%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 30 0 R 47 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140709102635+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140709102635+01'00') /Title (Chelsea Settlement and Bastardy Examinations, 1733-1766) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4179 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Chelsea Settlement and Bastardy Examinations, 1733-1766)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("Hannah Elliett, aged about 18 years, the wife of George Elliet, upon oath says that on 31 May last, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twelve month, she, this examinant, was married to her said husband in the liberty of the Fleet, London, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom she has a child living \(named Mary\), an infant aged near 3 months. And says that her said husband is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by trade or employment a tailor, and that he learnt it of his uncle at Drogheda in Ireland without serving an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apprenticeship. And says that her said husband has been a soldier and is now an out pensioner of Chelsea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hospital, and does not know that he ever rented a house of 10 a year, or done any act, to her knowledge, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gain a settlement. And this examinant says that as to herself, she has not lived a year in any service before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her marriage, but says that her late father \(Edward Penny\) served his apprenticeship with one Mr. Hugh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hopkins, a lighterman, then of the parish of St. Olave, but now the parish of St. John in the borough of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southwark in the country of Surrey, with whom he continued and served the full term of his apprenticeship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(as this examinant has been informed by her mother now living\). And that her said late father from the time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he served his apprenticeship, had never rented a house of 10 a year, or paid any parish taxes, or done any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(act \(to her knowledge\),to gain a subsequent settlement. And this examinant further says that her said )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husband being absconded and left her, [she] is not capable of providing for her said child without relief. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(109)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 March, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tim Hitchcock)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Black)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780900952333)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(199pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London Record Society)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.londonrecordsociety.org.uk/vol-33-chelsea-settlement-and-bastardy-examinations-1733-176/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leonard Schwarz)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7641 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannah Elliett, her mark. Sworn , 6 June 1749 before us, Peter Elers, Henry Fielding. Passed to St. John in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southwark.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was a typical Petty Sessions examination with two magistrates. Hannah Elliett had been married in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberty of the Fleet, a place of marriage resorted to by well over a third of the London population, avoiding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banns and license, parental permission, neighbourhood ribaldry and expense. To ensure that well-connected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children would have to travel all the way to Scotland to get married without parental permission it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banned for both rich and poor by Hardwicke's Act in 1753. Hannah became pregnant very quickly, if she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not pregnant already, which was common enough. Hannah's husband appears to have been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional soldier and may have been one of the many men demobilised in 1748. In any case he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chosen that time to marry. He chose the wrong year and the wrong town. While he was fortunate enough to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become one of Chelsea Hospital's one thousand out-pensioners, his allowance was not sufficient to support a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family. With so many demobilised soldiers and sailors looking for a living and with bankruptcies in London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteen per cent above trend, this was not a good year for an Irish tailor without an apprenticeship or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections to be making his living.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 208.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 208.016 597.747 m 222.008 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 222.008 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Tailors, as a well-informed careers guide published during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous year informed parents 'are as numerous locusts, are out of business about three or four months in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the year, and generally as poor as rats'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.788 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.788 569.235 m 233.780 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 233.780 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hannah's husband had abandoned her rather promptly - whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was tramping the country to seek work or whether he had really disappeared is not said - and she needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief to look after her child. The purpose of the examination was to establish her settlement, in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decide which parish should look after the child and, if necessary, the mother. Establishing a settlement could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be quite a complex legal process. The father was born in Ireland but had never been apprenticed in England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or rented a house worth 10 a year or more, so he had not obtained a settlement and hence had no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entitlement to poor relief. Hannah had some difficulty with her own settlement: rashly married at only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteen years of age she had not been a year in service with anybody. However, the matter was clear cut: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the child was the responsibility of her father's parish of St. John in Southwark, who might now have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support a young mother and her child for a decade or so. Out pensioners of Chelsea Hospital did not gain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlements in Chelsea, and neither did their wives, whatever Hannah Elliett may have thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next example, although setting out to establish the same information, is of a different nature:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("The examination of Sarah Randall, single woman, taken upon oath before us, John Williams and Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elers, esqs...Who saith that on 24 Sept. last she was delivered of a female bastard child in the house of Mr. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gardner, a brazier near the horse ferry at Chelsea in the said county \(which is baptised and named )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susannah\). And was unlawfully begotten on her body by one William Answorth then servant to Mr. Green, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brewer near Sand End near Chelsea aforesaid, who had carnal knowledge of her body the first time in or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the month [of] December last in the dwelling house of Mr Jonathan Wood at the Bull Ale House at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sand End, where this examinant lived a hired servant and where the said William Answorth at the same time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lodged. And several times after in the same house. And this examinant further saith that the said William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Answorth is the true and only father of the said child. And further saith not. Sarah Randall, her mark. Sworn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Chelsea, 18 nov. 1734, before us, John Williams, Peter Elers.