%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818080830+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818080830+01'00') /Title (Communes and Despots in Medieval and Renaissance Italy) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3197 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Communes and Despots in Medieval and Renaissance Italy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This splendid volume of essays addresses the late Philip Jones?s seminal contribution to the historiography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of late medieval and early Renaissance Italy, and takes its title directly from his most well-known and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential article on the subject. Both the topic and the timing of this publication are propitious. Although it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is no exaggeration to say that Jones revolutionised scholarly views of the relationship between communes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?despotisms?, the editors rightly point out that the the challenge presented by Jones?s work on this topic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?has never been fully enough answered? and that ?debates over liberty and tyranny? have recently been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usurped by ?less ideological, more ?fashionable?? questions \(p. xvii\). As such, the essays in this collection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serve not only to mark the achievements of an outstanding scholar whose passing has impoverished the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of history, but also to provide a timely reminder of a fruitful and important field of study. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1089)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 June, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Law)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernadette Paton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754665083)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(368pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farnham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Lee)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8633 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1965, Jones published ?Communes and despots: the city state in late-medieval Italy?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 456.644 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 456.644 783.075 m 470.636 783.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 470.636 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Reprinted as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first chapter in this volume, this essay offered an entirely new understanding of Italian politics in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages and early Renaissance. In contrast to earlier scholars? tendency to distinguish sharply between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-governing communes and ?despotic? )] TJ ET BT 235.976 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signorie)] TJ ET BT 275.312 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Jones questioned the ease with which such a dichotomy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was indulged and drew attention to the often remarkable similarities which communal and despotic regimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shared.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Jones recognised, perhaps the most compelling reason for distinguishing between communal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despotic regimes can be found in the political literature of the period. Particularly during the war with Milan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1402, humanists in Florence developed ?a specifically Florentine folk-lore of republicanism?, and, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasting ?the sturdy democratic virtues of the Florentine business class? with the lordly nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Visconti )] TJ ET BT 77.684 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signoria)] TJ ET BT 117.692 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, drew the battle lines for the intellectual conflict which consumed later generations)] TJ ET BT 520.952 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 5\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, throughout the ?literary war? which raged between the 14th and 16th centuries, the communal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric of liberty stood opposed to the ?despotic? rhetoric of ?order, peace and unity?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But such rhetoric is perhaps deceptive. On the one hand, the apparently clear distinction between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republicanism and monarchism which stood at the centre of Hans Baron?s research on civic humanism tends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to break down under closer analysis, and it is to this issue that Robert Black?s paper turns.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.300 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.300 545.235 m 481.292 545.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 481.292 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Despite a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slight superficiality and a tendency to oversimplification \(especially in the case of Coluccio Salutati and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marsilius of Padua\), Black?s survey of Italian and Transalpine political thought demonstrates that while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchism and republicanism each enjoyed a vogue, ?contemporary experience? and ?an often extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of history? made political relativism a common position \(p. 59\). While Egidio Colonna and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coluccio Salutati lauded monarchy, and Brunetto Latini, Ptolemy of Lucca, and Marsilius of Padua )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embraced an ?[u]nqualified republicanism?, Black points out that Bartolus of Sassoferrato, Girolamo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Savonarola, and Niccol Machiavelli adopted more relativistic approaches, and omitted to endorse any one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of government as an ideal. Although Black?s argument would have been greatly strengthened with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more nuanced discussion of particular figures ? the contrast between Coluccio Salutati?s )] TJ ET BT 461.936 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De tyranno )] TJ ET BT 519.260 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1400\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his earlier defence of republicanism is, for example, completely ignored, while Marsilius of Padua?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism and ecclesiology are totally overlooked ? his article nevertheless illustrates the danger of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believing that the political literature of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance was dominated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutual opposition of communal government and despotic rule.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand, the stark opposition between communes and ?despotisms? suggested by political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature does not seem to have corresponded to political reality to quite the extent that one might suppose. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(High-flown rhetoric did not always find expression in action. ?Constitutional differences were?, Jones )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observed, ?no bar to common action by despotisms and republics? \(p. 5\), and it is striking that such crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts as )] TJ ET BT 92.000 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(libert)] TJ ET BT 124.004 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were often flexible enough to sustain a multiplicity of different ? and even contradictory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? meanings. As Christine Shaw shows in her detailed study of Renaissance Genoa, )] TJ ET BT 433.628 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(libert )] TJ ET BT 468.632 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was used at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various times to signify a freedom from dependence on a foreign lord, a constitution headed by a Doge, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a regime in which there was no Doge at all. The situation often appears paradoxical to modern eyes. In 1457, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Doge Pietro Campofregoso described the absence of a doge as a ?stato di libert?, and in 1547, the Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambassador, Gmez Surez de Figueroa noted that the Genoese attachment to their )] TJ ET BT 435.596 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(libertad )] TJ ET BT 476.600 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profoundly unwilling to accept Charles V ?como absoluto seor? \(p.178\). But, in 1395, Doge Agostino )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adorno argued that by submitting the city to the lordship of the king of France, the Genoese could maintain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their )] TJ ET BT 59.012 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(libert )] TJ ET BT 94.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 178\), and in 1488, an envoy sent to Duke Giangalezzo Maria Sforza was instructed to submit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Milanese rule by affirming that Genoa wished to live ?in pure and free )] TJ ET BT 387.944 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(libert)] TJ ET BT 419.948 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( under the tutelage of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duke? \(p. 185\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most strikingly of all, however, is the fact that the political realities of both communes and ?despotisms? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem to have belied their names. Although Leonardo Bruni was able to praise republican Florence as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?most prudent city? that was ?harmonised in all its parts? in 1403?4 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 362.648 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 362.648 79.299 m 376.640 79.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 376.640 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Jones astutely observed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?communal government, thought sometimes called )] TJ ET BT 281.996 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(democratia)] TJ ET BT 336.656 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, knew nothing of manhood suffrage? \(p. 6\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, ?[d]espite all constitutional checks and balances, power in the Italian clung obstinately to wealth, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 456.6437 783.3895 470.6357 795.2695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 467.2997 545.5495 481.2917 557.4295 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 362.6477 79.6135 376.6397 91.4935 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 5485 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and through all revolutions of political and economic regime, oligarchy in fact or law, was the predominant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of government? \(p. 6\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Observing that the term )] TJ ET BT 150.668 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popolo)] TJ ET BT 184.004 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( described a ?party?, but never the people as a whole, Jones stressed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?popular? regimes were consistently dominated by a restricted cabal of the wealthiest members of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prestigious guilds, and ultimately failed to restrain the power of the magnates. This issue is taken up to great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect by two of the papers in this volume, each of which extends and develops Jones? original point in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely revealing manner.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first, Daniel Waley uses an analysis of the use of sortition \(choice by lot\) to investigate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?constitutional procedures of an oligarchy? \(p. 27\). Perhaps unsurprisingly given the varied patterns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development in Northern Italy, the selection of communal officers was an often complicated process, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials could be chosen by nomination or election in any number of stages. Just one of the many processes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which were employed, sortition could be used either to elect an officer directly, or to select electors who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would subsequently choose from among candidates. As Waley observes, sortition was not always accorded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same role in each commune in which it was used, and no fewer than 29 different methods of election )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were employed in a sample of 16 communal regimes \(pp. 28?9\). But what is striking about the use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sortition among the communes which Waley examines is the extent to which it could counterbalance the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendency to restrict office-holding to a narrow and static group within an oligarchy. Although Jones was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly correct to highlight the oligarchic character of the communes, Waley shows that ?the cautious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of sortition in the selection of electors to office should be seen as a technique for achieving a certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree of democracy within an oligarchic regime? and served to ?spread political power within the body of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oligarchs? \(p. 32\). Despite avoiding any form of suffrage, sortition allowed the communes to limit the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dangers inherent to the dominance of a wealthy oligarchy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the second, Carol Lansing contends that the failure of popular regimes to contain the influence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(grandi )] TJ ET BT 69.020 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not so much a matter of error as of calculated judgement. Despite the profusion of anti-magnate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislation in the communes during the late 13th and 14th centuries, disenfranchised nobles gradually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returned to positions of political influence. As Lansing argues, the communes seem to have recognised that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobles were essential to effective government: anti-magnate legislation sought not to exclude magnates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely, but to move magnate conflict from the streets into the courtroom. At the same time, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonization of the magnates in the rhetoric of communal statutes served to legitimise the autonomous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority of the commune itself \(pp. 36?8\). Of course, this is not to say that the nobles did not commit the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent outrages which the statutes were officially designed to tackle, but Lansing convincingly uses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records of denunciations made by country dwellers to the Florentine Executor of the Ordinances of Justice to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate that the continuity of such violence was part of a calculated strategy \(pp. 38?45\). Challenging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interpretation of Christiane Klapish-Zuber, Lansing suggests that ?magnate violence could be a way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforce informal lordship? \(p. 40\), and that the use of rape, arson, and physical assault was an effective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way ?to dominate a rural population? \(p. 45\), in a manner which was arguably to the benefit of the commune )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 9213 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the communes were far from being either republican or democratic, the ?despotisms? were, Jones argued, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarly far from being tyrannical regimes \(p. 6\). Indeed, as the late Benjamin Kohl argues in a typically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich and nuanced paper, the very idea of the ?despot? is misplaced in the context of the Italian )] TJ ET BT 487.580 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signorie)] TJ ET BT 526.916 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the Greek word )] TJ ET BT 159.992 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(despotes )] TJ ET BT 204.320 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(known principally from Aristotle?s )] TJ ET BT 380.300 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics)] TJ ET BT 416.972 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and its Latin cognate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(despoticus)] TJ ET BT 84.680 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were familiar to Italian writers by the 14th century, and were used by William of Ockham and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marsilius of Padua, Kohl observes that term ?despot? ? with its connotation of dominion over slaves ? was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never used to describe )] TJ ET BT 143.984 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signori)] TJ ET BT 177.992 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The identification of the Italian )] TJ ET BT 336.968 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signorie )] TJ ET BT 379.304 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with despotism seems instead to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been a consequence of 19th-century scholarship: anachronistically superimposing contemporary value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgements on Renaissance politics, John Addington Symonds? )] TJ ET BT 344.012 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance in Italy: The Age of the Despots)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1875\) and Samuel G. C. Middlemore?s translation of Jacob Burckhardt?s )] TJ ET BT 436.628 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die Kultur der )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance in Italien)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 143.672 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 143.672 640.515 m 157.664 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.664 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, inaccurately and misleadingly ?made the despot a standard image of, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usual term for, the Italian Renaissance prince for the next century, at least in the world of English language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship? \(p. 69\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The suggestion that the )] TJ ET BT 148.676 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signori)] TJ ET BT 182.684 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( should be thought of more as lords than as depots is significant. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lordship was, at root, consensual. As Jones observed, the transition from early communal government to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signoria)] TJ ET BT 74.024 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was at first ?a natural development from the plenitude of power ? with which the great majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despots had been invested at an early stage? \(p. 17\). In Padua, for example, factional warfare and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imminent danger of Veronese invasion obliged the commune to choose Giacomo il Grande da Carrara as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city?s ?Defensor, Protector et Gubernator populi paduani, et civitatis et districtus, et in eis habitantium )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Capitaneus generalis? on 25 July 1318, and thus opened the door to the establishment of the Carrara )] TJ ET BT 517.280 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signoria)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was to last for the better part of a century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 255.632 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 255.632 485.955 m 269.624 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 269.624 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Having thus acquired power, it initially behoved )] TJ ET BT 507.932 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signori)] TJ ET BT 541.940 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserve the machinery of communal government, and to work towards gaining popular support for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule. For some considerable time, therefore, ?[n]ot only did the name and corporate notion of the commune )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survive, the communal constitution also persisted, with its magistrates and councils, through which, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varying degrees of freedom, the subordinate community continued to elect officials, enact laws, and raise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and administer taxes? \(p. 15\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As John Law suggests in an interesting paper, Francesco Ercole?s notion of ?diarchy? is useful in explaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the delicate balance of power between )] TJ ET BT 220.616 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signorie)] TJ ET BT 259.952 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and communal institutions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.296 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.296 374.163 m 407.288 374.