%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141027000955+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141027000955+00'00') /Title (Lost Girls: Sex and Death in Renaissance Florence) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4176 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Lost Girls: Sex and Death in Renaissance Florence)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What was killing the girls of the Casa della Piet? This is the question which recurs throughout Nicholas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terpstra?s study of the Piet, a Florentine charitable shelter for orphaned and abandoned girls. According to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terpstra, the Piet was ?the most unsafe place in Florence for a girl to live? \(p. 144\). Of the 526 girls who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entered the Piet between 1554 and 1568, 324 \(62 per cent\) died there. This mortality rate is far higher than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those at other Florentine conservatories for vulnerable girls; just under 20 per cent died at S. Niccol during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period and only 11 per cent died at S. Maria delle Vergine. Deaths at the Piet were recorded in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Libro Segreto)] TJ ET BT 100.352 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with a simple ?+?; there is no description of the causes, which are a mystery for Terpstra to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solve.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When the Piet opened its doors in 1554, it was located in the old hospital of S. Maria dell?Umilit in Borgo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ognissanti, near the River Arno. There were often 160 girls jammed into the hospital and the two adjacent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(houses. Of the 361 girls who entered between 1554 and 1559, the average age was just over 12 years old. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(About 60 per cent of the girls came from families which had lived in Florence for no more than a generation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of the girls who survived their stay in the Piet, the average leaving age was 17 years. A handful married. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few returned to their families. Nearly 70 girls became domestic servants. Seven ran away.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Apart from the high death rate, the Piet was unusual in other ways. During its early years the Compagnia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(della Piet which supported the Casa had almost 400 members drawn from across the city. With the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1090)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 June, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Terpstra)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780801894992)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(264pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johns Hopkins University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltimore, MD)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Davies)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7819 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exception of a friar of S. Croce, the members of the Compagnia were all women and ?There is no parallel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([for this] in any other home in Florence, and few examples in Italy? \(p. 111\). Many of the members were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widows and most of the pledges were for small amounts, less than 2 lire. Although a significant number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members came from the Florentine elite \(three Medici, four Antinori, six Ricasoli, seven Ridolfi, and eleven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Capponi\), Terpstra notes that their names were recorded in an untraditional way. Instead of including the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(names of their fathers or husbands, these women simply used family names, e.g. ?Maddalena of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antinori?. Terpstra points out that ??the only women in Florentine society who regularly failed to identify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves by the names of either husbands or fathers were nuns and prostitutes? \(p. 112\). Rosalia Manno )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tolu has shown that many members of the Compagnia della Piet belonged to the )] TJ ET BT 429.980 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(piagnone)] TJ ET BT 474.644 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( movement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followers of the religious reformer Girolamo Savonarola.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 308.960 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 308.960 666.771 m 322.952 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 322.952 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He continued to divide Florentine society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades after his execution in 1498 and the members of the Compagnia della Piet were the wives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daughters, sisters, and widows of leading )] TJ ET BT 234.656 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(piagnone )] TJ ET BT 282.320 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men, and had suffered for their beliefs. The location of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Piet in one of the poorest areas of Florence and its reliance on small pledges can be seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristic of Savonarolan teaching.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The administration of the Piet is also distinctive. Most homes run by men had statutes but the Piet did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while it was located in Borgo Ognissanti. The members of the Compagnia della Piet met in an informal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(council of prioresses and took decisions collectively. The process of admitting girls was easier than those at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other homes; the prioresses of the Piet interviewed girls and they decided immediately. In contrast to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procedures elsewhere, they did not check the girls? backgrounds and reputations, they did not order physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examinations to confirm virginity and attractiveness, and they did not take repeated votes on each case. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Terpstra, the Piet?s support for the most vulnerable girls in Florence was an exceptional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiment in compassion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But this situation did not last. During the 1560s the Piet underwent major changes. By 1567 the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership of the Compagnia had collapsed to 36 and the numbers continued to fall thereafter. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unsurprisingly the Piet?s income from donations also dropped dramatically. It is likely that particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors were present here. From 1563 there were plans to relocate the Piet and in 1568 it moved to Via del )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mandorlo \(?Street of the Almond Tree?\) near the friary of S. Marco in the less populous north of the city. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following the move, the average age of those admitted dropped, the death rate fell, and fewer girls married )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or worked as domestic servants. Statutes suitable for a convent were produced, a small executive council )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was established, and admissions became more formal. There were fewer places for the most vulnerable girls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and more for the illegitimate daughters of courtiers, clerics, and civil servants. Over the following decades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the membership of the Compagnia della Piet altered to include priests and friars, members of the Medici )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court, and the grand duchess herself. Terpstra sees Alessandro Capocchi as the moving force behind the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes. He was a Dominican friar and the chaplain of the Piet from 1558 to 1568. He was also a )] TJ ET BT 512.912 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(piagnone)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keen to strengthen ties between his house of S. Maria Novella and Savonarola?s old house of S. Marco. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terpstra suggests that debates broke out within the Piet over the future of the home though he notes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each change was approved by the women. But wider factors were also at work during this period of general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform. In Venice the Convertite shelter for former prostitutes and the Casa delle Zitelle for abandoned girls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were both relocated to the remoteness of the Giudecca. In 1568 and 1569 the archbishop of Florence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveyed all of the city?s churches and hospitals and in 1569 he held a diocesan synod which formally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted the decrees of the Council of Trent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So why did so many of the girls of the Piet die between 1554 and 1568? Terpstra puts forward a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypotheses which he considers across four chapters. The first possibility is that the girls were worked to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death. Much of their time was spent preparing food, washing laundry, and cleaning floors within the Piet. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition, as mentioned, nearly 70 girls entered domestic service. About 20 girls worked outside the Piet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with weavers or tailors or others in the cloth trade. But girls working outside did not increase the revenue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Piet. As donations did not cover its expenses, of which food was the largest item, other income had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be sought. Therefore, within weeks of the Piet opening, it organised itself as a factory. In 1555 two female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wool weavers were given room and board in the Piet so they could train the girls in weaving. It is likely that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they brought looms, making the limited space even more crammed. By 1559 cloth work earned the Piet )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 308.9597 667.0855 322.9517 678.9655 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8136 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over 3,800 lire a year, its largest single source of income and the equivalent of the annual earnings of about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15 professional weavers. The girls worked in every part of the Florentine textile industry - wool, silk, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hemp ? and performed different operations in each one. In most cases they worked for textile masters but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes they worked on their own. Since the 15th century silk had been a growth industry and by 1650 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over 14,000 Florentines out of a population of about 70,000 were making silk; the percentages of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations of Bologna and Venice were even higher. Terpstra notes that silk merchants administered the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florentine foundling hospital, the Ospedale degli Innocenti. There was a similar situation in Bologna where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the magistracy in charge of the silk fair ran the city?s workhouse, the Ospedale dei Mendicanti. Terpstra )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues convincingly that ?their charity was good business ? the shelters and institutions that silk merchants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so generously launched and supervised were convenient solutions to their own labor problems? \(p. 77\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sex could also have been a cause of the girls? deaths. The Piet?s volume of accounts for )] TJ ET BT 465.920 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cloth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Manufacturing and Pledges, 1554)] TJ ET BT 198.008 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?79)] TJ ET BT 216.008 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( includes seven pages with the heading )] TJ ET BT 405.644 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Del Ricettario)] TJ ET BT 473.972 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This comprises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15 medical recipes. Terpstra accepts that many institutions kept collections like this but he points out that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this one is hidden away with no indication on the ledger?s spine, cover, or opening pages that it is there. 54 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ingredients are listed of which nine are abortificants. This fact leads Terpstra to wonder whether the Piet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was helping girls to terminate pregnancies. He accepts that this question is complicated but he asks why we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might shy away from this conclusion and he considers ancient, medieval, and Renaissance views of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pregnancy and abortion. Terpstra thinks it unlikely that the Piet was a brothel as this would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recorded in a variety of fiscal, legal, and literary sources but ?Adolescent girls working as domestic servants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the most vulnerable women in Florence to sexual assault? \(p. 100\). The threat to the girls was also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased by the Piet?s location in one of Florence?s red-light districts; their neighbours were streetwalkers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and courtesans. Terpstra concedes that whether or not abortificants were given to the girls is a moot question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in any case it is unlikely that they would have killed them. Another possibility is that the girls contracted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pox but Terpstra accepts that this suggestion is also problematic. No contemporary source links the pox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the girls of the Piet and circumstantial evidence proves nothing. None of the recipes listed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Del Ricettario)] TJ ET BT 102.344 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contains either mercury or guaiacum, which would suggest they were being used for the pox. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead the recipes are mundane treatments for apostemes, fistulas, scrofula, ulcers, scabies, and sore eyes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having outlined in detail the various possibilities, Terpstra concludes that ?What was killing the girls of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Piet wasn?t necessarily anything )] TJ ET BT 198.656 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 210.992 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Piet. It was the policies )] TJ ET BT 348.644 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of)] TJ ET BT 357.980 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the Piet. The Piet had a high death rate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it welcomed the dying ? girls in bad health and with little future? \(p. 173\). The other shelters in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florence had fewer deaths because they had entrance procedures which filtered out such girls. From 1566 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Piet adopted similar processes and consequently its death rate fell during the following years. Apart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the mortality figures, it is telling that the Piet spent over 220 lire on medications in 1567 but only 4 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lire in 1571, and that was just for sugary syrups and a tonic water.