%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 36 0 R 63 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140725204622+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140725204622+01'00') /Title (Master and Servant Law: Chartists, Trade Unions, Radical Lawyers and the Magistracy in England, 1840-1865) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4402 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Master and Servant Law: Chartists, Trade Unions, Radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Lawyers and the Magistracy in England, 1840-1865)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The activities of W. P. Roberts, the 19th-century ?miners? attorney-general?, has long been a subject of great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest to labour historians. His significance for the history of British trade unionism was perhaps most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly highlighted first in Raymond Challinor and Brian Ripley?s history of the Miners? Association, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in 1968, and then Dr. Challinor?s full-length biography, which appeared in 1990.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 473.300 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 473.300 222.033 m 487.292 222.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 487.292 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Roberts, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solicitor from Bath, traveled throughout northern England during the mid 19th century defending workers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous master and servant cases. His victories in many of these cases were feted by trade unionists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excoriated by local magistrates. When he died in 1871, the )] TJ ET BT 318.632 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Newcastle Courant)] TJ ET BT 410.972 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reminded its readers that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roberts? services had once been ?eagerly solicited ? in all cases arising out of differences between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employers and employed?. He was ?a bold advocate?, the paper recalled, ?and his frequent collisions with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bench became, in his prime, almost a feature of newspaper reading?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Christopher Frank?s new book, Roberts? activities are examined once again although this time through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lens of a compendium of cases he fought against the summary jurisdiction of magistrates over disputes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involving the law of master and servant. These legal battles occurred not only against the background of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more general debate over the efficacy, extent and legitimacy of the summary jurisdiction of magistrates, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also against the background of the Chartist movement during the 1840s. Given this confluence of events, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1085)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 June, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Frank)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754668305)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(292pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farnham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Jaffe)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 473.2997 222.3475 487.2917 234.2275 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7378 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was thus ample enough legal and political space for someone of Roberts? ?characteristic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pertinaciousness?, as the )] TJ ET BT 155.324 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Newcastle Courant)] TJ ET BT 247.664 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( characterized it, to help successfully maneuver many of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clients through the mid-century judicial system.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The legal terrain of 19th-century master and servant law has been well-documented thanks most notably to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the earlier work of Douglas Hay and Robert Steinfeld, among others. The 1823 Master and Servant Act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided for criminal sanctions of up to three months imprisonment for a variety of breaches of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment contract. Although it is not exactly clear why, protests against these penal sanctions were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively muted for the two decades following the passage of the Act.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.616 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.616 683.283 m 384.608 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 384.608 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, as Steinfeld notes, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal terrain shifted in the 1840s and 1850s. At that time, common law courts adopted much more expansive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of the law not only to cover more workers but also to limit employers? obligation to fulfill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment contracts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These new circumstances found Roberts at the center of the trade unions? legal struggle against both masters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and magistrates. In a series of cases, his most common tactic was to apply for writs of certiorari and habeas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corpus in an attempt to bring the cases before the Queen?s Bench. As Frank ably demonstrates, before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage of the Jervis Acts in 1848?9, which standardized many legal forms, the courts held magistrates to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very high standard when they issued warrants of commitment and declared convictions. Very often, Roberts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was able to secure a review of these cases based upon mistakes, omissions, or other ?technicalities? and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereby quash the magistrates? convictions and sentences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author?s focus upon the active role of trade unions and solicitors is therefore complemented by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the response of magistrates to the courts? actions in striking down many summary convictions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drawing heavily upon the weekly journal )] TJ ET BT 236.648 475.