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 407.288 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the Malatesta ?state?, ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commune continued to have an administrative role? \(p. 171\), and the power-sharing arrangement which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established in Camerino in particular seems only to have been brought to an end when the city fell to Cesare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Borgia in July 1502. The practice of ?diarchy? is similarly evident in other cities discussed in this volume. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mantua, for example, the Gonzaga )] TJ ET BT 203.636 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signori)] TJ ET BT 237.644 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were perhaps more concerned to retain communal structures than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the citizens themselves. In a rich and revealing contribution, David Chambers demonstrates that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gonzagas created a multiplicity of new councils to oversee hospitals and mercantile affairs, and continued to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summon the Council of Four Hundred until 1419, even when declining interest obliged them to impose stiff )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fines for non-attendance. The impression of a deep concern for the preservation of communal appearances is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard to ignore. So too, David Abulafia demonstrates that the government of Piombino in the fifteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century ?as a cooperative effort between the Appiano family and the town councils that made up the )] TJ ET BT 518.240 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signore)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s dominion? \(p. 147\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even in those )] TJ ET BT 102.344 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signoria)] TJ ET BT 142.352 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in which communal institutions declined, it appears that a concerted effort was made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to stress the justice and equity of an essentially consensual )] TJ ET BT 317.984 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signore)] TJ ET BT 353.984 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Although Paolo Guinigi ? )] TJ ET BT 486.656 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signore)] TJ ET BT 522.656 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucca 1400-30 ? was inclined to speak of ?his? subjects and ?his? city, Christine Meek demonstrates that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clemency and respect were an integral to his rule. While being questioned in connection with an abortive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coup in 1407, for example, Iacopo Viviani recounted that he had rebutted an impudent inquiry from one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the leading conspirators by pointing out that ?you would not find three people in Lucca ready to plot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against? Guinigi, and proceeded to explain that the citizens liked the fact that the )] TJ ET BT 424.952 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signore )] TJ ET BT 463.952 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?kept his hands off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their purses ? would not hear of any indecencies over women ? and had never up to that point been cruel, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the contrary extremely merciful? \(p. 133\). Intriguingly, Meek?s thorough examination of the evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that Viviani?s testimony was accurate.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 143.6717 640.8295 157.6637 652.7095 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 255.6317 486.2695 269.6237 498.1495 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.2957 374.4775 407.2877 386.3575 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 7701 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite its merits, however, the preservation of an appearance of ?diarchy? had a limited lifespan and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signori)] TJ ET BT 68.024 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( gradually dispensed with their ties to the communal past. On occasions, as Jones noted, this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved by moving towards heredity, by )] TJ ET BT 235.652 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signori)] TJ ET BT 269.660 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?associating heirs with the government? \(p. 17\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could, however, have its dangers and, as Alison Brown demonstrates, a study of Piero di Lorenzo de? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medici?s early years helps to explain the difficulties which he faced on succeeding his father as )] TJ ET BT 495.908 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de facto)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruler of Florence. For the most part, )] TJ ET BT 208.988 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signori )] TJ ET BT 245.996 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidated their position at the expense of communal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions by seeking ?from the nominal overlord, emperor or pope, the title of temporal vicar, or later of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(margrave or duke, which conferred an independent warrant for the exercise of power? \(p. 17\). As Jane Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows, this was certainly the course of action favoured by Giangaleazzo Visconti, who was invested as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial prince and duke of Milan in 1395.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Black demonstrates, however, the security which )] TJ ET BT 288.968 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signori )] TJ ET BT 325.976 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gained in divesting their position of its links to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular election did not necessarily entail the destruction of communal institutions )] TJ ET BT 434.324 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per se)] TJ ET BT 463.316 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Even after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giangaleazzo Visconi was created duke of Milan, ?the bulk of local government continued to be based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the traditional system of communal statutes, )] TJ ET BT 249.008 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(podest)] TJ ET BT 286.340 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and councils, all now strictly controlled by the duke? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.130\). Although some instruments of communal government were deployed in pursuit of ends that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not always obviously ?public? in nature ? as in the case of the use of forced labour in Florentine territory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the Medici, examined by Suzanne Butters ? the hereditary )] TJ ET BT 345.620 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(signori)] TJ ET BT 379.628 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and their families often acted in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner which was more sensitive to the needs of citizens than the communes had been. In her study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lake of Fucecchio, for example, Catherine Kovesi shows that contemporary denunciations of Alfonsina )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orsini de? Medici?s greed and imperiousness belied the reality of her approach: indeed, Alfonsina?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision to purchase and then drain the lake did much less damage than had been done to the Fucecchio )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basin than had been cause by either the Florentine Republic or Cosimo I de? Medici \(p. 247\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If this volume does much to add depth to Jones?s contention that the communes and ?despotisms? of late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval and early Renaissance Italy were more similar than had previously been thought, one of its great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengths is that it also gives space to papers which push beyond the limits of Jones?s original argument, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the implications of his thesis for a number of other fields of study. In a particularly interesting ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and delightfully personal ? contribution that will be of considerable value to scholars working on the growth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Italian )] TJ ET BT 80.672 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(studi)] TJ ET BT 104.012 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Peter Denley examines the question of how developments in Italian universities fitted with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political changes which Jones?s article explored. Similarly, in a typically rich and lively paper, the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Holmes places Giovanni Bellini?s )] TJ ET BT 238.988 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Feast of the Gods)] TJ ET BT 344.984 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( against the background of sexual intrigue at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Estense court in Ferrara, and highlights the fact that the reception of secular art was shaped by ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual lives of princes and princesses? to an extent that was without parallel in the Italian republics \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(291\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A more unsympathetic critic might perhaps be forgiven that this volume occasionally shades off into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional )] TJ ET BT 99.008 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Festschrift)] TJ ET BT 150.344 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in such a manner that one or two contributions are of less relevance to the title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject than might otherwise have been the case. Julian Gardner?s study of mendicant great churches in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14th century and Trevor Dean?s self-confessedly ?unusual? treatment of Jones?s incipits, in particular, lie at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some remove from the central theme of the book, and the most demanding reader could regard them as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distracting. To indulge such criticism would, however, be pedantic and unjust, and would ignore the degree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to which such contributions add richness and variety to an already outstanding collection.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, the editors are to be congratulated for having produced a remarkable volume that students of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian history will undoubtedly find invaluable. There are few aspects of Jones?s understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communes and ?despotisms? that are left unaddressed, and it is to the credit of this work that its contributors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so consistently push at the boundaries of the )] TJ ET BT 249.332 123.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(maestro)] TJ ET BT 287.996 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s argument. Modest as he was about his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications, Jones could perhaps not have wished for a better celebration of his work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 74.307 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 4025 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. J. Jones, ?Communes and despots: the city state in late-medieval Italy,? )] TJ ET BT 423.320 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(TRHS)] TJ ET BT 451.988 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 5th ser., vol. 15 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1965\), 71?95.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 134.336 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 134.336 780.819 m 188.324 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. Baron, )] TJ ET BT 114.008 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crisis of the Early Italian Renaissance)] TJ ET BT 321.344 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2 vols., Princeton, NJ, 1955\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.668 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.668 766.563 m 522.656 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leonardo Bruni, )] TJ ET BT 146.336 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Laudatio florentinae urbis)] TJ ET BT 273.020 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, IV: ?hec prudentissima civitas ita omnes sui partes )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderata est?; text in H. Baron, )] TJ ET BT 219.992 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Petrarch to Leonardo Bruni. Studies in Humanistic and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Literature )] TJ ET BT 160.028 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chicago, IL and London, 1968\), pp. 232?63, here p. 259, ll. 1-2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 472.652 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 472.652 723.795 m 526.640 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Burckhardt, )] TJ ET BT 134.672 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy)] TJ ET BT 342.008 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. S. G. C. Middlemore \(London, 1878\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 695.283 m 118.004 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On Giacomo?s election, see B. G. Kohl, )] TJ ET BT 259.652 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Padua under the Carrara, 1318?1405)] TJ ET BT 442.652 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Baltimore, MD and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, 1998\), pp. 39?42.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.672 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.672 666.771 m 245.660 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. Ercole, )] TJ ET BT 114.008 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dal commune al principato. 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