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whilst Terpstra praises the Piet for its exceptional compassion during its early years, he can be critical of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploitation following its reform and relocation. In the conclusion and in an appendix he tells the story of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Piet girl known only as Giulia who was sent in 1584 to test the virility of Vincenzo Gonzaga prior to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage alliance between Mantua and Tuscany. After several attempts, described in detail, Giulia was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally deflowered and impregnated. The resulting baby was taken from her and Giulia was given a dowry. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ironically this episode was only possible because of the Piet?s tighter admission procedures: ?It now had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better class of girl and healthier too, and the girls were still there to be used? \(p. 174\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The deaths of the girls are not the only mystery about the Piet. Almost no contemporary chronicle or later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history makes any reference to a shelter for abandoned girls in Borgo Ognissanti. )] TJ ET BT 426.608 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Chronicles of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sisters of the Piet)] TJ ET BT 124.352 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were only begun in the 1580s by the Piet?s chaplain Friar Giovan Battista Bracchesi and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they are a spiritual history whose purpose was to inspire and to instruct. They do not refer to the high death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rate, to the Piet acting as a textile factory, or to the collapse in the Piet?s finances and administration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following the relocation. In contrast to )] TJ ET BT 221.660 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Chronicles)] TJ ET BT 295.328 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Terpstra has sought to write a ?worldly history? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(178\) pieced together from the surviving administrative and financial records of the Piet and informed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latest research on the cultural, economic, medical, religious, and social history of Florence. He argues that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 4838 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?chronicle writers were not exactly writing fiction, but they were certainly inventive with some factors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and economical with others. Yet were they to read this history, they would almost certainly make the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accusation of me? \(p. 177\). Is this self-criticism justified? Terpstra?s study is thoroughly based on primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and secondary sources. It is presented as a mystery, certain elements of mystery-writing are employed, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to an extent Terpstra is consciously acting as a detective. There are detailed physical descriptions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscripts so the reader feels as though they are sitting next to Terpstra as he pursues his case. The reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also realises that information is often being withheld and released at particular points in the story. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much speculation as Terpstra tries to fill the gaps and guess what was killing the girls. This is an attractive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach though one wishes that he did not reject his ?suspects? quite so quickly as this dissipates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tension. Terpstra wonders whether his interpretations ?may seem faddish, anachronistic, and even teasing; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less like an historical investigation and more like historical novels ? Yet these are the best ways to read into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the silences that cloak this story? \(p. 10\). The title of his conclusion, ?Friction in the Archives?, echoes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Natalie Zemon Davis? )] TJ ET BT 144.992 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fiction in the Archives: Pardon Tales and Their Tellers in Sixteenth-Century France)] TJ ET BT 552.632 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 609.747 m 48.008 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Like Davis, Terpstra is aware of how contemporaries and historians shape their stories. His study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Piet can be recommended highly not only to those interested in women?s history, social history, medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, and economic history but also to anyone who cares about the historian?s craft.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 547.731 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosalia Manno Tolu, ?Echi Savonaroliani nella Compagnia e nel conservatorio della Piet?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Savonarola e la politica)] TJ ET BT 179.684 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. G. C. Garfagnini \(Florence, 1997\), pp. 209?24.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 428.972 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 428.972 501.459 m 482.960 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Natalie Zemon Davis, )] TJ ET BT 172.664 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fiction in the Archives: Pardon Tales and Their Tellers in Sixteenth-Century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(France )] TJ ET BT 101.672 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Stanford, CA, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 206.660 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 206.660 472.947 m 260.648 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 448.085 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Feminist Review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://feministreview.blogspot.com/2010/07/lost-girls-sex-and-death-in-renaissance.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 418.179 m 460.316 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 463.316 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 414.847 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 397.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 397.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1090)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 395.673 m 328.316 395.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 370.696 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.296 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5517)] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.896 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://feministreview.blogspot.com/2010/07/lost-girls-sex-and-death-in-renaissance.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 610.0615 48.0077 621.9415 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 428.9717 501.7735 482.9597 513.6535 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 206.6597 473.2615 260.6477 485.1415 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 418.4935 460.3157 430.3735 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://feministreview.blogspot.com/2010/07/lost-girls-sex-and-death-in-renaissance.html) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 395.9875 328.3157 407.8675 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1090) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000552 00000 n 0000000634 00000 n 0000004862 00000 n 0000004971 00000 n 0000005081 00000 n 0000005190 00000 n 0000008751 00000 n 0000008879 00000 n 0000008963 00000 n 0000009047 00000 n 0000016919 00000 n 0000016949 00000 n 0000017077 00000 n 0000017113 00000 n 0000017178 00000 n 0000025367 00000 n 0000025479 00000 n 0000030370 00000 n 0000030400 00000 n 0000030526 00000 n 0000030562 00000 n 0000030690 00000 n 0000030745 00000 n 0000030873 00000 n 0000030928 00000 n 0000031055 00000 n 0000031194 00000 n 0000031322 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31418 %%EOF