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Justice of the Peace)] TJ ET BT 332.288 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Frank illustrates the degree to which local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magistrates registered their confusion and annoyance over the uncertainties surrounding the extent of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurisdiction in master and servant cases and the requirements necessary to secure a conviction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a broader context, the author?s analysis of Roberts? cases rests less upon any significant revision of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received legal history of the Master and Servant Act than upon the specific legal and rhetorical tactics that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were deployed during the fight against them. Here Frank shows that the resistance to the Act drew upon a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of shared beliefs, many of which were counted as among the rights and liberties of freeborn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Englishmen. Foremost among these was the right to a trial by jury, but labour?s litigation efforts also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought into sharp relief questions about the impartiality of the law and the composition of the magistracy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, labour?s campaign against the Act coincided with the Chartist movement of which Roberts was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading figure. He was arrested, imprisoned and hounded by the authorities throughout the early 1840s, ran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a Chartist candidate for MP in the 1847 general election, and was a close associate of both John Frost, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leader of the 1839 Newport Rising, and Feargus O?Connor. Frank is certainly right therefore to draw direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(links between Roberts? activism in legal cases and Chartist demands for the rights of labour. However, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an analysis may have been usefully expanded here to include some discussion of Roberts? role in the broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade union movement of the period. Thus it remains unclear, for example, the extent to which Chartism?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts to promote the nationwide affiliation of local unions were reflected either rhetorically or tactically in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roberts? legal efforts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is perhaps a bit hyperbolic to argue, as the author does, that organised labour?s role in promoting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustaining the legal attack upon the law of employment contracts during the 1840s and 1850s has gone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely unnoticed by previous historians. It is perhaps fairer to say that with the notable exception of Robert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steinfeld?s work, labour and trade union historians have often avoided any sustained analysis of both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific cases and the governing case law of this period. Therefore, Frank?s account of the organised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to the 1844 Master and Servant bill, for example, provides an important corrective and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed recovery of several important employment cases is a welcome addition to the literature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, one must be careful not to too baldly overstate the case for the uniqueness of these events, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially since trade unions? resistance to the inequities of the employment law were noticeable across a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very broad legal front and over a very long period of time. Indeed R. G. Kirby and A. E. Musson argued )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 370.6157 683.5975 384.6077 695.4775 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8163 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very convincingly many years ago that the struggle for the repeal of the Combination Acts owed as much, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not more, to the organised pressure of trade unions than it did to the parliamentary tactics of Francis Place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and others.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.672 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.672 766.563 m 100.664 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 100.664 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And, in this long struggle, legal counsel was not wanting. In London during the first decade of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 19th century, Francis Const and Mr. Knapp repeatedly appeared before both magistrates and sessions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judges defending combinations of pressmen and compositors, tailors, carpenters, journeymen curriers, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boot-makers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.004 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.004 723.795 m 110.996 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 110.996 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Moreover, it may also be suggested that not all of labour?s legal struggles over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment contract occurred before magistrates, petty sessions, or the common law courts. Other legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(venues were equally accessible to both workers and employers and were equally the sites of conflict over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these issues. In London, Birmingham and elsewhere, for example, courts of request tried many employment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases often in the guise of actions for debt. As with the combination laws, such litigation efforts were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new to the 1840s. Well before then, unions such as the London compositors of the 1820s and 1830s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged and supported such legal action before the courts of request. Indeed, as Malcolm Chase rightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested some years ago, the study of the early decades of the law?s impact is perhaps in much greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need of examination than its later years.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 225.644 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 225.644 609.747 m 239.636 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 239.636 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Therefore, while the extent and publicity of Roberts? actions may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been unique in the 1840s, he was indeed following in the footsteps of many who had gone before him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and whose efforts have yet to be fully appreciated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the book focuses on the efforts of Roberts, the author makes clear that during the 1840s Roberts? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts were complemented by others who also took up employment cases. Attorneys and barristers in many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of the country worked to defend employees from prosecution and free them from imprisonment. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether this was the result of a surfeit of ?briefless barristers? or ?pettifogging attorneys? is not an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important issue here although those charges were certainly hurled against Roberts and others who defended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers against their masters in the courts. Perhaps the most interesting of these men, however, were two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London barristers, W. H. Bodkin and John W. Huddleston, both of whom regularly appeared before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Queen?s Bench in actions initiated by Roberts. It is unfortunate that an explanation of this linkage is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed further. It appears that both men were called to the bar by Gray?s Inn and both were noted for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their expertise in poor-law cases, as was Francis Const, incidentally. Bodkin was perhaps most well-known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for his active participation in the Society for the Suppression of Mendicity and his actions there marvelously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lampooned by Thomas Hood in his )] TJ ET BT 206.012 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ode to H. Bodkin, Esq.)] TJ ET BT 317.000 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Perhaps even more interesting is the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both Huddleston and Bodkin served as Conservative MPs, Huddleston for Canterbury and Norwich and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bodkin for Rochester. Moreover, both received knighthoods under Conservative administrations: Bodkin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the Earl of Derby?s administration in 1867 and Huddleston in 1875 during Disraeli?s tenure as prime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minister.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the subtitle indicates, a fundamental argument of this book is that ?radical solicitors? were essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agents both in the efforts to fight the master and servant law in the courts and to educate trade unionists as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their inequitable status before the law. However, considering the political orientation of two of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(active barristers involved in many of these cases, perhaps the story presented here is a more complex one. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roberts was certainly an important and influential Chartist, but he also appears to have had many strange )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bed-fellows whose repeated participation in these cases merit further examination. Interestingly, as Mark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Curthoys has pointed out, Huddleston was also one of the few Conservative MPs who campaigned in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support of labour law reforms during the 1874 general election.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 338.624 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 338.624 215.091 m 352.616 215.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although followed by almost two decades of relative quiescence after the repeal of the Combination Acts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the master and servant law certainly eventually provoked some of labour?s most grievous and vociferous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complaints. Frank?s detailed excavations of local press accounts adds a valuable dimension to this legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history and the author?s efforts to contextualize Roberts? cases are, as I have noted, most welcome. That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being said, however, those looking for a broader history of the laws and their effects may be somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointed. The focus upon Roberts and his activities necessarily directs attention to the application of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law in the industrial north: Lancashire, the West Riding, Staffordshire, and the north-eastern coalfield. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a large area, of course, but it is also an area that witnessed significantly higher absolute numbers as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rates of prosecution than much of the rest of the country.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One is therefore left to ask again a rather old question: Why was this form of coerced labour more popular )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 86.6717 766.8775 100.6637 778.7575 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 97.0037 724.1095 110.9957 735.9895 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 225.6437 610.0615 239.6357 621.9415 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 338.6237 215.4055 352.6157 227.2855 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 9281 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here than elsewhere? Many years ago, Daphne Simon suggested that the master and servant law was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily the tool of the small master.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.672 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.672 780.819 m 229.664 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 229.664 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( To some extent, this is true for portions of the industrial North, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it does not fully explain the law?s equally extensive application in Durham and Northumberland during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1840s where large capitalist enterprises dominated the coal industry. It also has been argued by many, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the author of this book, that the composition of the magistracy changed during the early nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century when a new generation of magistrates with significant ties to manufacturing interests replaced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(older landed and clerical elites. Yet in Durham and Northumberland, the trends are much more complex than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that. On the north side of the Tyne, coal-owners appear to have been a constant presence on the bench )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the early 19th century and there seems to have been no significant change in the composition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the magistracy during this period. In Durham, however, the composition and social function of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magistracy frequently was a source of conflict among the county elites. John Buddle, Lord Londonderry?