%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 32 0 R 43 0 R 54 0 R 62 0 R 68 0 R 85 0 R 111 0 R 134 0 R 145 0 R 169 0 R 205 0 R 227 0 R 263 0 R ] /Count 15 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721070200+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721070200+01'00') /Title (Why The West Rules ? For Now: The Patterns of History and What they Reveal about the Future) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4588 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Why The West Rules ? For Now: The Patterns of History and What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(they Reveal about the Future)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book was launched with great fanfare, a high number of editorial reviews from prominent academics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interviews, invited talks, web commentaries, and reviews in the mainstream media, including the )] TJ ET BT 502.292 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET BT 548.960 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New)] TJ ET BT 58.352 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Statesman)] TJ ET BT 107.684 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 113.684 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New York Times)] TJ ET BT 192.356 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 198.356 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Scotsman)] TJ ET BT 265.352 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 271.352 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economist)] TJ ET BT 322.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 348.344 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Affairs)] TJ ET BT 422.684 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The reviews were for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most part agreeable, though not by comparison with the editorial endorsements, which abound in laudable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adjectives: ?formidable,? ?awesome,? ?dazzling,? ?extraordinary,? ?breathtaking,? ?thought-provoking,? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?engrossing?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Astonishing? words were penned even by David Landes, the respected author of )] TJ ET BT 428.252 168.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wealth and Poverty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nations )] TJ ET BT 74.360 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1998\), a work regularly cited in opprobrium for its uncompromising Eurocentric stand. Landes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muses over the book's contents: ?Will Europe undergo a major change? Will the millions of immigrants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impose a new set of rules on the rest? There was a time when Europe could absorb any and all newcomers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now the newcomers may dictate the terms?. Oh dear, Landes may well have been writing an editorial for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walter Lacqueur's )] TJ ET BT 124.808 97.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Last Days of Europe )] TJ ET BT 247.808 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2007\), which is certainly about ?what happens when a falling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(native birthrate collides with uncontrolled immigration?. )] TJ ET BT 308.996 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Why the West Rules)] TJ ET BT 403.976 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, despite its title, is scarcely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1091)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 June, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Morris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781846681479)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(608pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Profile Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ricardo Duchesne)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 24 0 R 27 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8566 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As of page 433, in a narrative which runs for 645 pages, no more than 20 pages are dedicated to European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. Pages 385 to 433 cover a chapter, ?Going Global?, which discusses the Portuguese expeditions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Columbus, but the focus is mostly on the Mongols and Zheng's Treasure Fleets. Drawing on Gavin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Menzies?s discredited book, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 173.324 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1421: The Year China Discovered America)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 173.324 740.481 m 381.632 740.481 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 384.632 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 402.968 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2002\), Morris carefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculates over the possibilities of the ?even more astonishing voyages that took Zheng's subordinates to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic Ocean, the North Pole, Antarctica, Australia and Italy? \(p. 410\). While he calls the Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance ?one of the most astonishing episodes in history? \(p. 419\), his preoccupation is with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renaissance which the Chinese ?already? had ?in the eleventh century? \(p. 419\). This renaissance was no less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable than the Italian one: ?Was Leonardo's breath really more astonishing than that of Shen Kuo??)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shen Kuo \(1031?95 AD\), a polymath scientist and statesman of the Song Dynasty, was a rather impressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure. Morris may well be pairing Leonardo with the most formidable scientist in the whole of East Asia's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history before 1800. Kuo?s greatest achievements and discoveries include geomorphology, climate change, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spherical celestial bodies \(not flat\), and the compass, camera obscura, fixing the position of the pole star, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correcting solar and lunar errors \(the latter including motion and orbital path\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What Morris fails to note is that Italy?s Renaissance ? which he also identifies as ?reactionary? \(p. 418\) ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was populated with not one but many outstanding figures. In the field of painting alone there was Botticelli, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brunelleschi, Donatello, Giotto, Ghiberti, Michelangelo, Raphael, Vasari, and Titian. These painters were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with the development of a radically new method of perspective painting, which was influenced in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn by the work of a noteworthy group of 15th-century mathematicians who discovered algebraic solutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and trigonometric computations well beyond the achievements of the Greeks and Arabs. Their names are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognized in the annals of mathematics: Scipio del Ferro, Nicolo Tartaglia, Johann Muller Regiomonanus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giralamo Cardano ? not to forget Luca Pacioli \(1446/7?1517\), the ?father? of the first known accounting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textbook, )] TJ ET BT 82.016 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Everything about Arithmetic, Geometry, and proportions)] TJ ET BT 355.664 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 358.664 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 358.664 445.443 m 372.656 445.