%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140418045939+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140418045939+01'00') /Title (The Revolutions of 1989) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3372 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Revolutions of 1989)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The idea of writing a contribution to Routledge's "Rewriting Histories" series on the Revolutions of 1989 ten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years after the event was certainly a good one, and Vladimir Tismaneanu, the editor of )] TJ ET BT 452.252 330.347 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(East European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics and Societies)] TJ ET BT 137.348 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was an obvious choice to assemble the contributors. Tismaneanu writes an excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, which sets out clearly many of the dilemmas which require to be addressed. He reminds us, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the cynicism of the intervening decade, of the enthusiasm with which these revolutions were greeted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both in Eastern Europe and beyond its confines. It is difficult to argue with the notion that "these revolutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented the triumph of civic dignity and political morality over ideological monism, bureaucratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cynicism and police dictatorship" \(p. 1\). Equally he is right to stress that, at the beginning of 1989, there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little evidence that the whole edifice that was Eastern Europe was about to collapse. As Tismaneanu noted: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("if there is a main moral of the great revolutionary drama that unfolded in Eastern Europe in 1989, it is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history is never a one-way avenue and that the future is always pregnant with more than one alternative" \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(108)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 March, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vladimir Tismaneanu)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415169496)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Swain)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7000 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So far, then so good. Having set the scene, Tismaneanu explains that he has brought together seminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyses of the revolutions of 1989 and their aftermath, which will, he hopes help students "to avoid any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myopic simplifications as well as unfounded speculative generalisations" \(p. 5\). Four more narrow ambitions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are then advanced: to explain the marginalization of the first post communist elites, the recovery of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former communists, the ethical confusion of post communism, and the rampant cynicism among the citizens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Eastern Europe in more recent years. Few would argue with this list; the problem for Tismaneanu is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not all the fifteen pieces he has selected, all previously published elsewhere, do not address these issues very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the dilemmas for any student of Eastern Europe is whether to adopt a country by country approach or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to deal with the countries en masse. Tismaneanu makes clear in his introduction that he has decided not of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopt a country by country perspective. He does so even though he concedes himself that "it cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denied that in all the countries that used to be referred to as the Soviet bloc, the once monolithic order was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replaced by political and cultural diversity" \(p. 6\). Later he goes on to assert: "while the structural causes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communism's collapse were similar, the dynamics, rhythm, and orientation of these revolutions depended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a large extent on local conditions" \(p. 9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This last phrase is particularly telling. What made historians address the diverse countries of Eastern Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a common unit was communism; with its collapse the logic for such an approach disappeared. Diversity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triumphed over monolithism, and Tismaneanu should have followed the logic of this through. While a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country by country approach risks being rather scrappy, the countries concerned group themselves quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neatly into Central Europe and the Balkans. The first section of Tismaneanu's collection, "Causes", works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite well, since the starting point for the collapse of communism in each country was similar; but in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent sections the decision to stick with a common approach results in the inclusion of a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions which are excessively general. The book works when a common approach works, and fails )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when a common approach fails.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two articles address the central issue of why communism collapsed in Eastern Europe. The better of the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the very first essay, Daniel Chirot's "What happened in Eastern Europe in 1989?". Students will find his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simple explanation of communist economics easy to understand; political will, he stresses, was ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the primary determinant of economic action, a political will based on the world view of Lenin and Stalin. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Students will similarly relate with ease to his colourful assessment of the Soviet Union, "the world's most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advanced nineteenth century economy, the world's most inflexible rust belt" \(p. 22\). Chirot's case is simple: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the economies of the Eastern Bloc began to be reformed in the seventies and eighties little was done to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eliminate the rigidities of the Stalinist system, but much was done to exacerbate corruption, increase political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cynicism and create a debt problem. The result was widespread malaise, to make the system work everyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had their own little fiddle; all this created "a sense that they were living a perpetual lie". \(p. 28\) When the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crunch came, people simply stopped pretending that the system worked.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having filled in the background, Chirot turns to the role of Gorbachev and puts him centre stage: "in the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was the reason revolution came in 1989 rather than in the 1990s; but sooner or later it would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happened"\(p. 36\). Gorbachev allowed the Poles to agree to round table talks and allowed the Hungarians to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open the border with Austria. This had a profound impact on the elites of Eastern Europe: without the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(external framework imposed by the Soviet Union the elites lost confidence in their own legitimacy and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral basis of communism collapsed. As Chirot puts it, in another eye catching phrase, the explanation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the collapse of communism is "utter moral rot" \(p. 38\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other essay in the opening section "Causes" is "Amidst Moving Ruins" by Leszek Kolakowski. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprisingly given Kolakowski's preeminence in Soviet scholarship, this a wide-ranging piece which also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(singles out the role played by Gorbachev; he it was, Kolakowski argues, who sapped the elite's confidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by constantly repeating that fundamental yet ill-defined changes were urgently needed. However, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of Kolakowski's main arguments is to take scholars to task for not predicting the collapse of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communism, his sparkling intellect takes him on towards new problems. His final fascinating remarks relate )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7004 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to the collapse of communism but to its disappearance from history. He expresses concern at the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history is being rewritten and a new official gloss put on events. Accepting that "self deception is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary part of life" \(p. 62\), he nevertheless worries about the fact that "one sometimes has the impression )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that through the decades of communism the population consisted of a handful of miserable traitors and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mass of noble rebels" \(p. 61\). The reality was rather different. Most people adapted and survived. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kolakowski is rightly concerned that politicians in Eastern Europe prefer to gloss over the communist past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an aberration and link the present to the inter-war past. He concludes: "it is difficult and unpleasant to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include communism in the continuous course of the national past because then the nation as a whole must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carry the burden of responsibility... It is nice to live with the innocent conscience of the rape victim" \(p. 62\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A similar point is made later in the collection by Tony Judt in his "1989: an End to which Era". However )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tempting it is to erase the communist era from the public record, he states, that would be wrong: "in Eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, as in Western Europe something important happened in the years 1939-89" \(p. 171\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tismaneanu's collection begins to drift with the second section "Meaning". It is sometimes difficult to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how this differs from "Causes". S. N. Eisenstadt in "The Breakdown of the Communist Regimes" sees 1989 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a rebellion against societies perceived as blocking and distorting modernity. Timothy Garton Ash in "The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Year of Truth" stresses that by the late 1980s the regimes no longer mobilised anyone, although they could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still prevent "the public articulation of shared aspirations and common truths".\(p. 112\) These are astute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions, but add little to earlier contributions. Jeffrey Isaac's "The Meanings of 1989" is more reflective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and tries to explore what it meant to be a liberal in Eastern Europe in 1989. He usefully reminds a student )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience that the dissidents of pre 1989 Eastern Europe were not liberals in the American sense: when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organising civil society against the state they did not have any interest in party politics. Havel, he reminds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers was close to western extraparliamentary groups such as CND and argued that Soviet totalitarian was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a particularly grotesque version of modern society in general. This tradition of civil disobedience and "anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political politics" made the dissidents rather strange liberals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section on "The Future" is the weakest of all. The strongest piece is "The Leninist Legacy" by Ken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jowitt; but as the title suggests this concentrates on what was inherited form the common past and therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works within the common approach. Jowitt's points are important, although expressed in a rather jargon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laden style. "The Leninist experience in Eastern Europe reinforced the exclusive distinction and dichotomic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antagonism between the official and private realms"; well in Eastern Europe people were turned off politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and did retreat into their private worlds, and, as Jowitt does point out, the relevance of this for "the future" is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there was in the communist past no shared political identity as citizens. Very soon after the thrill of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution had died and former aparatchiks had carved a new life for themselves in the new order, a majority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of citizens in the new Eastern Europe retreated into the safety of their private lives and have stayed their, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeply suspicious of all politicians who claim to act in their name.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other contributions to this section suffer from being overly general. Only in passing does Jacques )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rupnik, in "The Post-Totalitarian Blues", addr Where is the discussion of social democracy? The social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democrats of Eastern Europe are not just post communists; in Central Europe social democrats have done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much to limit the market and restore the essential safety net of a welfare state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are some excellent articles in this collection; within individual essays there are perceptive insights; but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall the quality is decidedly patchy. The decision to avoid the country by country approach works well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the "Causes", but thereafter works to the disadvantage of the reader. Authors cover the same ground in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their introductions, and then make rather general points, almost always including references to the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union, as well as Eastern Europe, and often ranging across countries as distant as South Africa and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Argentina. This makes interesting journalism, or even historical journalism, but prevents issues being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed in depth. The opportunity to celebrate in style the tenth anniversary of the 1989 revolutions has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been missed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 61.711 526.499 1.500 re S endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 550 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/108)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 795.075 m 322.316 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.098 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/679)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 795.3895 322.3157 807.2695 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/108) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000526 00000 n 0000000608 00000 n 0000004032 00000 n 0000004141 00000 n 0000004251 00000 n 0000004360 00000 n 0000007921 00000 n 0000008049 00000 n 0000008133 00000 n 0000008198 00000 n 0000015251 00000 n 0000015316 00000 n 0000022373 00000 n 0000022457 00000 n 0000023059 00000 n 0000023187 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 23282 %%EOF