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colliery manager, for example, complained of the presence of clerical magistrates on the bench who, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(midst of the 1825 miners? strike, ?are really only fit for attending to the filiating of Bastard Children and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other parish business; but quite unfit for carrying the Law into effect in times of commotion amongst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turbulent bodies of Colliers?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 174.008 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 174.008 595.491 m 188.000 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 188.000 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Robert Lee suggests that the turning point in the history of the Durham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magistracy may not have come with industrialization, but instead came about with the curtailing of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bishop of Durham?s palatinate powers as )] TJ ET BT 236.648 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(custos rotulorum)] TJ ET BT 318.320 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1836 and the subsequent appointment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Londonderry as Lord Lieutenant in 1842.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.652 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.652 552.723 m 246.644 552.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, the extent to which master and servant law prosecutions were used as a method of intimidation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial disputes is still unclear.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 195.020 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 195.020 512.211 m 215.012 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 215.012 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There remains a significant gap in our understanding of why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosecutions for violations of the act were so high while imprisonments were relatively low. It is well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known that prosecutions under the Act numbered over 10,000 from the date at which national statistics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became available in the late 1850s. However, a parliamentary return of 1856 lists 2,427 persons convicted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and committed to prison for breach of contract in 1854 and 1,541 persons in 1855.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 429.296 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 429.296 455.187 m 449.288 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 449.288 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Not surprisingly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counties of Durham, Northumberland, Lancashire, and Staffordshire recorded the greatest number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisonment. In 1854, these counties accounted for almost 39 per cent of all of England?s commitments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in 1855 approximately 32 per cent.\) No one should diminish the significance of the numbers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convictions and commitments, but the discrepancy between the number of convictions and those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosecutions bears further examination and analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, Frank offers an often useful and sometimes very valuable discussion of Roberts, his trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union litigation, and the summary jurisdiction of magistrates in master and servant case in several northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counties during the 1840s. The detailed recovery of these master and servant cases in the local press is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much commended. However, broader questions concerning the impact of the law upon industrial relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more generally, the role of ideology, and the manifold differences in the regional and local application of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law still remain for others to answer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 252.867 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raymond Challinor and Brian Ripley, )] TJ ET BT 250.016 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Miners' Association: A Trade Union in the Age of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chartists)] TJ ET BT 108.032 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1968\); Raymond Challinor, )] TJ ET BT 293.696 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Radical Lawyer in Victorian England: W.P. Roberts )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and the Struggle for Workers? Rights)] TJ ET BT 243.680 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 325.004 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 325.004 192.339 m 378.992 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Steinfeld suggests that between the 1820s and 1840s trade unions were more focused upon the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enforcement of contracts that secured a minimum amount of work, while they accepted the law?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(penal sanctions as a given. See Robert J. Steinfeld, )] TJ ET BT 310.652 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Coercion, Contract, and Free Labor in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nineteenth Century )] TJ ET BT 160.676 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2001\), pp. 123?4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 308.324 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 308.324 135.315 m 362.312 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. G. Kirby and A. E. Musson, )] TJ ET BT 216.008 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Voice of the People: John Doherty, 1798?1854: Trade Unionist, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical, and Factory Reformer)] TJ ET BT 214.664 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, 1975\), pp. 34?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.964 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.964 106.803 m 415.952 106.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Place Papers, British Library Add. Mss. 27799; )] TJ ET BT 294.668 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 344.336 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 7 February 1803; 2 November 1804; 27 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(May 1806; 9 November 1810.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.000 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.000 78.291 m 262.988 78.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 65.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malcolm Chase, )] TJ ET BT 145.676 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Early Trade Unionism: Fraternity, Skill and the Politics of Labour)] TJ ET BT 466.352 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Aldershot, 2000\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 111.