%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 35 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930134025+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930134025+01'00') /Title (The BBC and national identity in Britain, 1922-53) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4340 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The BBC and national identity in Britain, 1922-53)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is an argument for saying that there have been two particularly welcome developments in recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works of broadcasting history. The first of these is an increased attention to the role of radio and television in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the creation and reproduction of national identity. In the US, for example, the work of Michele Hilmes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Douglas in their different ways show how American culture and identity was fashioned by that great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th-century invention, radio. More cautiously I would suggest that the place of the programme itself in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical writing has become more prominent. Institutional histories have given way to more closely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observed accounts which include the actual stuff of broadcasting, radio and television programmes. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter development has been greatly influenced by the increased availability of radio and television archives. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is, therefore, unsurprising but extremely welcome that Thomas Hajkowski?s meticulously researched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the early BBC includes both of these developments and the result is a book which is very much in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tune with contemporary scholarship. The detailed description of programmes and policies produce a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling argument for the BBC?s role in forging a sense of national identity through the promotion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy and the empire. He challenges the orthodox view that in the period 1922 to 1939 local and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional programming was stifled and argues instead that the BBC promoted a multinational Britishness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he details in separate chapters on Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Hajkowski presents the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archive detail, mainly from the BBC?s own Written Archives Centre at Caversham, in an attractively fluent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(style and does not shun from challenging what he sees as the ?standard histories? of broadcasting at the time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1079)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 May, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Hajkowski)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719079443)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hugh Chignell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 9452 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 3\). By that he means Asa Briggs? formidable )] TJ ET BT 269.648 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom)] TJ ET BT 498.320 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; Scannell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Cardiff?s )] TJ ET BT 101.996 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social History of British Broadcasting )] TJ ET BT 289.676 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to a lesser extent Sian Nicholas? too often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected )] TJ ET BT 83.000 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Echo of War)] TJ ET BT 164.660 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 167.660 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 167.660 766.563 m 181.652 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 181.652 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is with a certain amount of revisionist enthusiasm that Hajkowski seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correct what he sees as the errors of the standard literature and in particular the tendency to overstate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralising nature of the BBC in its first few decades.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Any early broadcasting historian is presented by the challenge of how to write about a subject which has in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one sense disappeared. The reality is that very few recordings of pre-1939 radio exist and although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famous broadcasts of men like Churchill and J. B. Priestley can still be heard there is precious little to listen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to from before the mid 1950s. The solution for the pioneers of the subject has been to use the internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents of the BBC, the minutes of meetings and the endless memoranda between staff, as the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary source. The result of this is the now familiar criticism that, to take one example, Asa Briggs has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided us with a ?top-down, institutional history of the BBC? \(p. 9\). It is certainly true that actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programmes get fairly short shrift in Briggs and to an extent the same is true of Scannell and Cardiff. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter?s influential chapter on ?Forms of Talk? most of the writing concerns policy decisions about radio )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talks with only one substantial quotation from a programme transcript. Similarly, David Hendy?s magisterial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life on Air)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 89.024 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 89.024 569.235 m 103.016 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 103.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a history of BBC Radio Four, makes much more extensive use of BBC internal documents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and especially the minutes of the radio Review Board\) than of individual programmes. Hajkowski employs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a different approach, ?This book takes programs [sic], not policy, as its subject? \(p. 4\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.600 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.600 540.723 m 463.592 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 463.592 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( That was a bold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision which produced some wonderful programme detail and the descriptions of )] TJ ET BT 437.612 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brush Up Your Empire)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or )] TJ ET BT 47.012 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gordon of Khartoum)] TJ ET BT 148.352 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to take just two examples, is revelatory and adds significantly to the value of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Using these detailed descriptions of programmes, Hajkowski is able to argue with some conviction that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme of empire was a dominant one in the pre-war BBC. The repeated attention to the empire was used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(express and reinforce British national identity by praising imperial values and telling imperial tales. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges the influence of ?New Imperial History? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 302.276 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 302.276 428.931 m 316.268 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 316.268 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with its emphasis on the way that British culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and domestic institutions were influenced by empire. So, for example, programmes like the eight-part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serialisation of A. E. W. Mason?s )] TJ ET BT 198.992 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Four Feathers)] TJ ET BT 289.652 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( served to present imperialist values of heroism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courage and perseverance together with the ?governing genius? of the British to the domestic radio listener. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was also men with imperial pasts who put these programmes on the radio, including John Coatman at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(News and Sir Richard Maconachie at Talks. The success of the empire programmes \(including )] TJ ET BT 491.588 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life Among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Native Tribes)] TJ ET BT 116.684 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 122.684 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africa: The Dark Continent)] TJ ET BT 255.680 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the alarmingly titled, )] TJ ET BT 382.340 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africa Shrieks)] TJ ET BT 450.668 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) was due to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(licence they gave to celebrate the colourful and exotic; as )] TJ ET BT 312.608 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africa Shrieks)] TJ ET BT 380.936 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( announced, it was ?a burlesque of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the jungle talkie ... crammed full of tigers, pythons, Masai ...? \(p. 33\). There is a wonderful account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1935 feature )] TJ ET BT 97.328 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gordon of Khartoum)] TJ ET BT 198.668 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which uses quotations from the programme to very great effect. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(listener would have heard that Gordon surveyed the Nile with ?his light blue eyes, eyes lit with a defiant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purpose. Eyes like blue diamonds? \(p. 37\). Gordon was lauded for his sacrifice, his heroism, superiority and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his manhood. Similarly the famous producer Laurence Gilliam?s )] TJ ET BT 348.308 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kitchener)] TJ ET BT 395.636 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( depicted the imperial hero as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man who stood ?several inches over six feet, straight as a lance and looks out imperiously above most men?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heads, slender but firmly knit, he seems built for tireless steel-wire endurance? \(p. 40\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the war the empire was an important source of support for the war effort. Programmes like )] TJ ET BT 508.580 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Together)] TJ ET BT 77.348 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( praised the part played by ?commonwealth? troops and used Australian presenters among others. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The arrival of America in the war stimulated an appetite for programmes about or by the new ally but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BBC continued to promote an interest in the empire. Working-class ignorance of both the white dominions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the largely non-white colonies was felt to be widespread and a cause for concern. It was this suspicion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which led the Head of Talks, Maconachie, to devise )] TJ ET BT 286.292 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brush Up Your Empire)] TJ ET BT 397.292 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a programme featuring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience participation. Hajkowski provides an example of audience involvement in the form of a letter, ?Mrs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sanders of Bedworth asks ? how old is the Taj Mahal?? Such was radio in a world before Wikipedia! These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are compelling chapters on the centrality of empire in the early BBC and its role in the creation of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly hierarchical and traditional sense of British identity. It is interesting to read that there was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tension between the more progressive and egalitarian post-war notion of a multiracial Commonwealth )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 167.6597 766.8775 181.6517 778.7575 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 89.0237 569.5495 103.0157 581.4295 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 449.5997 541.0375 463.5917 552.9175 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 302.2757 429.2455 316.2677 441.1255 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8054 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoted by some, more serious, BBC programmes and the more crudely imperialist light entertainment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(output which drew on a romantic, exotic and racist imperialism; for example in the 1946 radio adaptation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(King Solomon?s Mines)] TJ ET BT 145.352 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hajkowski?s discussion of the importance of the monarchy to the BBC is more familiar. The key early royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadcasts \(1924 Wembley Empire Exhibition, 1932 George V?s Christmas broadcast, the coronation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George VI\) all contributed to ?the most vital function of the British monarchy [...] to serve as a symbol of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusive British identity? \(p. 84\). Although there is a similar account of the BBC and the monarchy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scannell and Cardiff, Hajkowski adds intriguing detail on the ?coronation week? preceding the coronation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George VI. There was a raft of programmes celebrating the event, of different genres, including the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programmes made in the regions, as the )] TJ ET BT 227.984 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radio Times)] TJ ET BT 288.320 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( stated, ?the Scottish programme, like programmes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the other regions, will express the unity of the British people? \(p. 89\). The theme of a ?multinational? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy with different regions responding in nationally specific ways to the monarchy is persuasively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described in the book. So for example in )] TJ ET BT 231.656 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(People and Places in the Scottish Scene)] TJ ET BT 422.960 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?Mrs McHaggis and wee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mickie come to London for the coronation? \(p. 89\). Here the Scottishness of the loyalty served to affirm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both the unity and the diversity of British national identity. In 1947 there was a royal tour of South Africa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving the BBC the opportunity to dwell on its two obsessions, monarchy and empire. This was done with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great enthusiasm. Radio coverage of the tour emphasised the spectacular and the exotic. The great radio )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producer, D. G. Bridson?s description of the Zulu dance, )] TJ ET BT 309.632 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ngoma Umkosi)] TJ ET BT 383.960 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, captures something of the tone, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?their bodies bare to the waist, their necks festooned with white and coloured intricacies of beadwork, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loins gay with beaded aprons? \(p. 98\). Few would question the powerful unifying influence of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy but I did wonder if Hajkowski overstated this and missed the divisiveness felt by some at this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaic institution. Royal weddings may indeed provide a powerful sense of inclusiveness but can just as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily alienate the minority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is in the account given of regional broadcasting that Hajkowski is at his most pugnacious. The British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Broadcasting Company \(precursor to the corporation launched in 1927\) consisted of a number of local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stations \(nine by 1925\) with 2LO in London providing additional metropolitan-based output. By the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s the local services had been replaced by five regional services and the National Programme transmitted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the high-power transmitter at Daventry. At the beginning of the war the regional services were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspended and the Home Service was launched as a centralised national station. This is where Hajkowski )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detects some errors in the available histories. Briggs was wrong, he argues, to overstate the organic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?genuine? quality of the early BBC local stations in the 1920s and Scannell and Cardiff were also wrong to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describe the North region?s ?brief golden years before the war? \(p. 111\). The decline of regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadcasting has been overstated because of a failure to ?focus on what the regional broadcasters were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually doing, and the programs they were making...? \(p. 112\). He accepts that there were ?centralisers? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the BBC who really only valued London programming \(Roger Eckersley, Charles Siepmann and Val )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gielgud\) but at the same time there was a big increase in regional staff in the 1930s and Siepmann himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a great advocate of regional broadcasting. It was true that the regions were suspended during the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but that did not stop programme production, only regional transmission. Furthermore the Home Service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried regional content, for example in the programme )] TJ ET BT 302.948 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In Britain Now)] TJ ET BT 374.960 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a popular magazine made by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West region. Hajkowski also argues that after the war there was something of a ?golden age? of regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programming with West region?s )] TJ ET BT 197.996 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Any Questions)] TJ ET BT 267.656 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Midland?s )] TJ ET BT 344.648 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Archers)] TJ ET BT 403.640 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(both still going strong\). For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the BBC national British identity was something inherently diverse; it incorporated not only the nations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United Kingdom but also different regional identities \(the West, Midlands and North\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is in the chapters devoted to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, that Hajkowski fully develops the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that the BBC positively celebrated British diversity. Once again the argument is a compelling one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with impressive programme detail. So the chapter on the BBC?s Scottish service shows how a programme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like )] TJ ET BT 55.016 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Frae a? the Airts)] TJ ET BT 137.348 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( represented Scottish folk culture from 1928. The account of BBC Scotland?s St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew?s Day programmes is particularly interesting and includes the responses to the coverage back in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London. This is a very positive view of BBC Scotland which ?did not represent Scottishness in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caricatured, one-dimensional way? \(p. 135\). Similarly, the chapter which follows on Wales presents a good )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 8243 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(news story about the diversity and effectiveness of regional programming. The representation of Welshness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was complex combining the rather artificial romanticism of ?wild Wales? and the Welsh rebel Owain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glyndwr together with the more modern character of the coal miner. The latter was depicted as almost the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epitome of Welshness and ?the