%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818080311+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818080311+01'00') /Title (A History of the Cuban Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4079 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A History of the Cuban Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following an initial irritation, I found myself warming to this book. At first sight, it seems to uncritically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support the Cuban Revolution. However, as one progresses the tone becomes much more nuanced. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerges a basic sympathy for the aims and objects of the revolution, clearly announced in the introduction, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without hiding areas where Cuba has not lived up to these expectations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is difficult for a European audience to appreciate the level of venomous hostility towards Cuba displayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by US ?public opinion? and this is the author's starting point, explaining the divergence of public opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from scholarly attitudes. Thus, most US and Cuban scholars see the relationship between the USA and Cuba )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as being dominant, while most politicians and journalists used to see Cuba as a cats-paw for the USSR and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now the last vestige of a defeated system. This comes, she argues, from different views of the concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?freedom?, with one side of the debate interpreting this as ?free enterprise?, while the other side stresses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notions of ?national independence?. Therefore, given the widely received wisdom in the USA that Castro is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last of the Stalinist dictators with no redeeming features, there must be a great temptation to bend the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stick, and it will probably be useful for American teachers to have the Cuban side of the argument expressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply and without rhetoric. This could be particularly useful as the anti-Castro view is given a fair hearing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the process.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The weakest part of the book is the section leading up to the victory of the rebel forces in January 1959, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1088)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 June, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aviva Chomsky)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781405187732)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiley-Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chichester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steve Cushion)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7839 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several unfortunate formulations and simplifications which could lead to confusion if this was the only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source used. However, this merely serves as an introduction to the principal )] TJ ET BT 400.616 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(raison d'etre)] TJ ET BT 461.516 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the book, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improves considerably as it proceeds chronologically.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second chapter is entitled ?Experiments with socialism? and considers the relationship between politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and economics in the years up to the fall of the Soviet Union. The overwhelming importance of the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States blockade of the island clearly emerges here and the approach of linking politics and economics works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well. In particular, the section entitled ?Cuba in the 1970s: how it worked? explains simply but in sufficient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail the balancing act between state control of the economy and small scale market incentives, always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(running back and forth along a sliding scale. This came to an end with the 1986 Rectification Campaign and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book presents the opposing views of this episode. Was it a hard-line crack-down in response to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(perestroika)] TJ ET BT 88.676 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 112.004 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(glasnost)] TJ ET BT 152.012 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in Russia or was it a return to the roots of the revolution to avoid the growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inequality, poverty and corruption in the failing USSR? This is the book at its best, presenting both sides of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the debate in a manner that will be useful for teachers wishing to provide students with the wherewithal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reach their own rational conclusions. Less useful is the section on democracy which, rather than explaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the political system actually functions, contents itself with a criticism of the lack of democracy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(US system. While many would agree with this assessment of the US version of democratic procedures, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardly advances our understanding of the Cuban version of politics, which is far more complex than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simple dictatorship so dear to the world view of the Miami exiles, Fox News and the CIA. There is a later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section on ?Political culture? which does give a much fuller explanation of the fascinating way politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works in Cuba. In this instance, Luis Suarez of Havana University is cited to advance the explanation from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cuban perspective and this is a good example of the way in which the book uses less widely known scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to introduce students to voices outside the western mainstream. The editor would have been well advised to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have moved that section further forward and to have deleted the irrelevant criticism of US politics, for that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country's record in its dealings with Cuba is sufficiently shameful to need no embellishment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The history of the implacable hostility displayed by the US government towards revolutionary Cuba is well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known. Nevertheless, the details of the twists and turns, the use of economic and military action and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outright support for terrorism still makes shocking reading when outlined in chronological order. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little attempt at balance here and I would argue that this is justified, given the fact that most of the anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castro action had to be done in a covert fashion as it was extreme even by the standards of right-wing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America. There is nothing new in this section of the book, but it is useful to have it all in one place. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, we can clearly see the relationship between periods of heightened US hostility and Cuban internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repression of dissent, as a siege mentality developed. This is brought into the 21st century with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appointment of James Cason as head of the US Interests Section, as the pseudo-embassy is known. His role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in financing dissidents is probably less well known, particularly in the USA, the country whose interests he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is supposed to be representing. The book uses Cason's activities to illustrate how US interference has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hindered rather than helped democratic reform in Cuba by giving the impression that those engaged in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demanding change are traitors and pawns of imperialism. This discussion leads in turn to a consideration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the contradictions between freedom and repression that co-exists in Cuban art and culture, comparing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasting the imposed orthodoxy of the ?four grey years? of the 1970s to the opportunities and spaces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided by the film institute ICAIC. These developments are placed in an international political context and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereby become more explicable, even to those who disapprove.