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.016 49.779 m 151.004 49.779 l S endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.6717 781.1335 229.6637 793.0135 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 174.0077 595.8055 187.9997 607.6855 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 232.6517 553.0375 246.6437 564.9175 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 195.0197 512.5255 215.0117 524.4055 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 429.2957 455.5015 449.2877 467.3815 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 325.0037 192.6535 378.9917 204.5335 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 308.3237 135.6295 362.3117 147.5095 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 361.9637 107.1175 415.9517 118.9975 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 208.9997 78.6055 262.9877 90.4855 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 97.0157 50.0935 151.0037 61.9735 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R ] /Contents 64 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Length 4361 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Curthoys, )] TJ ET BT 143.012 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Government, Labour, and the Law in Victorian Britain: The Trade Union Legislation )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the 1870s)] TJ ET BT 122.684 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2004\), p. 210.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.332 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.332 780.819 m 291.320 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daphne Simon, ?Master and servant?, in )] TJ ET BT 261.980 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Democracy and the labour movement: essays in honor of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dona Torr)] TJ ET BT 115.688 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. Saville \(London, 1954\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 264.344 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 264.344 752.307 m 318.332 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Durham County Record Office, D/Lo/C 142\(148\), Londonderry Papers, Buddle to Londonderry, 20 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(November 1825.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 144.668 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 144.668 723.795 m 198.656 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Lee, )] TJ ET BT 123.668 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Church of England and the Durham Coalfield, 1810?1926: Clergymen, Capitalists )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Colliers)] TJ ET BT 123.692 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge, 2007\), pp. 144?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.000 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.000 695.283 m 334.988 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malcolm Chase documents one such case in the Teesside iron trade in ??This Tremendous Conflict )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now Raging Between Capital and Labour?: Workers? Organisations on Teesside in the Mid-Victorian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Period?, )] TJ ET BT 106.676 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bulletin of the Cleveland and Teesside Local History Society)] TJ ET BT 398.660 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 60 \(Spring 1991\), p. 25. Many )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thanks to Professor Chase for providing me with a copy of his article.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 397.640 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 397.640 638.259 m 457.628 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentary Papers)] TJ ET BT 171.008 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1856 \(441\), ?Abstract of return of the number of persons summarily convicted )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and committed to prison in the several counties of England and Ireland, for breach of contract in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglecting work or leaving service, during each of the years 1854 and 1855?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 433.928 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 433.928 595.491 m 493.916 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy with this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 525.391 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 507.611 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 507.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1085)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 506.217 m 328.316 506.217 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 481.240 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.840 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5499)] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.440 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 237.3317 781.1335 291.3197 793.0135 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 264.3437 752.6215 318.3317 764.5015 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 144.6677 724.1095 198.6557 735.9895 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 41 0 R >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 72 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 280.9997 695.5975 334.9877 707.4775 ] >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 44 0 R >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 74 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 397.6397 638.5735 457.6277 650.4535 ] >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 47 0 R >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 433.9277 595.8055 493.9157 607.6855 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 50 0 R >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 78 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 506.5315 328.3157 518.4115 ] >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1085) >> endobj xref 0 79 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000615 00000 n 0000000704 00000 n 0000005158 00000 n 0000005267 00000 n 0000005377 00000 n 0000005486 00000 n 0000009047 00000 n 0000009175 00000 n 0000009259 00000 n 0000009288 00000 n 0000009416 00000 n 0000009452 00000 n 0000009536 00000 n 0000016967 00000 n 0000016997 00000 n 0000017125 00000 n 0000017161 00000 n 0000017266 00000 n 0000025482 00000 n 0000025512 00000 n 0000025639 00000 n 0000025675 00000 n 0000025705 00000 n 0000025832 00000 n 0000025868 00000 n 0000025898 00000 n 0000026026 00000 n 0000026062 00000 n 0000026092 00000 n 0000026220 00000 n 0000026256 00000 n 0000026403 00000 n 0000035737 00000 n 0000035767 00000 n 0000035895 00000 n 0000035931 00000 n 0000035961 00000 n 0000036089 00000 n 0000036125 00000 n 0000036155 00000 n 0000036283 00000 n 0000036319 00000 n 0000036349 00000 n 0000036477 00000 n 0000036513 00000 n 0000036543 00000 n 0000036671 00000 n 0000036707 00000 n 0000036835 00000 n 0000036890 00000 n 0000037018 00000 n 0000037073 00000 n 0000037201 00000 n 0000037256 00000 n 0000037382 00000 n 0000037437 00000 n 0000037562 00000 n 0000037617 00000 n 0000037743 00000 n 0000042157 00000 n 0000042285 00000 n 0000042340 00000 n 0000042468 00000 n 0000042523 00000 n 0000042651 00000 n 0000042706 00000 n 0000042834 00000 n 0000042889 00000 n 0000043017 00000 n 0000043072 00000 n 0000043200 00000 n 0000043255 00000 n 0000043383 00000 n trailer << /Size 79 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 43479 %%EOF