%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 29 0 R 40 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141025074903+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141025074903+01'00') /Title (The Efflorescence of Caricature: 1759-1838) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4209 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Efflorescence of Caricature: 1759-1838)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?International, intergenerational, and interdisciplinary? \(p. xv\) is how Porterfield positions this ambitious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection which analyses caricature between 1759 and 1838. A product of a conference of the same name, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the essays it contains fulfil this remit admirably whilst attempting to explain the rise of caricature. Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Porterfield writes in his introductory offering, these essays seek to loosen the study of caricature from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodoxies of satirical print scholarship, and one suspects from the canonical texts of the field familiar to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars of the long 18th century. This is not to say that those canons are rejected, rather )] TJ ET BT 460.940 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Efflorescence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Caricature)] TJ ET BT 99.020 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( foregrounds the vibrancy and variety of current research in this area, not least by moving away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the anglocentric narratives of anglophonic scholarship and the assumptions they contain. Thus in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire to ask new questions of this source material alone, the collection represents a far from insignificant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Porterfield?s opening essay then, as good editorial pieces should, offers the theoretical framework within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the collection operates. Not that it seeks to constrain the contributions that follow; ?no single line of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking was imposed on our authors? \(p. 2\) he writes. Nonetheless his disrespect for ?some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodoxies of caricature? \(p. 2\) is a central to the volume as a whole. The progressive teleology of Early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Modern symbols and signs becoming disentangled in the late 18th century and replaced with ?the uncoded, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truthful, and transparent? form of exaggerated physiognomy is rejected. So too is the positioning of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1084)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 June, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Todd Porterfield)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754665915)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Baker)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7085 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caricature as ?high art?s antithetical, sycophantic, and lowbrow other? and an agent of freedom acting with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscience directed towards a greater good. Moreover, and most provocatively, Porterfield states that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection will deny ?the claims that caricature succeeds, persuades, and communicates easily and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfailingly? \(p. 2\). These claims then have consequences for all scholars using satirical prints from this era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in their work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In place of these values, which tend, Porterfield suggests with some justification, to push scholars towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unidirectional metanarratives, three new areas of study are proposed ? the global spread of caricature; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production of caricature \(in respect to art, design and entertainment\); and the consequences of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efflorescence of caricature ? ?the nature and limits of its claims on art and society?. These areas are directed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards one singular aim, to understand whether and to what extent caricature in this period of study \(which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curiously remains within the orthodox ?Golden Age?\) succeeded in fulfilling its brief of communicating to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dominic Hardy?s essay on the caricatures produced by George Townshend whilst on military service in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quebec under General James Wolfe provides a fitting opening foray. Indeed the piece represents the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionist ethos of the collection in extremis. Townshend?s caricatures are not only unpublished sketches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but are shown to be deeply private affairs refracting the public vitality of graphic satire in London through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctly local concerns and discourses. The Wolfe of early 1759 is ?an effete, snivelling, latrine-obsessed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(womanizer?, ?a vindictive and cruel military commander? \(p. 11\), and a bloodthirsty Cromwellian protector; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a vision far removed from the martyr Benjamin West presented in 1770. By October 1759 of course, reports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Wolfe?s death at L?Anse-au-Foulon had crossed the Atlantic, as had news of the French surrender. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric of Wolfe?s victory in death allows Hardy a privileged insight into the impact of circumstance on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(function of caricature. Despite their brilliance Townshend?s caricatures remained in Quebec, never to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published, as, Hardy writes, ?they were inadmissible in the posthumous program of commemoration? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23\). This caution is not a sign of conservatism \(though it does demonstrate the medium was far from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belligerent agent of freedom\), rather it illustrates that although international in artistry and design, caricature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was deeply rooted in the local and the personal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pierre Wachenheim makes a convincing case for rejecting both anglocentric narratives and those which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasise the decline of emblem during the efflorescence of caricature. Here French caricature is shown as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indebted to early-modern Dutch artisans and traditions, and stepped in emblem throughout the second half of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 18th century and beyond. Reva Wolf approaches the figure of John Bull, and goes beyond Tamara )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hunt?s )] TJ ET BT 71.012 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defining John Bull )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 165.344 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 165.344 331.395 m 179.336 331.