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The meagre two pages Morris reserves for the European Renaissance bring up in passing Machiavelli, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michelangelo, and Leon Batista, but it is Zhu Xi, a Confucian ?theorist? of the 12th century, who takes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(center stage in this chapter, along with the admiral Zheng \(and the historian Menzies\). What was Zhu's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement? Other than his emphasis on Confucian family values, we learn from Morris that Zhu?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?extraordinary? pupil and ?new Renaissance man?, Wang, ?spent a week contemplating a bamboo stalk, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zhu had recommended, instead of providing insight it made him ill? \(p. 426\). I don't blame Wang, bamboo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stalks seem innocent enough, but staring at them for a week would have made anyone )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.276 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwell)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.276 333.651 m 481.940 333.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 484.940 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 498.932 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seriously, what is this book about if it is not about Europe? There is a striking similarity between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening paragraphs of )] TJ ET BT 144.320 294.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Why the West Rules)] TJ ET BT 239.300 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Jared Diamond?s commonly read )] TJ ET BT 426.596 294.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guns, Germs, and Steel)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1997\). Morris asks: ?Why did British boats shoot their way up the Yangtze in 1842, rather than Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ones up the Thames?? \(p. 11\) ? which is basically the same question the local politician in the island of New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guinea, Yali, asked Diamond: ?Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Guinea, but we black people had little cargo of our own??)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 337.940 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 337.940 236.115 m 351.932 236.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Just as Diamond rejects explanations framed ?in terms of natural selection and of evolutionary descent,? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asserts that ?many \(perhaps most\) Westerners continue to accept racist explanations? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 444.920 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 444.920 195.603 m 458.912 195.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 458.912 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Morris rejects the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea that ?the West rules today because modern Europeans are the heirs of a genetically superior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neanderthal stock, while Asians descend from the more primitive Homo erectus? \(p. 60\). He says point-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blank that explanations which rely on biological factors are ?racist? \(p. 73\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Who is currently offering a theory to the effect that such genetic variations as ?the color of skin, eyes, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hair? are )] TJ ET BT 78.656 113.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(more than)] TJ ET BT 127.652 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?only skin deep? with an ?obvious connection to why the West rules??)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.264 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.264 112.323 m 484.256 112.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 484.256 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Neither )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diamond nor Morris mentions a single author or source in connection to these ?theories?. Why, then, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persistent need to challenge ?racist theories of western rule?? I take this as an indirect warning against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone inclined to think that Western )] TJ ET BT 217.328 70.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(culture)] TJ ET BT 251.324 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has been uniquely creative and superior. Is it a coincidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that at the same time that he dismisses biological explanations, Morris castigates explanations that point to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 173.3237 740.6215 381.6317 752.5015 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.maritimeasia.ws/topic/1421bunkum.html) >> endobj 18 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 358.6637 445.7575 372.6557 457.6375 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 449.2757 333.9655 481.9397 345.8455 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.google.ca/images?sourceid=navclient&ie=UTF-8&rlz=1T4ADBF_enCA281CA292&q=bamboo&oi=image_result_group&sa=X) >> endobj 23 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 337.9397 236.4295 351.9317 248.3095 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 444.9197 195.9175 458.9117 207.7975 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.2637 112.6375 484.2557 124.5175 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 7873 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?cultural superiority? \(p. 73\) of Europe, and the ?old long term theory that the culture of the ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greeks ... forged a distinctive Western way of life? \(p. 22\)? He once believed this, but during his graduate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies in classical archaeology at