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Randall had given birth to the child in the parish, thus giving it a settlement there. She named William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Answorth as the father, alleging that this was an ongoing relationship with sexual intercourse taking place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('several times'. The child was duly born, nine months after the first act, with the relationship clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing for a while after this. At some point something went wrong, and, unlike the great majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar couples in London, they did not get married. William Answorth, in an example of the workings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the eighteenth-century version of the Child Benefit Act, was duly named as the father and therefore liable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffer a significant fall in his standard of living. We do not know whether he protested at this allegation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paternity, but we do know that fathers usually accepted the allegations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is an edition of 469 such settlement and bastardy examination examinations taken in the parish of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chelsea between 1733 and 1766. These cover 153 pages and come with a 22 page introduction by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors. The two examples quoted above give an example of the flavour. The London Record Society have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced successive high quality series of records, and this volume is well up to their standards. It is well )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 208.0157 598.0615 222.0077 609.9415 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 219.7877 569.5495 233.7797 581.4295 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7847 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced, the examinations are clearly presented, cross-references are clearly pointed out, and there is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(index. Reviewers have a choice of routes that they can follow with a book such as this. It is possible simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to draw the readers' attention to its contents, to say that the introduction by Hitchcock and Black is good and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brief, that it says what it is essential to say and to regret that the format of the series prevents a longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, and to conclude by recommending the book to all those interested in the subject and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially those looking for documents for teaching purposes. Alternatively one can put these sources into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their context and discuss their reliability and how they fit into the ongoing historiography. This is what this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review will set out to do. However, at this point it is necessary to make a confession: I happen to have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the examiners of John Black's London University Ph.D. thesis on 'Illegitimacy and the Urban Poor in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, 1740-1830', a thesis that examined the records of two Westminster parishes, St. Clement Danes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(St. Mary-le-Strand, as well as Shoreditch in East London. It all went very satisfactorily, we were happy to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pass the thesis, and it will soon be made available to researchers in the usual manner. I shall take the liberty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of referring to it all the same, as the thesis examines in detail the bastardy and settlement examinations for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these parishes. The purpose of this is not to pre-empt the findings of the thesis, but rather to give a foretaste )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the richness of its source material.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clearly bastardy and settlement statements have their problems. They can be examined under various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(headings. The first is that of accuracy. Sometimes they can be checked, sometimes not. There were obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temptations to lie about settlement and paternity, though these matters could usually be checked by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parish. Nevertheless, one might choose to forget one's more recent parish of settlement. As for ascribing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paternity of an illegitimate child, Black has shown that it was rare for fathers to dispute this, despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavy expenses involved in the child's upkeep. Invention is more likely to have occurred when the mothers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described their relationship with the father. A remarkably high proportion of bastardy examinants gave birth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nine months after their first sexual encounter, with sexual encounters taking place 'several times' thereafter. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both the examples quoted above did so. Hannah Elliett had even taken the trouble to get married first. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have some doubts about such a pattern of events. The tendency of the examinants to use the phrase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('several times' points to a clear desire to establish that this was an ongoing relationship, part of the normal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courting practices of the London poor, which just happened to have been one of the ten per cent or so of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(births \(and therefore less than ten per cent of courtings\) that had not led to marriage. Few had the effrontery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to stand before disapproving magistrates, admit to casual sex, and throw themselves on the goodwill of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parish of settlement. Edward Shorter has claimed that proto-industrial development and the resulting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibilities of employment for young women gave the latter the opportunity to free themselves from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional sexual inhibitions. The argument has been heavily contested and has converted few. One of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weaknesses is the continuation well into the nineteenth century of such traditional practices as domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service. However, recent work, especially that of Meldrum, has suggested that there was a very active labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market for women servants in London at this time. If, by some strange process, this exposure to the labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market relaxed women's libidinal inhibitions, a formal examination before the magistrates was not the place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reveal it. Nevertheless, the stress that the mothers made on the continued relationship with the father was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so common that it need not be questioned, even if it may have been exaggerated. It is consistent with what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Rogers found in an earlier examination of illegitimacy in Westminster.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.636 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.636 241.347 m 433.628 241.