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These cultural restrictions sent many artists and sports personalities into exile. Some seeking the possibility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of greater expression, others, particularly the athletes and baseball stars, seeking the economic advantages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not available to them in Cuba. The book contains an interesting discussion of migration which, after all, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the author's specialities. In addition to the standard arguments about exporting dissent, it treats the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject to a wider ranging enquiry, placing Cuban emigration in its regional context, pointing out the way in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Cuban migrants are treated so much more favourably by the USA than other )] TJ ET BT 435.944 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Latinos)] TJ ET BT 471.956 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Thus the 1962 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Migration and Refugee Act allowed virtually all Cubans to obtain refugee status on entering the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States. This compares unfavourably with, for example, Salvadorians and Guatemalans fleeing right-wing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death squads in the 1980s. However, when the Cuban government opened the port of Mariel to any who )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7233 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wished to leave, US hypocrisy was revealed as they immediately put on pressure for the port to be closed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The question of migration leads to a discussion of Cuba's role in Africa. It is useful to compare the Cuban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army's role in Angola and Mozambique, with its activities in Ethiopia. In the former case they inflicted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeat of the South African Defence Force, which is widely credited with playing an important part in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final overthrow of the Apartheid state. Conversely, their involvement in Ethiopia was to help shore up an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpleasant dictatorship that just happened to be allied with the Soviet Union.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa leads on to a discussion of the question of ?race? in Cuba. There is practically no common ground )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between those like Terry Coleman and Johnetta Cole, who see the problem of racial discrimination being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practically solved, compared to Carlos Moore who stresses what he sees as the marginalisation of black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cubans.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.016 654.771 m 87.008 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 87.008 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Both viewpoints are fairly stated, but the writings of Alejandro de la Fuente are used to give a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more nuanced and balanced view by crediting the state with projects that created significant opportunities for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black people, while pointing out that racial inequalities returned during the ?Special Period?; a period when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the previous progressive work on the subject of diversity generally was undone by harsh economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?Special Period? merits a chapter of its own; the story of the way in which the Cuban revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survived the fall of the Soviet Union, wounded but still in existence. The contradictions resulting from this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle for survival are spelled out in detail, the increased inequality and the growth of prostitution are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasted with the efforts to maintain the health and education infrastructure in the face of a situation she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes as a classic structural adjustment programme, but without the loans to sustain it. On the one hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we see the corrosive effects of dollarisation and tourism, with the resulting internal ?brain drain? whereby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly trained engineers and medical staff found better economic opportunities in foreign owned hotels. On )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other hand, the system survived against all the odds and despite the dire predictions of the western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(media.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Understanding the Special Period is indispensable to a sensible analysis of the Cuba of today. The treatment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here is inevitably brief, given the size and scope of the book, but it does give an introduction and overview, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the author has an interesting way of challenging received wisdom. I particularly like the way she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expresses the economic relationship with the old Soviet Union. Rather than speaking of the Russians buying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cuban sugar at inflated prices to subsidise a satellite, she speaks of ?fair trade?, arguing that the USSR paid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cuba a price for sugar that reflected the true cost of producing it; a much more understandable definition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(properly ?fair trade? than the rather woolly notion currently in use by the large supermarkets.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed this ability to express matters in a way that questions standard assumptions more than compensates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the stylistic inadequacies which I bemoaned earlier. When discussing the seemingly intractable problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of dealing with the dual currency, she explains that some see the convertible peso as a tax on enterprise and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the economic restrictions as a punishment that is visited upon those who have profited from the new, semi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalist, economy which has developed as the country emerges from the Special Period. However, others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see these measures as an important means to attempt to restore a measure of equality. The discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminds us that the oft-repeated refrain, that the development of an entrepreneurial middle class is a positive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development, is not unchallenged. There is an alternative point of view which sees that middle class as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grasping petit-bourgeoisie overly concerned with their own material advancement and lacking proper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feelings of solidarity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such diametrically opposed positions are typical of attitudes to Cuba and it is arguably always necessary to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be aware of an author's standpoint when considering their writings on the subject. I am not arguing that those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who espouse views contrary to those of the reader should be ignored, far from it, but that an understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that writing on Cuba is almost always politically charged and foreknowledge of the author's bias is useful in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making an assessment of the work. The author of this book writes from a position of obvious sympathy for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the aims and objects of the Cuban revolution, but combines this with an honest approach to the many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situations where the they have failed to live up to those expectations. This is combined with a nice eye for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictions and a balance in fairly outlining the arguments of those opposed to her views.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.0157 655.0855 87.0077 666.9655 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 2457 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Viewpoints / Puntos de Vista)] TJ ET BT 193.688 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series claims to ?introduce students to the most significant themes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics in Latin American History?. In the case of the Cuban revolution, this book fulfils that intent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears as a useful addition to the available teaching material. Its division in chapters that can stand alone, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based around the themes of economy and politics, relations with the United States, migration, culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity, the special period and Cuba in the 21st century, would allow teachers to use particular sections as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class material in a wide range of courses. Tighter editing for the next edition could make it more useful still.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.291 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 647.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carlos Moore, )] TJ ET BT 136.340 647.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Castro, the Blacks and Africa)] TJ ET BT 278.672 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Los Angeles, CA, 1988\); Johnnetta Cole, )] TJ ET BT 489.656 647.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Race toward )] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Equality: the Impact of the Cuban Revolution on Racism )] TJ ET BT 338.996 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Havana, 1980\), pp. 2?24.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 463.964 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 463.964 632.019 m 517.952 632.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 607.157 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 588.175 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 570.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 570.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1088)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 569.001 m 328.316 569.001 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 544.024 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 529.624 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5509)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 463.9637 632.3335 517.9517 644.2135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 569.3155 328.3157 581.1955 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1088) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000536 00000 n 0000000618 00000 n 0000004749 00000 n 0000004858 00000 n 0000004968 00000 n 0000005077 00000 n 0000008638 00000 n 0000008766 00000 n 0000008850 00000 n 0000008915 00000 n 0000016807 00000 n 0000016891 00000 n 0000024177 00000 n 0000024207 00000 n 0000024333 00000 n 0000024369 00000 n 0000024460 00000 n 0000026970 00000 n 0000027098 00000 n 0000027153 00000 n 0000027281 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 27377 %%EOF