Cambridge he met some anthropologists of primitive cultures who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?openly laughed at the quaint notion that Greek culture was unique?. Studying ?broader and broader slices of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the human past? he came to realize ?how strong the parallels were between the supposedly unique Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience and the history of other parts of the world? \(p. 23\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is, of course, what multiculturalists have been propagating for decades. All cultures should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrated in their diversity because no culture is more gifted than any other. Diverse cultures are equally the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same in achievements. Questioning this diversity doctrine is bigoted. As Roger Scruton has pointed out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently, ?anybody who publicly disagreed with that [multicultural] claim invited the attentions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought police, always ready with the charge of racism, and never so scrupulous as to think it a sin to destroy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the career of someone, provided he was white, indigenous, and male.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.604 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.604 626.259 m 384.596 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This enforcement of diversity on university campuses, as Scruton adds, is based on a false premise, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?culture and race have nothing to do with each other?, and ?not all cultures are equally admirable?. Morris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinks otherwise; all cultures are so admirable as to be essentially the same: ?Eastern thought was just as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rational and liberal as Western, and Western thought was just as mystical and authoritarian as Eastern? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(261\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But some cultures, apparently, are more equal than others. In a ten-page section on ?The classics,? Morris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consigns both Greek and Roman thought to just about one page \(p. 260\), while giving Chinese thought the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other nine pages \(pp. 254?9, 261?3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Socrates was part of a huge pattern?, Morris teaches us, ?not a unique giant who sent the West down a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superior path?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 105.332 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 105.332 447.699 m 119.324 447.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 119.324 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This line of reasoning is less than inadequate. Not one or two giants set the West apart; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather, it was the )] TJ ET BT 116.996 434.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(continuous)] TJ ET BT 169.664 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( sequence of original giants in Greece and in Rome, in medieval Europe, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the modern era. The West was always filled with individuals persistently searching for new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worlds, new visions, and new styles of painting, architecture, music, science, philosophy, and literature ? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative contrast, for example, to the intellectual traditions set down in ancient China ? Confucianism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Legalism, Taoism \(and later Buddhism\) ? which persisted in their essentials until the impact of the West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasioned some novelties. This is one of the arguments I make in my recent book, )] TJ ET BT 436.292 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Uniqueness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Western Civilization)] TJ ET BT 132.356 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2011\). The ultimate basis of Greek civic and cultural life was the aristocratic ethos of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individualism and competitive conflict which pervaded Indo-European culture. Ionian literature was far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world of the barbarian Indo-European warriors who occupied Greece and founded Mycenaean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilization, but it was nonetheless just as intensively competitive. New works of drama, philosophy, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(music were expounded in the first-person form as an adversarial or athletic contest in the pursuit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth.While Thales, Anaximander, Anaxagoras, Empedocles, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Leucippus, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Democritus each had a common interest in the hidden causes of things, each came up with their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radically new explanations. There were no Possessors of the Way in aristocratic Greece; no Chinese Sages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decorously deferential to their superiors and expecting appropriate deference from their inferiors. The search )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the truth was a free-for-all, each philosopher competing for intellectual prestige, in a polemical tone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which sought to discredit the theories of others and to promote one's own.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 388.472 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 388.472 205.347 m 402.464 205.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this environment the Greeks were singular in inventing naturalistic philosophy \(the Ionians\), tragedy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides\), comedy \(Aristophanes, Menander\), history \(Herodotus, Thucydides\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric \(Isocrates\), oratory \(the Sophists\), and dialectical inquiry \(Socrates, Plato, Aristotle\). Each of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovative fields was animated by a sceptical and independent disposition. Each artist and intellectual was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven by a desire for originality and fame. Homer may have remained the main schoolbook of the Greeks, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but there were always challengers. Early in the 7th century,Archilochus, for instance, broke with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominance of the hexameter in Homer and Hesiod, and also with the traditional demands of heroic honour, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admitting \(in a still very warlike culture\) that he had thrown away his shield in a flight ? ?I can get another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just as good?.Simonides soon followed with a new hedonistic poetry which vindicated the individual's right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to sensual happiness, lamented the shortness of human life, and consequently challenged the ideal of a short )] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 370.6037 626.5735 384.5957 638.4535 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 105.3317 448.0135 119.3237 459.8935 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 388.4717 205.6615 402.4637 217.5415 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 49 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Length 7656 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroic life.