603 m 450.284 219.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 450.284 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Dickerson does also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point out \(p. x\) that those who were persecuted in their native lands before arriving in America perhaps had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an aversion to torture, but that they would consider using it as a means to protect economic assets. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Essentially, that is Dickerson?s argument: that torture has been used as a method of protecting American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic gains. An argument that is perhaps somewhat justified by the desire for Native American land that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led to the banishment of Native Americans westwards, the desire for Japanese farming land that contributed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to their exclusion from the West Coast during the Second World War, and perhaps even in the treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigrants held in INS centres who Americans fear might flood the employment market.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dickerson does well to compare the stockades into which Indians were forced, prior to relocation, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internment camps. However, arguing that reservations were also in reality internment camps is perhaps a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stretch too far \(p. 20\). Internment camps specifically relate to the detention of enemy aliens during times of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war or to the detention of terrorist suspects. Internees are held within confined areas and threatened with the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 166.6517 598.0615 180.6437 609.9415 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 436.2917 219.9175 450.2837 231.7975 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7288 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prospect of death if they try to escape. Reservations, while of a limiting nature, are not guarded in the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way as an internment camp, and any comparison of this nature should be undertaken with great care and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to the existing historiography surrounding internment. While the basic point the author makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding the internment of Native Americans is sound, his exaggerated use of terminology does not serve to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthen his argument.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the middle section of Dickerson?s book he focuses on Second World War internment. Much has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written regarding the treatment of those of Japanese ancestry in America, but Dickerson manages to cover )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only this topic but also the internment of Germans and Italians, an often overlooked story. Those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese ancestry were rounded up indiscriminately, unlike the Germans and Italians whose cases were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individually considered. This is not to say, however, that hardships were not also suffered by members of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German or Italian communities. Dickerson tells the moving story of two young girls whose German parents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were taken away by the FBI without any regard for what might happen to the children. This is but one heart-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rending example included in the book. Dickerson also does not forget the plight of South American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese, who were deported to the United States and held in custody for the duration of the war, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many cases, for several years after. )] TJ ET BT 205.280 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inside America?s Concentration Camp)] TJ ET BT 392.936 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( therefore does well to include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a diversity of first and second hand accounts of internment from all enemy alien groups during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is also a distinct focus on the way that children were affected, either by their own internment, or by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the internment of close family members. This approach provides a fascinating insight into the emotional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effects of internment and is an effective slant to take in order to drill home the true consequences of the West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coast?s move to intern an entire ethnic group. As Dickerson points out, the inclusion of an orphanage at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manzanar in California \(euphemistically called the ?Children?s Village?\), is a ?sobering indictment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society as a whole at that troubled time in American history? \(p. 96\). Dickerson also notes the difference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the treatment of German prisoners of war in the South and the treatment of those of Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancestry. Ironically, the POWs were often better treated than the Japanese Americans, despite the fact the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese Americans were citizens of the United States and had never embarked upon sabotage or fought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against America. After the war it was discovered that not one single person of Japanese ancestry was found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guilty of espionage, making a mockery of the entire internment fiasco.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Significantly, Dickerson also mentions Camp Ontario, where 1,000 Jewish refugees were sent and lived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under various restrictions on their freedom until the end of the war. After the war there was some debate as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to whether the refugees should be allowed to remain in the United States or whether they should be deported. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eventually the refugees were granted asylum provided they exited the camp, travelled to Canada, and then re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entered the country. America, once again, demonstrated an unnecessarily bureaucratic approach to human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section of Dickerson?s book focuses on modern day INS detention centres and Guantanamo Bay. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book therefore comes full circle from its starting point of torture. The author uses several firsthand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of detention in an INS centre that are highly emotive. Dickerson argues that individuals are being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjected to degrading and abusive behaviour upon entry into America, and ultimately America is failing in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its duties to protect the vulnerable that come to its shores, for the most part, he argues, because they are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caucasian. The majority of those held within INS facilities have not been charged with any crime, often they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are merely awaiting an immigration hearing. This does not stop them from being treated like prisoners, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, sometimes held in solitary confinement for no obvious reason. Dickerson cites several examples of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern-day ?internees? being denied access to basic rights such as adequate healthcare and argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly that more attention needs to be paid to the running of these centres. America cannot stand as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beacon of democracy if it allows breaches of human rights on its own shores.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, )] TJ ET BT 76.004 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inside America?s Concentration Camps)] TJ ET BT 268.328 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a thoroughly researched, well-written book. There are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous occasions where the author?s journalistic tendencies overtake the historical tone of the book and at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these points it is easy for the non-expert reader in the field to suffer confusion. Dickerson has thoroughly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researched the three topics concentrated upon in this book and has gone out of his way to find personal )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 3887 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recollections of 20th- and 21st-century internment to really bring the topic alive for the reader. There can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no doubt that the audience )] TJ ET BT 163.664 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inside America?s Concentration Camps)] TJ ET BT 355.988 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is aimed at is the general public, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book should provoke the sort of debate regarding civil liberties that its author desires. It is important for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject of internment to remain in the national consciousness, as one would hope action might be taken to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevent such unhealthy patterns repeating themselves. The occasional careless usage of terminology and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slight misconstruction of certain ideas means the historian should be careful when referring to this text. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, as a complement to the established field of American internment history it sheds light into new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas for scholars of this subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 661.779 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James L. Dickerson and Alex. A. Alston Jr., )] TJ ET BT 278.984 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Devil?s Sanctuary: An Eyewitness History of Mississippi )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hate Crimes)] TJ ET BT 125.012 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, IL, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.328 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.328 615.507 m 280.316 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bill Hosokawa and Robert A. Wilson, )] TJ ET BT 250.004 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(East to America: A History of the Japanese in the United States)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 1980\), p. 211.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 214.652 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 214.652 586.995 m 268.640 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For more on modern American torture see Philippe Sands, )] TJ ET BT 347.312 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Torture Team: Rumsfeld?s Memo and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Betrayal of American Values)] TJ ET BT 203.000 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 284.324 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 284.324 558.483 m 338.312 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 533.621 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blog Critics)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://blogcritics.org/books/article/book-review-inside-americas-concentration-camps/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 503.715 m 448.280 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 451.280 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 500.383 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 482.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 482.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1078)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 481.209 m 328.316 481.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 456.232 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5471)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://blogcritics.org/books/article/book-review-inside-americas-concentration-camps/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.3277 615.8215 280.3157 627.7015 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 214.6517 587.3095 268.6397 599.1895 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 284.3237 558.7975 338.3117 570.6775 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 504.0295 448.2797 515.9095 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://blogcritics.org/books/article/book-review-inside-americas-concentration-camps/) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 481.5235 328.3157 493.4035 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1078) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000580 00000 n 0000000669 00000 n 0000005109 00000 n 0000005218 00000 n 0000005328 00000 n 0000005437 00000 n 0000008998 00000 n 0000009126 00000 n 0000009210 00000 n 0000009239 00000 n 0000009367 00000 n 0000009403 00000 n 0000009494 00000 n 0000017180 00000 n 0000017210 00000 n 0000017338 00000 n 0000017374 00000 n 0000017404 00000 n 0000017532 00000 n 0000017568 00000 n 0000017633 00000 n 0000024974 00000 n 0000025086 00000 n 0000029026 00000 n 0000029154 00000 n 0000029209 00000 n 0000029337 00000 n 0000029392 00000 n 0000029520 00000 n 0000029575 00000 n 0000029702 00000 n 0000029839 00000 n 0000029967 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30063 %%EOF