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, the precise nature of these documents should be noted. They combine two different processes: that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of establishing paternity \(and settlement\) of the fathers of illegitimate children, and that of establishing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement of potential claimants. Parishes often have Bastardy Examination Books, but these are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complete and additional bastardy cases are to be found throughout the settlement certificates. It is easy to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlook the latter, as Trumbach appears to have done in the case of Shoreditch in his recent Sex and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gender Revolution, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.672 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.672 143.811 m 145.664 143.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 145.664 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( although it must be said that Trumbach did include the settlement certificates of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chelsea.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirdly, there are problems relating to the completeness of the statements. There are several dogs that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistently refuse to bark. It is rare for employers of servants to be named as fathers, or to be accused of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence. The editors point to only two cases, one clearly rape, the other at the very least intimidation. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is in keeping with what Rogers' study had found. Rogers' sample was smaller and his period of study longer, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 419.6357 241.6615 433.6277 253.5415 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.6717 144.1255 145.6637 156.0055 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 8269 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but relations that were clearly unequal were named in one-third of the statements between 1703 and 1718, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(falling to 21 per cent between 1735 and 1752 \(the period of the Chelsea study\) and to fourteen per cent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1780 and 1786.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 151.328 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 151.328 766.563 m 165.320 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 165.320 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The Chelsea study suggests much lower figures, as does Black's research. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps masters paid up voluntarily rather than risk being named. Perhaps to some extent their behaviour did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change, though the author of Pamela clearly had his doubts on that score. For all we know the true father of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Rendell's child may have been her employer who then paid her fellow lodger sufficient to persuade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him to marry her. We may look forward to a printed exchange between Meldrum and Black. In any case, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paucity of employers from the mid century suggests an awakening of evangelicalism that is usually dated to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a later period. Another topic that fails to appear is that of bundling, one on which it is to be hoped that Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will publish. It should, after all, have some connection to the enhanced importance of penetrative sex that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitchcock ascribes to the eighteenth century. Again, there is little evidence cohabitation without marriage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before or after Hardwicke's Act, pace Gillis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fourthly, there is the Snell-Landau debate. How representative are settlement certificates? This - and this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone of the points discussed here - is touched on by the two authors in their introduction. Most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examinations were held at petty sessions and appear to have been conducted 'under relatively formal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions', but despite this there was a wide variety of practice with a 'combination of both inflexible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propriety and sloppy disregard for the requirements of the law' \(introduction, pp. xi-xii\). The justices were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscientious in taking statements - though whether they had the resources to check these statements is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another matter - and exercised flexibility in their interpretation. According to Hitchcock and Black 'these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examinations contain numerous instances where the logical legal outcome of a given examination is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eschewed in favour of more humane treatment of the pauper involved, or occasionally a result significantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantageous to the parish of Chelsea'. And this leads to the fifth question - the administration of the Poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Law in London in general and in Chelsea in particular.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Followers of Tim Hitchcock's various publications will have become aware of the unfolding of the little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonwealth of Chelsea, a desirable parish for deserving or even undeserving paupers, provided that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could close their ears to the torrent of moralising condemnation that would fall on them. He has recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that in the mid-eighteenth century 'the range of institutions in London available to the indigent poor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and unmarried mothers in particular was immense'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.800 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.800 386.163 m 293.792 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 293.792 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( London had several lying-in hospitals, the Foundling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for infants, the Magdalene for penitent prostitutes, the Lock for treatment of venereal disease as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(according to Hitchcock\) almost 70 parish workhouses as well as other smaller institutions, 'and while it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain that these institutions were patronising in their intent, abhorred by their users, and largely unpleasant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in their overall formulation, they likewise provided a comprehensive service to a wide range of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population of London...One can argue, indeed, that London social provision provided the opposite to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary welfare state. Whereas today, all the rhetoric suggests a universal benefit while the reality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excludes an increasing proportion of the population, in the eighteenth century the rhetoric was exclusive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the reality remarkably inclusive'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.144 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.144 272.115 m 235.136 272.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 235.136 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was, he has argued elsewhere, part of a changing rhetoric of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexuality that came to regard women as inherently sexually vulnerable and men as inherently \(and thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excusably\) sexually rampant, and which produced a host of institutions for fallen women, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hardwicke's Marriage Act to prevent them from falling in the first place. The extent to which these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions were produced outside London is another matter. Hitchcock's doctoral thesis was on English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workhouses between 1696 and 1750, and it is a pity that he has not published more on the subject.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.304 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.304 200.835 m 519.296 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, it does not impugn his work to say that eighteenth-century London poor relief is a little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored terrain and that more parochial studies are needed before the typicality of any parish can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.344 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.344 158.067 m 104.336 158.