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 179.336 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by suggesting that caricature was embodied by John Bull. Hence with John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bull a symbol of English liberty on the continent, Wolf argues that foreign printers displayed an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of caricature and England as inseparable and mutually defining.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Douglas Fordham unpacks the cultural significance of James Gillray?s depictions of global courtly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounter. The artist, who was granted an audience with George III ?\(o\)n an unspecified day in late 1793? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 61\), adheres remarkably to the official sketches of William Alexander drawn during Lord Macartney?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience with the Chinese emperor in September 1793. However neither Gillray nor \(crucially\) Alexander )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had witnessed such encounters, and the former?s mock encounters \(Macartney in China, and ?Mahometan? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whigs in a fantastical court of George III\) present only what was expected of a royal audience. The courtly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounter, therefore, becomes a little more than a static setting for the absurd which was ?perfectly legible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within an ornamentalist visual tradition? \(p. 73\). Fordham?s is an intriguing and engaging close reading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this visual trope, emphasising both the problems and limitation of its communicative agenda, and usefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminating David Cannadine?s ?Ornamentalism? at its inception.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen Weston provides a close reading of the Lanternist in caricature, showing both professions as symbolic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminators of the enlightenment in post-revolutionary France. Complementing Weston and Wachenheim is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Taws? superb contribution, which demonstrates why both revolutionary and counter-revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caricature flourished in revolutionary France independent of English influences. As Taws writes:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 165.3437 331.7095 179.3357 343.5895 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6854 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(T\)he breakdown of traditional systems of patronage and display and the incentive to produce )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(art that referenced an ever-changing political scene meant that the production of established )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genres for the state exhibition of power ? history painting, monuments, and architecture in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular ? was difficult and often altogether impossible \(p. 96\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taws analysis focuses on the meaning of the )] TJ ET BT 251.312 703.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(assignat)] TJ ET BT 291.320 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the government bond turned revolutionary paper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currency, and how its literal instability as a regularly forged currency was utilised symbolically in satire. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royalist caricature in particular utilised the )] TJ ET BT 244.652 674.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(assignat )] TJ ET BT 287.660 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to accuse revolutionaries of gambling with the financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stability of the nation. Taws foregrounds therefore that efflorescence ?was not written solely by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(winners?, and moreover that efflorescence was not attached exclusively to liberalisation. The chapter, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hardy?s, also shows that narratives of local imperatives need not act in conflict with those of international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transmission \(rather narratives of anglocentric international transmission\). One print in particular, a partial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(copy of James Gillray?s )] TJ ET BT 152.660 603.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(French Liberty / British Slavery)] TJ ET BT 305.984 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with trompe-l'?il )] TJ ET BT 391.808 603.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(assignat )] TJ ET BT 434.816 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(additions, unfolds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through close reading into a document of significant analytical value. As Taws writes:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An image of the French mediated via the work of a British artist for a German audience, this )] TJ ET BT 64.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(print speaks to the confluence of caricature and paper money across international borders, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unequivocally situates the )] TJ ET BT 191.672 522.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(assignat )] TJ ET BT 234.680 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as central to discourses of consumption, dearth, and bodily )] TJ ET BT 64.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decrepitude in Revolutionary France\(p. 108\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion Taws suggests that caricature possessed, albeit briefly, genuine cultural currency in post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary France, and hence significant communicative efficacy. This problem of communicative or, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more specifically ?persuasion?, is picked up by Mike Goode. Goode identifies influencing public opinion as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British caricatures brief, and seeks to question the assumption of their success: ?\(t\)hat caricatures to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some extent actually realised this brief?, he writes, ?has been an article of faith among scholars of the form? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 117\). Drawing influence from, among others, Michael Baxandall, Bendict Anderson, and Jane Austen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Persuasion)] TJ ET BT 88.