%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 30 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140418061120+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140418061120+01'00') /Title (The Bengal Delta: Ecology, State and Social Change, 1840-1943) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4257 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Bengal Delta: Ecology, State and Social Change, 1840-1943)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an unusual book in terms of the range of its discrete and varied chapters. Its strongest continuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes are ecology and the Sundarbans. Despite an occasional lack of context and connection, each section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is of interest, and some are original and thought-provoking.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We start with the ecology of the Gangetic delta, and the ways Indian rural populations have been discussed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by others. Dynamism is a consistent theme, in particular the importance of shifting, alluvial land-forms. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other key issues include features of colonial agrarian policy and the importance of its initially slight but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing knowledge and reach, and, secondly, the possibly-related emergence of rich peasants, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pre-history of their alleged prominence after the 1930s depression. Later, worsening communal feeling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the same time is briefly discussed \(pp. 187?8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The argument hinges partly on ?anomalies? produced by variations in effective state knowledge and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capacity. Iqbal thinks this idea gives insufficient weight to Indian agency. But one might see that as central; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, more important, anomalies imply rules and trends. As I have previously claimed )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.964 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.964 105.369 m 459.956 105.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 459.956 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, indeterminate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(zones of authority and a panoply of exceptions existed, over different peoples, practices and areas, despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British claims to absolute sovereignty; and yet the trend )] TJ ET BT 305.000 78.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(was )] TJ ET BT 326.672 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards standardization.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is relevant to Iqbal?s second chapter, on state policy towards wasteland and alluvial lands, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1083)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 30 April, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iftekhar Iqbal)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230231832)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Robb)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 445.9637 105.6835 459.9557 117.5635 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 9081 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favourable revenue or rental terms used to encouraged land reclamation, both for ?actual cultivators? and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superior landholders \()] TJ ET BT 139.328 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hawaladars)] TJ ET BT 196.004 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Such arrangements were very common, from the earliest expansions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultivation in the eastern delta; but here is an important addition to our understanding of land-management. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the Sundarbans are presented rather as the norm. Examples, on policy, include a preference on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(diara)] TJ ET BT 60.020 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(alluvial\) lands for temporary settlements and for )] TJ ET BT 301.976 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(khas )] TJ ET BT 326.972 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(state\) management through contractors; a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general desire \(p. 25\) to bring as much land as possible under direct government control; and an emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maximizing land revenue. This book links such policies to a political-ideological rejection of the permanent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement, and a lack of attention to existing rights.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My understanding is that, though much of this is true, its broader contexts need more nuance. First, )] TJ ET BT 512.972 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(diara)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lands, often rich and cultivable, were managed according to prevailing conditions, including existing rights. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book notes the lack of powerful intermediary groups in the eastern delta; arrangements were different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where such groups dominated the countryside. Secondly, it is true that )] TJ ET BT 374.312 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(diara)] TJ ET BT 400.316 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, created and taken away by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action of rivers, posed a fundamental difficulty for a land-system based on permanence. \(Nitin Sinha is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working on this.\) River action also led to disputes over boundaries and jurisdiction between British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provinces. Regulation XI of 1825 tried to ensure that alluvium was settled with the estate to which the river )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?awarded? it; but it might equally be returned to another if the river ?gave it back?. It was an obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confusion that led to attempts \(some described in this book\) to award temporary leases. Bengal?s higher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revenue authorities generally tried to represent these as a step towards permanence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirdly, behind these immediate conundrums, there )] TJ ET BT 285.320 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(were)] TJ ET BT 308.648 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( new ideas about revenue policy, marked by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closer, less rule-bound administration of the temporary )] TJ ET BT 300.644 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(raiyatwari)] TJ ET BT 351.320 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( settlements, or of the village and co-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parcenary settlements encouraged by Metcalfe?s famous image of village communities and theories about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(castes and tribes; and some officials did manage to apply these ideas in Bengal, including it seems in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sundarbans; but the possibilities for doing so were limited, and risky politically. )] TJ ET BT 422.012 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Khas)] TJ ET BT 446.684 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( management was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often regarded as undesirable, sometimes even when reclamation was needed. As Palit \(not cited here\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote, of the aftermath of resumption proceedings in Nadia district, ?the pious wish of promoting cash crops )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by rent control was given up and over assessment led to the sale of resumed estates?. Though resumption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was useful in providing information, )] TJ ET BT 212.672 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(khas)] TJ ET BT 234.668 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( management was dropped, and ?a further row over landlord rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(... avoided?