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was a great deal happening during the first half of the eighteenth century that historians do not fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand. The proportion of never-married in the national population fell from a quarter to a tenth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to fall thereafter, while the mean age of marriage dropped by about twelve months. National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illegitimacy levels rose. The underlying crude death rate in London was higher than during the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century while the various mortality peaks continued unabated. A quarter of a century of war and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a good part of the Financial Revolution was followed by a change of dynasty, the South Sea Bubble and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 151.3277 766.8775 165.3197 778.7575 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.7997 386.4775 293.7917 398.3575 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 221.1437 272.4295 235.1357 284.3095 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 505.3037 201.1495 519.2957 213.0295 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 90.3437 158.3815 104.3357 170.2615 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 50 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R ] /Contents 48 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Length 7963 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(apparently\) even more disastrous 1726 depression, from which the London economy emerged into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prolonged period of slow growth or perhaps stagnation lasting some three decades.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.948 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.948 780.819 m 451.940 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 451.940 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( London may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been unique in this respect, but London is the area of Hitchcock and Black's research. In addition it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed that London was home to a new definition and condemnation of homosexuality and a concomitant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in male sexual attitudes. This was also the period when all the workhouses were built. Workhouses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were only one part of changing attitudes: any suggestion of a relatively flexible and relatively generous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pattern of poor relief in Southern England needs to be countered by the highly flexible and decidedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ungenerous provision of relief in Lancashire that the work of Steve King is uncovering.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 453.944 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 453.944 695.283 m 473.936 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 473.936 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participants in the debate realise, social policy was extremely heterogeneous, and it is this very heterogeneity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that requires suitable frameworks in which to place it. Chelsea Settlement and Bastardy Examinations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides one point of entry for understanding eighteenth century social policy, but the world that we enter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through it is still very imperfectly known.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 604.755 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L.D.Schwarz, London in the age of industrialisation \(Cambridge, 1992\), pp. 93, 98.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 464.972 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 464.972 572.739 m 518.960 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Campbell, The London Tradesman \(1747\), p. 192.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 319.988 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 319.988 558.483 m 373.976 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Rogers, 'Carnal knowledge: illegitimacy in eighteenth-century Westminster', Journal of Social )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History 23 \(1989-90\), pp. 355- 375.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.000 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.000 529.971 m 289.988 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Trumbach, Sex and the Gender Revolution \(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998\). reviewed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on 20 September 1999 for Reviews in History by R.B. Shoemaker.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 384.992 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 384.992 501.459 m 438.980 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rogers, 'Carnal knowledge', p. 359.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.980 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.980 487.203 m 288.968 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. Hitchcock, 'Unlawfully begotten on her body', in T. Hitchcock, P. King and P. Sharpe, eds., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chronicling Poverty. The Voices and Strategy of the English Poor, 1640-1840, p.75.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 469.988 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 469.988 458.691 m 523.976 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitchcock 'Unlawfully begotten', pp. 76-77. See also: Tim Hitchcock, 'Demography and the culture of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sex in the long eighteenth century', in J. Black, ed., Culture and Society in Britain 1600-1800, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1997, pp. 69-84.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 352.964 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 352.964 415.923 m 406.952 415.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 403.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. Hitchcock, 'The English workhouse: a study in institutional poor relief in selected counties, 1696-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1750', D. Phil. thesis, Oxford University 1985. See also Tim Hitchcock, 'Paupers and Preachers: the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SPCK and the Parochial Workhouse Movement', in L. Davison, T. Hitchcock, T. Keirn, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R.B.Shoemaker, eds., Stilling the Grumbling Hive \(Stroud, 1992\), pp. 145-166.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 446.012 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 446.012 358.899 m 500.000 358.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 346.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Chelsea workhouse register is presented in a computer-based teaching package: Tim Hitchcock )] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Robert Shoemaker, Economic Growth and Social Change in the Eighteenth-Century English )] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Town \(Glasgow, Core Resources for Historians, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 329.636 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 329.636 316.131 m 383.624 316.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 303.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schwarz, London, pp.79-84.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 200.660 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 200.660 301.875 m 260.648 301.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 289.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steve King, 'Reconstructing lives: the Poor Law and welfare in Calverley, 1650-1820', Social History )] TJ ET BT 64.016 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1997\), pp. 318-38 and 'Poor relief and English economic development reappraised', Economic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Review \(1977\), pp. 360-68.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 235.664 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 235.664 259.107 m 295.652 259.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 234.245 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 215.263 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 197.483 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 197.483 Td /F1 12.0 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