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Goode argues that caricature essentially lacked persuasion as the taxonimising of society it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traded in eroded that very taxonomy. Instead as caricature displayed society as a set of types, caricatures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interacted with the public by offering a precedent for society to order itself by type.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 329.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final three contributions each take further novel approaches to this problem of communicative success. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Patten ponders the value of seeking knowledge in order to appreciate caricature, and asks whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars might be better served by looking at and drawing conclusions from signifiers found across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caricature. The pyriform shape, he demonstrates, shares meaning in the caricature of Charles Philipon and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Cruikshank, but more broadly allows us to read difference between English and French caricature. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patten?s methods might seem speculative, yet as he usefully concludes:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 220.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But even if, upon closer study, we were to find my conclusions inadequate, we would at least be )] TJ ET BT 64.016 206.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussing signifying shape and recognizing that certain shapes had powerful associations that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crossed frontiers and morphed into successive images ripe with visual, literary, political, social, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ideological resonance to different observers in different cultures \(p. 154\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christina Oberstebrink examines the posthumous reputation of James Gillray, and considers whether he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 124.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualified for Charles Baudelaire?s definition of ?modern?. Positioned at the battle between ancients and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 110.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderns, Gillray, Oberstebrink writes, was an ideal modernist ? a portrayer of the everyday, and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 96.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginative transgressor of artistic strictures. Finally Sgolne Le Men foregrounds the )] TJ ET BT 456.620 96.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Muse de la )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(caricature)] TJ ET BT 84.008 82.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published between 1834 and 1838. This ?panorama of six centuries of French visual satire? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 67.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(175\) is illustrative of a culture of antiquarianism yet one stubbornly anti-elitist which ?comes to function as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 53.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an anti-museum of French history? \(p. 188\). Le Men demonstrates, therefore, the ability of caricature to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7904 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resuscitate and reinvigorate alternative perspectives upon a shared national past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Remarkably for an edited volume, the text is free of typographical errors and stylistic inconsistencies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Particular praise must be given to the editorial team for placing detailed descriptions alongside each figure, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though regrettably consistency in information provided is not always strictly observed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 450.308 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 450.308 740.307 m 464.300 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 464.300 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( On two occasions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 41, 84\) this reader felt an omission of prints crucial to the discussion hindered the clarity of argument. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On one occasion \(p. 53, fn 10\) a reference crucial to further investigated is absent. The bibliography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a significant tool for any researcher either acquainting themselves with or revisiting the field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caricature, though the omission of a few volumes is regrettable \(notably those by David Alexander on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caricaturist Richard Newton, Mark Bills )] TJ ET BT 229.988 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Art of Satire)] TJ ET BT 310.328 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and Gatrell?s )] TJ ET BT 382.976 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(City of Laughter )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 465.320 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 465.320 669.027 m 479.312 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 479.312 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Finally the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(index is welcome and well focused addition, allowing the reader to browse across contributions with ease.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The summaries I have presented here are far from complete. Various complexities, contentions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytical pathways have been omitted for the sake of brevity. The richness of this collection cannot, I fear, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be captured in the present review. Nonetheless what strikes one when considering the contributions on offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a whole is how their sheer diversity, driven, we might speculate from Patten?s conclusions, by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciation that ambitious work can be fruitfully wrong, forces us to abandon assumptions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communicative efficacy of caricature. Efflorescence this volume tells us does not unproblematically indicate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There remains however a thunderous silence respecting the realities of reception and the influence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumer on the processes of production. The majority of surviving caricatures used by scholars for analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the past were, after all, printed and sold into a commercial environment receptive to graphic satire \(I make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a deliberate distinction here ? caricature is an artistic form; graphic satire a commercial output, typically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though not exclusively, containing input from caricature forms\). This commercial environment was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detached from the processes of production, both artistic and technological. Graphic satire then did not exist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a vacuum. The making of graphic satire by both artist and publisher could not have occurred without the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What )] TJ ET BT 63.008 392.