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 92.336 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 92.336 386.163 m 106.328 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 106.328 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Adjustments also followed a )] TJ ET BT 249.320 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(zamindari)] TJ ET BT 297.992 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( backlash in the great rent debate of the 1870s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1880s, and in the 20th century. Pro-landlord policies, though hotly contested, did not periodically vanish. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hence, in permanently-settled areas, both )] TJ ET BT 236.300 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(khas)] TJ ET BT 258.296 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( management and temporary settlement directly with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(raiyats)] TJ ET BT 67.352 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were ?anomalies?, needing explanation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, revenue considerations did not always trump all others, even in the extended battles from the 1830s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to resume )] TJ ET BT 84.008 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lakhiraj)] TJ ET BT 122.012 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(rent-free\) holdings for the revenue-roll. In the 1830s scheme to encourage reclamation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Sundarbans \(chapter two\), the terms were one quarter of the area permanently rent-free, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remainder free for 20 years, subject a quarter of the land being under cultivation within five years. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlines the emphasis placed, above )] TJ ET BT 221.312 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(short-term)] TJ ET BT 271.976 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( revenue gains, not only on politics but on development.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In these respects Iqbal?s book does not always engage fully with wider policy debates. Discussing actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agrarian conditions, it cites polemics from the great rent law debate, including )] TJ ET BT 411.956 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(zamindari)] TJ ET BT 460.628 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( special-pleading. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On tenurial rights and issues relating to so-called resident \()] TJ ET BT 316.976 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(khudkashta)] TJ ET BT 371.636 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and non-resident \()] TJ ET BT 465.944 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pahikashta)] TJ ET BT 518.612 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) status, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it claims occupancy )] TJ ET BT 132.332 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(raiyats)] TJ ET BT 165.668 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( generally enjoyed fixed rents \(p. 36\), though occupancy as defined in 1859 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again in 1885 conferred a right of possession; one of the longest-running arguments was about ways to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensure it was not nullified by unfair rent increases.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iqbal?s third chapter turns to production and well-being. The picture is slightly blurred by reliance on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of British observers, all convinced of the benefits of free trade and by the Board of Revenue?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistent animus against )] TJ ET BT 159.680 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(zamindari)] TJ ET BT 208.352 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( market-dues based on transactions rather than ground-rents. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suitable scepticism is shown over the optimism of the Dufferin report \(1888\) regarding the reasonable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfort of the semi-landless and a paucity of landless labourers. It is suggested that, despite lower mean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temperatures than on the inland plains, high humidity encouraged malaria and cholera epidemics, worst of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all for women kept in seclusion \(perhaps an echo of the miasma theory of disease\). Finally, reclamation )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 92.3357 386.4775 106.3277 398.3575 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7937 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced larger populations into areas vulnerable to flooding and cyclones.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand, this book endorses the relative prosperity, low indebtedness, and lack of socio-economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiation that others also have found in the eastern, deltaic districts of Bengal, later contributing to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerging Muslim middle class. The book provides a pre-history of these conditions, which cannot have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared from nowhere. The delta, it argues, was ecologically suited to rice and jute; price competition and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reclamation opportunities enhanced many cultivators? independence. Though )] TJ ET BT 409.280 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(zamindari)] TJ ET BT 457.952 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( influence was felt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socially, there were few very wealthy families but large numbers \(many Muslims; also Namasudras and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others\) engaged in reclamation and benefiting from jute production. The region experienced high population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth, not only from inward migration, but from live births, the availability of work for family members, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, probably, improved nutrition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four is most concerned to take a new look at the Fara?izi movement, showing its adherents? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic grievances coinciding with their religious ideals, at times overriding them in protests that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and non-communal in nature. One interesting conjuncture is between Hajji Shariatullah?s religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objection to paying certain dues to \(Hindu\) )] TJ ET BT 243.656 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(zamindars)] TJ ET BT 293.660 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the interests of those being coerced into growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indigo. Conversely, lack of resistance in the Sundarbans is ascribed to its moderate and accommodating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landholding regime.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter starts with the old canard about Bengalis? want of the physical and mental stamina needed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resist outsiders. It seems the wrong assertion to refute: there was plenty of resistance in Bengal, but more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting, in fact considered here, is the shaping of diverse forms of resistance by experience and socio-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political influences. In Bengal, armed attacks on British rule \(and criminality\) occurred at all periods, but so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did support from powerful, self-interested people co-opted by money, jobs and ideas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The short account of Fara?izi organization, communications \(pp. 70?2\) and methods \(for example against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indigo planters, pp. 77?8\) would be interesting to compare with those of other socio-religious protest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements, such as the so-called Indian Wahhabis. There are salutary reminders, finally, of the pitfalls of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial categorization, in the officials? lumping together of diverse protests under the title ?fara?izi?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though George Campbell?s ?encouragement? of Fara?izi claims for occupancy rights and fair rents \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(81?2\) would have benefited from a wider discussion of his views on land reform.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is no reason to doubt Iqbal?s conclusion that peasant opposition effectively forced indigo production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of Bengal proper. There is no puzzle about its continuing in Bihar. Not due to distance or ignorant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultivators \(p.79\), it is explained by )] TJ ET BT 208.004 323.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(raiyats)] TJ ET BT 241.340 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( acquiescing in temporary allies against greedy landlords; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of profitable alternative crops until other prices rose; the coercive power of indigo factories and agents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under )] TJ ET BT 64.340 294.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(thikadari )] TJ ET BT 111.344 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(usufructuary\) leases; collusion between European officials and planters \(despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former?s sometime pro-tenant leanings and the latter?s ?voluntary? promises of good behaviour\); and finally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the immense influence of the great zamindars in Darbhanga, Champaran, and Saran.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consistently suspicious about ?autonomous? classes, I have argued, at least since the mid-1980s, against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggerated notions of the isolation from rural affairs of the Bengali )] TJ ET BT 364.952 225.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bhadralok)] TJ ET BT 414.284 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(?respectable people?\) ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?these Calcutta residents with their foreign ideas were not after all cut off as a separate sect in a land made of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate sects?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 107.984 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 107.984 195.603 m 121.976 195.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 121.976 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( I was therefore happy to find Iqbal?s chapter five arguing against placing this educated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class ?squarely in the urban milieu, implying a gradual decline of their rural connections in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial period?, alongside the rise of an ?autonomous? rich peasantry. He suggests the )] TJ ET BT 456.272 168.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bhadralok)] TJ ET BT 505.604 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?an active force in the agrarian relations of eastern Bengal? \(p.93\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In my arguments, I had thought of landownership, or work as estate managers, lawyers and publicists, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as continuing ties to natal villagers and smallholdings. A recent London PhD thesis )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 460.328 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 460.328 112.323 m 474.320 112.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 474.320 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( illustrated keen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bhadralok)] TJ ET BT 83.348 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( involvement in ideas, events and organizations for agricultural improvement, from the 1870s to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1930s. Iqbal provides valuable insights into both these perspectives, and extends them significantly. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stresses the importance of the images of ?Sonar [golden] Bengal?, its decline, and potential, as aspects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(swadeshi)] TJ ET BT 78.020 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(own-country\) movement of the early 20th century. He describes an influx of ?upper-class? Hindus )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 107.9837 195.9175 121.9757 207.7975 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 460.3277 112.6375 474.3197 124.5175 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 8590 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Muslims into the active deltaic areas, where they had previously been scarce, and how significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers engaged directly in agriculture, in some cases with official British encouragement, through training )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a new focus on self-sustaining holdings \(larger than average for )] TJ ET BT 362.936 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bhadralok)] TJ ET BT 412.268 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( farmers\) rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial enterprises. )] TJ ET BT 151.652 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bhadralok)] TJ ET BT 202.316 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( acquisition of occupancy rights and a rise in sharecropping, Iqbal claims, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were also permitted by provisions in law and policy allowing the transfer of agricultural holdings, and by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure of legislation to protect ?actual cultivators?, as also discussed at length in my )] TJ ET BT 441.632 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ancient