BBC used the coal valleys to represent Wales? \(p. 176\). In the war the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(miner?s status was if anything enhanced as their important and dangerous lives came to reflect the danger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faced by the British people. There is a very useful examination of Welsh radio drama including )] TJ ET BT 494.264 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Proud )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Valley)] TJ ET BT 64.676 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1940\) and the more famous )] TJ ET BT 206.648 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(How Green Was My Valley)] TJ ET BT 337.952 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, both of which were very successful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adaptations from the screen originals. The importance of the Welsh language is clearly shown; in 1948 60 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per cent of BBC Wales spoken word output was in Welsh and there can be little doubt that the BBC played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an important part in the preservation of the language.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A much less optimistic and encouraging story is told about the BBC in Northern Ireland. Unionism is central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Hajkowski?s account of the BBC and nowhere did this mean more than in Northern Ireland where to be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionist also meant to be Protestant and to be a citizen of Ulster. The story told here is of a gradual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardening of the BBC?s position up to and after the war; increasingly positive to the Protestant community )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its traditions and negative to Catholic nationalism. After initial reluctance to allow the more extreme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms of unionism a voice the BBC position changed after the war, for example by acknowledging the 12th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of July celebrations which commemorated the great Protestant victory at the Battle of the Boyne. In 1953 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BBC Northern Ireland broadcast for the first time a running commentary of an Orange parade. Hajkowski )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(details the internal wrangles over Edward Carson, the first leader of the Ulster Volunteer force and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Orange icon? \(p. 225\). An early attempt to make a radio feature about Carson in 1940 were rejected as was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a further attempt in 1949. Pressure for these programmes came from within BBC Northern Ireland and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected the grip that unionism had on the corporation. Another aspect of the BBC?s anti-Catholic and pro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant bias was seen in the increased use of ?Ulster? to describe Northern Ireland. So )] TJ ET BT 463.916 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ulster Sport)] TJ ET BT 522.920 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Arts in Ulster)] TJ ET BT 99.356 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and what Hajkowski calls ?the ?Ulsterization? of St Patrick?s Day? \(p. 214\) contributed to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition of the north in terms explicitly associated with Protestant unionism; ?BBC Northern Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforced the unionist community?s British identity and helped to build a complementary Ulster identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that could be employed to differentiate Northern Ireland from the south? \(p. 227\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There can be little doubt that this will be a very influential and I do hope widely read book on early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadcasting. Inevitably there are omissions which are worth mentioning but which probably do not make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this a significantly lesser contribution. Other scholars have noted the important contribution of women to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early BBC and the lack of Hilda Matheson, Mary Somerville, Janet Quigley, Olive Shapley and others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created a rather overly masculine version of the corporation. Another omission was the absence of attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paid to the North region?s specifically )] TJ ET BT 220.652 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(radical )] TJ ET BT 258.320 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and innovative tradition with its focus on working class life.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 546.968 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 546.968 314.883 m 560.960 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was a regionalism which had a distinct political character, and indeed that tradition continues to exert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence today in programmes like Radio Four?s )] TJ ET BT 274.988 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(File on Four)] TJ ET BT 336.320 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( but gets insufficient attention here. Given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BBC?s current partial move to Manchester, perhaps this would have been an addition with contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although there is a boldness in Hajkowski?s writing which blows the refreshing winds of revisionist history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is I believe an error in his celebration \(I can think of no other word\) of regionalism. At the heart of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reassessment of, for example, Welsh broadcasting is the assertion that the relentless focus on Welsh scenery, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Welsh folk song, language, dress, poetry and so on is evidence of more than just a caricature. For example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hajkowski states that the radio drama, )] TJ ET BT 220.988 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Proud Valley)] TJ ET BT 305.648 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?constructs a powerful and vivid sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Welshness centred on the mining village, the family, and the Eisteddfod, danger, camaraderie, and song? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(188\). I wonder, however, if there might be something naive in that enthusiastic response? He has shown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly how the BBC stereotyped and patronised Zulu dancers in South Africa and other subjugated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peoples of the empire but cannot the same be said of BBC representations of the singing Welsh, the brave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scots and the plucky Irish? Hajkowski?s tendency to make rather over ambitious claims is at its most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worrying in the conclusion. Here we read, for example, that by the 1950s the BBC had ?abandoned what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained of its Reithian principles? \(p. 234\) I would point to the resurgence of Reithianism in BBC radio in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1970s \(fully documented in Hendy?s )] TJ ET BT 231.992 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life on Air)] TJ ET BT 284.000 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) as evidence of the inaccuracy of that claim. The )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 546.9677 315.1975 560.9597 327.0775 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 5544 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grander statement that the BBC was the central site for the production of national identity is cogently argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but I wonder if a book which )] TJ ET BT 176.324 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(only)] TJ ET BT 196.988 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( considers broadcasting can make such a claim? Other institutions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events played their part and these would need at least acknowledgement before asserting the centrality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radio.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These criticisms aside there can be little doubt that the small but growing band of broadcasting historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will welcome this important book. Thomas Hajkowski has made a significant contribution to our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the interplay between programming and the broader theme of nation building. His long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hours in the archives have produced a book which will surely feature on cultural history reading lists for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very long time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 604.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asa Briggs, )] TJ ET BT 123.680 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom. Volumes 1-3)] TJ ET BT 439.676 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1961?1970\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paddy )] TJ ET BT 97.016 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scannell)] TJ ET BT 138.344 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and David )] TJ ET BT 194.000 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cardiff)] TJ ET BT 228.680 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 234.680 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A )] TJ ET BT 245.012 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social History)] TJ ET BT 314.012 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of. )] TJ ET BT 333.008 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Broadcasting)] TJ ET BT 433.352 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 439.352 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Volume)] TJ ET BT 479.012 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1,)] TJ ET BT 491.012 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1922-)] TJ ET BT 519.008 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1939 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1991\); Sian Nicholas, )] TJ ET BT 215.996 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Echo of War: Home Front Propaganda and the Wartime BBC, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1939-45 )] TJ ET BT 107.012 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 203.984 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 203.984 560.739 m 257.972 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Hendy, )] TJ ET BT 134.336 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life On Air: A History of Radio Four)] TJ ET BT 313.340 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 391.988 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 391.988 546.483 m 445.976 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although this is a history of British broadcasting published in Britain the American form of ?progam? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?license fee? is used throughout.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 240.644 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 240.644 517.971 m 294.632 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See in particular the work of John M. MacKenzie \(as author and editor\); )] TJ ET BT 413.936 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Popular Imperialism and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Military, 1850-1950)] TJ ET BT 161.348 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 167.684 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperialism and the Natural World)] TJ ET BT 337.688 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 344.024 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperialism and Popular Culture)] TJ ET BT 505.028 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Propaganda and Empire)] TJ ET BT 183.344 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, all Manchester University Press.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 345.320 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 345.320 475.203 m 399.308 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scannell and Cardiff.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.328 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.328 460.947 m 220.316 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 436.085 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 417.103 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 399.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 399.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1079)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 397.929 m 328.316 397.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 372.952 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.552 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5476)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.152 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 203.9837 561.0535 257.9717 572.9335 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 391.9877 546.7975 445.9757 558.6775 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 240.6437 518.2855 294.6317 530.1655 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 345.3197 475.5175 399.3077 487.3975 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 166.3277 461.2615 220.3157 473.1415 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 398.2435 328.3157 410.1235 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1079) >> endobj xref 0 49 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000559 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000005033 00000 n 0000005142 00000 n 0000005252 00000 n 0000005361 00000 n 0000008922 00000 n 0000009050 00000 n 0000009134 00000 n 0000009239 00000 n 0000018744 00000 n 0000018774 00000 n 0000018902 00000 n 0000018938 00000 n 0000018968 00000 n 0000019095 00000 n 0000019131 00000 n 0000019161 00000 n 0000019289 00000 n 0000019325 00000 n 0000019355 00000 n 0000019483 00000 n 0000019519 00000 n 0000019584 00000 n 0000027691 00000 n 0000027775 00000 n 0000036071 00000 n 0000036101 00000 n 0000036229 00000 n 0000036265 00000 n 0000036384 00000 n 0000041981 00000 n 0000042109 00000 n 0000042164 00000 n 0000042292 00000 n 0000042347 00000 n 0000042475 00000 n 0000042530 00000 n 0000042658 00000 n 0000042713 00000 n 0000042841 00000 n 0000042896 00000 n 0000043024 00000 n trailer << /Size 49 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 43120 %%EOF