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Efflorescence of Caricature)] TJ ET BT 196.328 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( does not do then is approach these problems with clarity, nor does it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat ironically for such a radical collection of essays, reconsider a number of orthodoxies surrounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reception, production, and commercial environment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Repeatedly commercially minded interpretations are underdeveloped. Fordham, in conclusion, enters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graphic satire into the ?world of commodities? \(p. 74\), suggesting that Gillray?s power as a maker of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commodities complemented his abilities as a caricaturist in securing him an audience before the King. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly Taws describes )] TJ ET BT 158.336 294.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?Homme aux assignats )] TJ ET BT 279.332 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1791\) as a print which was ?very successful, and served )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a model for many subsequent caricatures? \(p. 97\). It is unclear however how its role as a marker of a shift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in counter-Revolutionary caricature from book-based publication to single-sheet satire is evidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?success? \(especially as the tenor here is of commercial success\). Goode opens his contribution with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starkly positivist statement regarding the value of ?visual caricatures? ? they were as important in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transforming the public sphere as novels and newspapers; they were part of ?everyday political and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life?; their audience was unproblematically British; they responded to events with rapidity; and they shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?social attitudes and current political events as they unfolded? \(p. 117\). Given Porterfield?s introductory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarks, such statements, based largely on those classic texts \(notably M. Dorothy George and Diana )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald\) whose orthodoxies the volume seeks to problematise, are jarring. Problems of cost and geography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are not considered with respect to audience; methods of production are not considered with respect to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapidity of response \(the process of production could not be achieved overnight like newspapers\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence over attitudes \(volume of production was limited by the fragility of materials; dissemination was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited by print presses differing from standard newspaper presses, and therefore only proving cost-effective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in peculiar commercial environments\). Elsewhere Goode favours abstract analysis over the commercially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclined, satires depicting print shop window scenes are read here as ?metacaricature? \(pp. 124?5\); a less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretically inclined scholar might simply define them as advertisements. The suspicious eye is also drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the argument that ?caricatures arguably sought to transform viewers? minds by stimulating their senses in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 450.3077 740.6215 464.2997 752.5015 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 465.3197 669.3415 479.3117 681.2215 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 7414 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways not entirely dissimilar to Romantic drug use? \(p. 132\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover Goode?s piece highlights the seemingly unproblematic consideration of audience and public as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undercurrent to the volume \(see pp. 133, 163\). Wolf, for example, states when discussing a French print )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which obviously, at the expense of artist fluidity, copies the image of John Bull from that in Gillray?s classic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(French Liberty / British Slavery )] TJ ET BT 190.340 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1792\) that ?\(t\)he borrowing is so blatant that it must have been intended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be obvious to viewers of the French print? \(p. 51\). This is abundantly clear. Yet quite apart from this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statement relying on the power of English caricature \(a position the volume and the previous chapter by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wachenheim reject\), no consideration is given to who these ?viewers? might be, or if these viewers existed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside the sphere of artistic self-referencing and quotation. There is then in the volume an assumption of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience homogeneity present which is unstated but at the same time uncontested.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reliance on James Gillray \(and for the later period George Cruikshank\) as a synecdoche for English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caricature perhaps best exemplifies the volume?s continued attachment to a number of orthodoxies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, who are more inclined towards menial tasks such as counting, have begun to question. In terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artistic quality Gillray was without equal. But as scholars such as Alexander, Gatrell, and this reader )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 518.936 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 518.936 585.747 m 532.928 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have demonstrated, there was a huge output and variable trade dynamic which existed outside of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gillray/Humphrey paradigm. Indeed we might even venture to suggest by analysing London?s multifarious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Golden Age satirical printsellers that Gillray?s process of production was far from representative of the trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These problems can best be traced to Porterfield?s opening comments where he states:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Our volume makes major inroads into the growing question about whether caricature succeeds )] TJ ET BT 64.