Rights and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Future Comfort)] TJ ET BT 109.688 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 112.688 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 112.688 709.539 m 126.680 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 126.680 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The occupancy )] TJ ET BT 205.652 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(raiyat)] TJ ET BT 234.320 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and hence )] TJ ET BT 288.632 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bhadralok)] TJ ET BT 337.964 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( positions were entrenched, as others also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have shown, by revisions of the tenancy laws in 1928 and 1938. Many of these people, Iqbal claims, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not just newly-rich peasants but newly ?peasants?. Their power was consolidated through credit networks, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including those of the cooperative societies ? often liable to capture by elites, as I and others have suggested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for earlier periods and elsewhere, and here, according to Iqbal, effectively ?a project for the rehabilitation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bhadralok)] TJ ET BT 101.012 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p.113\). The actual cultivators suffered, terribly in the 1943 famine.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next chapters turn to railways and water, and then to weeds, making one feel one has strayed into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape populated by Elizabeth Whitcombe. Her celebrated diatribe on colonial agrarian policy, )] TJ ET BT 507.908 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Agrarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conditions in Northern India)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.368 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.368 583.491 m 191.360 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.360 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not cited, though reference is made to Ira Klein?s contemporaneous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article linking railways and disease. After a few rather discursive pages, ranging from Marx and Gandhi on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernization to obscure early pamphlets proposing railway lines, we reach the nub: rivalry between water )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and rail transport, with the latter receiving attention and resources, and the economic and ecological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of railway construction in the delta. The broad picture is familiar enough, of squabbles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between experts and departments, and lack of attention to indigenous knowledge and conditions, though a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more nuanced account might have spent more time on changing opinions ? here about interruptions of water-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flow when railway and road embankments were built with insufficient culverts or attention to the natural fall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the land. It is easy to find arrogance and, with hindsight, grave errors; further probing often reveals people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who fully appreciated complexities and dangers. Standing in for that here, we have some bullish lectures by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engineers, sandwiched between contrary articles in )] TJ ET BT 281.612 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 331.280 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 1846 and 1922. Case studies then document )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adaptations of policy from the first experiences of flooding: the early Sealdah-Goalundo line was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructed with hardly any outlets for water, but 2,000 lineal feet of openings were added between 1868 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1885, and a further 400 after 1890.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The view of officialdom may be over-simplified, but the overall consequences remain: deleterious effects on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agriculture and health. All these railway embankments \(the Assam line is also discussed\) created formidable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obstacles to drainage, causing water-logging, damage to standing crops, interruptions of the agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhythm, and disease. Similarly, the Hardinge bridge at Sara required embankments to channel water and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restrain the river from wandering across the plain. After works were completed \(1915\), the impact was felt in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flooding and other disturbances over hundreds of square miles above and below the bridge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven is a catalogue of the woes caused by the Amazonian water hyacinth that arrived in Bengal in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late 19th century, and by the 1920s was clogging the water channels. There ensued a debate between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some scientists and the agricultural department, who believed the weed could become a useful fertiliser, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others including the government of Bengal, with an eye to the revenue perhaps, who were anxious to see it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eradicated, while also admitting they could not mount a campaign of the necessary scale. None of the means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available and tried was effective, not legislation \(including a strong but muddled Bengal Act of 1936\), nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the various attempts to spread awareness and encourage efforts by members of the public.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The economic consequences cannot be precisely measured, as is admitted. \(No attempt is made to weigh the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harm from embankments against the benefits earlier attributed to trade.\) But the disasters were introduced to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bridge the gap between the growing if partial prosperity described earlier, and the deprivation and poverty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described in chapter eight, where they are explained by a halt to the extension of cultivation \(in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(districts\) and a decline in intensity \(productivity per acre\), relative to population, features observable also in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other parts of India, from the 1920s. Data on productivity are often dubious, and the subject of great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversy, but a crisis in the making is suggested by somewhat more robust demographic information. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iqbal adds a litany of decline: waterlogging and hyacinths, but also salinity, and disease in crops and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humans. Increases in cultivated area in many districts \(Khulna, Dhaka, Rajshahi, Mymensingh\) either did )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 112.6877 709.8535 126.6797 721.7335 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 177.3677 583.8055 191.3597 595.6855 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 8197 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not keep ahead of migration, or brought poorer, more vulnerable lands under the plough.