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in its brief, in the )] TJ ET BT 149.348 451.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(social and artistic work)] TJ ET BT 263.024 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that it is assigned to do \(p. 6; my emphasis\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps this is focus on the social through the artistic is hardly surprising; the contributors are, after all, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn from the fields of Art History and English literature studies. Without doubt the perspectives these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplines provide have proved crucial to the radical rejection of various orthodoxies this collection must be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applauded for undertaking. Yet satirical prints at present find their way into various works whose period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enquiry touch on this Golden Age of caricature \(here we need only consult the covers of many monographs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in recent years\). And one suspects that although historians will be compelled by the questions this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume asks of the orthodoxies the canonical texts of Golden Age satire rely upon, they will be less satisfied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the answers this volume provides. The disappointment with this otherwise highly commendable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection then comes from failing, despite a self-proclamation of interdisciplinarity, to address the problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of production, sale and environment a historian might expect to find during the course of its much needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical reappraisal of caricature. Our understanding of communicative efficacy would surely be richer if, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite the absence of traditional sales and business records, we developed new strategies of socio-economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis to complement those novel strategies with respect to representation which this volume expertly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.867 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 162.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tamara Hunt, )] TJ ET BT 133.664 162.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defining John Bull: Political Caricature and National Identity in Late Georgian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 147.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England )] TJ ET BT 107.684 147.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Aldershot, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 196.004 147.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 196.004 146.595 m 249.992 146.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 133.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 133.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless the volume is closer to achieving the standardisation of image descriptions encouraged by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 119.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ludmilla Jordanova than most volumes; see Ludmilla Jordanova, 'Image Matters', )] TJ ET BT 460.964 119.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal)] TJ ET BT 101.348 105.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 51, 3 \(2008\), 777?91.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 210.668 105.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 210.668 103.827 m 264.656 103.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 90.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 90.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Alexander, )] TJ ET BT 152.324 90.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Richard Newton and English Caricature in the 1790s)] TJ ET BT 408.668 90.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, 1998\); Mark )] TJ ET BT 64.016 76.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bills, )] TJ ET BT 92.696 76.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Art of Satire: London in Caricature )] TJ ET BT 287.708 76.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2006\); and V. A. C. Gatrell, )] TJ ET BT 472.352 76.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(City of Laughter: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 62.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sex and Satire in Eighteenth-Century London)] TJ ET BT 283.004 62.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.328 62.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.328 61.059 m 418.316 61.059 l S endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 518.9357 586.0615 532.9277 597.9415 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 196.0037 146.9095 249.9917 158.7895 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 210.6677 104.1415 264.6557 116.0215 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 364.3277 61.3735 418.3157 73.2535 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 1171 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Baker, 'Isaac Cruikshank and the notion of British Liberty: 1783?1811' \(PhD thesis, University )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Kent , 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 140.336 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 140.336 780.819 m 194.324 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 736.975 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 719.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 719.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1084)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 717.801 m 328.316 717.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 692.824 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5495)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 140.3357 781.1335 194.3237 793.0135 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 718.1155 328.3157 729.9955 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1084) >> endobj xref 0 46 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000559 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000004902 00000 n 0000005011 00000 n 0000005121 00000 n 0000005230 00000 n 0000008791 00000 n 0000008919 00000 n 0000009003 00000 n 0000009087 00000 n 0000016225 00000 n 0000016255 00000 n 0000016383 00000 n 0000016419 00000 n 0000016484 00000 n 0000023391 00000 n 0000023482 00000 n 0000031439 00000 n 0000031469 00000 n 0000031597 00000 n 0000031633 00000 n 0000031663 00000 n 0000031791 00000 n 0000031827 00000 n 0000031932 00000 n 0000039399 00000 n 0000039429 00000 n 0000039557 00000 n 0000039593 00000 n 0000039721 00000 n 0000039776 00000 n 0000039904 00000 n 0000039959 00000 n 0000040085 00000 n 0000040140 00000 n 0000040231 00000 n 0000041455 00000 n 0000041583 00000 n 0000041638 00000 n 0000041766 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41862 %%EOF