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Large imports of Burma rice, which related to price, and to changes in milling and marketing in Bengal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(considered here, pp. 173?4\), nonetheless testify to a continuing ability to buy food, at least for some. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Therefore, the next argument is that the availability of work also declined, partly due to the changing ratio )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between rent-receivers and sharecroppers from the 1920s, also observed in most other parts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subcontinent \(strongly in Sindh and Punjab\). By the 1940s, in Bengal, 29 per cent of the agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population were sharecroppers, subjected by occupancy )] TJ ET BT 304.940 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(raiyats)] TJ ET BT 338.276 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( determined to maintain or increase their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take. Iqbal attributes some blame to the state?s ?alienation? from the cultivators and its greater pretensions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of agrarian conditions. I suspect the changes derived from politics and political will, and that we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are seeing the logic of the 1885 Tenancy Act, deliberately favouring ?entrepreneurial? occupancy-holders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over ?actual cultivators? as the best agents of growth, and providing secure tenures that invited indebtedness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(as here\) as much as investment, but hence opportunities for local and especially ?agricultural? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moneylenders, from eastern Bengal to Bihar. Revenue officers on )] TJ ET BT 352.280 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(khas mahals)] TJ ET BT 411.944 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( may or may not have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more zealous than other intermediaries in collecting dues from impoverished cultivators; but it was not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference between permanently and temporarily-settled areas that mattered, as claimed, but the local mix of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, ecology, output, and vulnerability. The 1943 Bengal famine still needs specific explanations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A final section considers nutrition and disease. Eastern Bengal suffered a decline in the nutritional value of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rice normally consumed, and in the availability of fish \(hyacinth again, and rivers drying up, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompaniment of increased malaria\). In regard to disease, if its role in famine deaths has been neglected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(though a later theme of Whitcombe and known to demographers\), it is not really considered here, most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evidence being earlier. Malaria was controlled ineffectually, with initially feeble anti-larval measures and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acute rather than prophylactic use of quinine. In the case of cholera, despite long recognition of the need for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanitation and uncontaminated drinking water, even quite large-scale efforts \(it is said\) did not keep pace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the declining ecological conditions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s conclusion claims its special contribution is to emphasize the environment. That is indeed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistent theme, and a welcome one. Claiming a continuity of some policies, conditions and problems from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the colonial era into present-day Bangladesh, Iqbal concludes that it is necessary to understand ?the state?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adjustment to changing social power? and the ?plurality of social forces? \(p.192\). These seem important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of the task yet to be completed. Hinted at also is the antagonism between modernization and ecology. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At best a descant to the book?s themes, that too is obviously a subject worth investigating.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 281.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Robb, 'The colonial state and constructions of Indian identity: an example on the North-East )] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frontier in the 1880s', )] TJ ET BT 172.508 267.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Asian Studies)] TJ ET BT 278.504 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 31, 2 \(1997\), 245?83.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.824 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.824 265.875 m 441.812 265.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 253.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chittabrata Palit, )] TJ ET BT 148.352 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tensions in Bengal Rural Society: Landlords, Planters and Colonial Rule \(1830-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1860\))] TJ ET BT 92.012 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1998\), pp. 54?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 220.664 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 220.664 237.363 m 274.652 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 224.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Robb, )] TJ ET BT 123.680 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Evolution of British Policy towards Indian Politics, 1880?1920)] TJ ET BT 448.700 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Delhi, 1992\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(94.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 79.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 79.016 208.851 m 133.004 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 195.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sanjukta Ghosh, 'Colonial State, Agricultural Knowledge Transfers and Indigenous Response: Bengal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presidency 1870-1930' \(PhD thesis, University of London, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 379.484 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 379.484 180.339 m 433.472 180.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Robb, )] TJ ET BT 123.680 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ancient Rights and Future Comfort: Bihar, the Bengal Tenancy Act of 1885 and British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rule in India)] TJ ET BT 126.680 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Richmond, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 220.676 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 220.676 151.827 m 274.664 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Whitcombe, )] TJ ET BT 174.332 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Agrarian Conditions in Northern India)] TJ ET BT 361.688 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf 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