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.000 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.000 795.075 m 99.992 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This competitive desire on the part of individuals to stand out from others was ingrained in the whole social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlook of classical Greece: in the Olympic Games, in the perpetual warring of the city-states, in the pursuit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a political career and in the competition among orators for the admiration of the citizens, in the Athenian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theatre festivals, where huge numbers of poets would take part in Dionysian competitions amid high civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(splendour and religious ritual.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 178.004 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 178.004 711.795 m 191.996 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.996 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was this agonistic temperament which found expression in the Sophistic-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Socratic ethos of dialogic argument ? in the pursuit of knowledge by comparing and criticizing individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speeches, evaluating contradictory claims, collecting out evidence, cross-questioning and arguing by means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of open persuasion and refutation. This aristocratic/individualist ethos was the basis of the West?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsurpassed originality and restless expansionism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To Morris, like Diamond, the West is simply a geographical category; the ultimate origins of the West?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primacy are to be found in geographical factors. Geography shaped the development and the distribution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power and wealth in the world over the last 15,000 years. Morris pays more attention than Diamond to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way technological and social changes in turn changed the way geography came to determine the advantages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and disadvantages of geographical location. Then again, this emphasis is evident in Diamond?s effort to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account for why the Near East, for example, was unable to sustain its initial advantages in terms of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventual ecological degradation and the new opportunities which arose with the coming of iron in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploitation of the colder lands of Europe. Morris notes likewise how thousands of years ago the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographical location of an Atlantic Europe facing an impassable ocean was a great disadvantage, but when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new kinds of ships appeared in the 15th and 16th centuries that could cross this ocean, being close to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic and nearer to the Americas became a great advantage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What Morris adds to the school of geographical determinism is a grid to measure progress, an ?index of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social development? comprising energy capture, organization/urbanization, information technology, and war-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making capacity, which he employs to determine the precise dates when the West and the East took their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respective leads. His grand narrative also pays particular attention to the patterns of human history and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way actual political regimes developed and populations moved in response to environmental challenges. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Major sections of the book are dedicated to the way cultures, in varying places in the globe, underwent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regular crises brought on by Malthusian pressures, disease, famine, and war. World history, in Morris?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative, is essentially characterized by a cyclical mechanism wherein dynasties, governments, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilizations rise and fall at repeated intervals: 2200 BC, 1750 BC, 1200 BC, 800 BC, 540 AD, 1250 AD, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1645 AD ? all of which makes for a repetitive narrative. In his words, ?history is the same old same old? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 560\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the one atypical contribution Morris makes is his claim that the ?original core? of the West was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Near East. He brushes aside all prior identifications of the West with the European continent, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity, Greek democracy, Galilean science, or the Enlightenment. These are purely arbitrary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designations which should be abandoned. He cites approvingly Norman Davies?s alleged argument that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term ?Western civilization? is a mere ideological construct which has been defined ?by its advocates in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost any way that they think fit? \(p. 41\). Morris reasons that all the societies which descended from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fertile Crescent, including Rome, Byzantium, the Islamic world, and the Americas, should be deemed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Western?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But this geographical definition is far more arbitrary than any prior definition, starting with the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris completely misconstrues Davies?s argument. Davies writes, in his massive )] TJ ET BT 431.972 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe, A History)] TJ ET BT 519.632 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Western civilization is essentially an amalgam of intellectual constructs which were designed to further the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests of authors? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 133.664 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 133.664 122.067 m 153.656 122.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 153.656 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(as Morris points out\), but he does so only in reference to the divide between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western and Eastern Europe, not to the Near East or any other area of the world. Each of the 12 ways Davies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lists \(in which academics have defined the West\) addresses some cultural aspect of the European and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American continent \(e.g. Christianity, the Roman Empire, Protestantism, the ?WASP variant?, the ?Cold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War-variant?\). What Davies faults is the exclusion of Eastern Europe by some authors, but in the end he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that ?for purposes of comprehensive treatment, however, the important thing about all these )] TJ ET endstream endobj 45 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.9997 795.3895 99.9917 807.2695 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 178.0037 712.1095 191.9957 723.9895 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 133.6637 122.3815 153.6557 134.2615 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 57 0 R 60 0 R ] /Contents 55 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Length 7643 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitions is that )] TJ ET BT 120.356 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(each and everyone)] TJ ET BT 210.320 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contains a variety of regional aspects ... Despite their differences, all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the regions of Europe hold a very great deal in common. They are inhabited by peoples of predominantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indo-European culture and related kin. They are co-heirs of Christendom...?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.924 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.924 766.563 m 421.916 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With his new definition of the West, Morris gladly limits the history of )] TJ ET BT 378.008 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe)] TJ ET BT 413.336 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to a rather insignificant role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the 18th century. Meanwhile, ?the birth of the West?in the Tigris, Euphrates and Jordan valleys, gets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his loyal attention, in a long chapter which runs from page 81 to 134. From the beginnings of agriculture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around 10,000 BC until 550 AD, this was the ?most developed region? of the world. Afterwards, the Eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world takes the lead. From about 550 through 1775 AD, the Eastern regions move ahead of ?the West?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe proper thus becomes significant )] TJ ET BT 227.648 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(only after 1775)] TJ ET BT 300.980 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Ancient Greece, Rome, medieval Christendom, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance, Reformation, the Cartographic Revolution, the Scientific Era, the French Revolution are all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summarily treated as local affairs, if not ignored completely. In fact, the ?core? within Western civilization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barely shifts away from the Near East, Islamic Africa, and Ottoman Turkey before the 1770s. The Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire is not even given the status of ?core? region.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris never uses the words ?distinctive? or ?uniquely? in reference to Europe except in a sardonic way \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23, 261\). Only in reference to Iraq and Syria does he write with conviction of ?a distinctive Western world?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 97\) and ?a distinctive Western way of living? \(p. 99\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six, which covers the period from 100 BC to 500 AD, and which, accordingly, covers an era before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China takes the lead after 500 AD, is nevertheless about China rather than Rome. Once the ?Eastern Age? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrives, it is for the most part China which holds Morris?s obliging attention. History is so pleasant now; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tang China?s cultural ?openness to foreign ideas and ability to blend them into something new? \(p. 342\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the rise of a kind of ?protofeminism?? \(p. 339\), the ?extraordinary? achievements of the Neo-Confucians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 376\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In all fairness, the early medieval ?West? does get an honourable mention: ?by 700 the Islamic world more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or less was the Western core, and Christendom was merely a periphery along its northern edge? \(p. 354\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islam is even portrayed as more significant to Europe?s history than Christianity; the Arabs ?came not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bury the West but to perfect it? \(p. 353\). He rebukes the ?plenty of political pundits? today who ?find it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convenient ... to imagine Islamic civilization as being outside of and opposed to Western? civilization? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(353\). Saudi Arabia was a ?core? region of the West far longer than Europe. Now we see what a rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innocent call for unbiased ?geographical labels, not value judgements? \(p. 41\) essentially amount to: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Welcome to Eurabia!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Without the slightest equivocation, Morris writes that all monotheistic religions, including Buddhism, speak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the same truth? \(p. 325\), though he enjoys attacking Christianity?s ?extremist? positions and atrocities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while carefully managing with soft gloves the ?pragmatic,? ?rational?, and ?perfected? beliefs of the Eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Islamic worlds \(pp. 324, 362, 372?3, 472?3\). The reader should have been made aware, at the least, of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing scholarly literature pointing to some rather dramatic contrasts between Christianity and Islam. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity has exhibited a far richer intellectual tradition visible in the immediate fusion of Greek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy, Roman law, and the development of a Christian theology in the first centuries AD, not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention the scholastic legacy of the Middle Ages.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.652 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.652 207.603 m 294.644 207.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Christianity the authority of the earthly rulers is limited by God's law, which both grants rights to every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(person and holds that God is conterminous with reason, whereas in Islam the idea that Allah has limits to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own powers, by making an everlasting covenant with human beings, is unthinkable, in that Allah is viewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as absolutely transcendent. There is no self-limitation to the sovereignty of Islamic rulers, and this is one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason Islamic cultures have faced great difficulties producing a secular political order subject to extra-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious checks and balances. As Robert Reilly argues in )] TJ ET BT 313.304 111.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Closing of the Muslim Mind: How Intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Suicide Created the Modern Islamist Crisis )] TJ ET BT 245.348 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2010\), Islam was at first engaged with Aristotle but eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejected his reasoning when Abu Hamid al-Ghazali established a theology in which Allah came to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrayed as the personal and immediate director of the movement of every molecule in the universe through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his sheer incomprehensible wilfulness. In contrast, with St Anselm, Aquinas and others, Christianity went on )] TJ ET endstream endobj 56 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 401.9237 766.8775 421.9157 778.7575 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj [54 0 R /Fit] endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 274.6517 207.9175 294.6437 219.7975 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 64 0 R 66 0 R ] /Contents 63 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Length 7851 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to conceptualize the movement of material bodies in terms of natural laws.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reilly cites Pope Benedict XVI's 2006 address at Regensburg, according to which the Muslim theologian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ahmad Ibn Hazm \(11th century\) asserted that Allah was not limited by any natural order, not even by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own word. The assertion that Christianity is just one more religion among many others may be comforting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eurocrats wishing to bring Turkey into the European Union and achieve their goal of extirpating Christianity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Europe?s heritage, but it is clearly out of step with a fascinating literature on the comparative study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religions, which includes such recent work as James Gauss?s )] TJ ET BT 329.960 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Islam & Christianity, A Revealing Contrast)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2009\), Christopher?s Catherwood?s )] TJ ET BT 213.320 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A God Divided: Understanding the Differences Between Islam, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Christianity, and Judaism)] TJ ET BT 158.360 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2007\), and )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.680 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Goldmann)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.680 669.027 m 302.672 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 305.672 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 319.664 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('s )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 329.492 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Islam and the Bible)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 329.492 669.201 m 423.152 669.201 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 426.152 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 441.488 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2004\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Cathedrals, Peter Abelard, and Aquinas are mentioned in the two pages Morris allocates to the High )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages, along with the observation that this period saw ?the formation of a persecution society? which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined itself ?against what they were not ? pariahs such as Jews, homosexuals, lepers, and heretics, who, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first time ... were terrorized? \(p. 370\). Despite the Renaissance, and their voyages across the oceans of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world, Europeans ?still counted for little,? they ?had destroyed the Aztecs and shot their way into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets of the Indian Ocean, but it took more than that to impress the gatekeepers of All Under Heaven. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eastern social development remained far ahead of Western ... in 1521 there was little to suggest that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West would narrow the gap significantly? \(p. 433\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe does not look too impressive even ?in 1773,? when it finally catches up with China \(and surpasses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?old Western core? regions of Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Turkey\). The rise of Newtonian science and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Enlightenment still count for little in Morris?s estimation. ?Newton?s Principia came out just five years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after England?s last witch-hanging and five years before the Salem witch trials in Massachusetts. Newton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself ... was as enthusiastic about alchemy as about gravity ...? \(p. 470\). Locke may have proposed a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory of government based on natural rights, but ?Voltaire knew exactly where Europeans should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking for more enlightened models: China?. Confucianism, ?unlike Christianity, was a faith of reason, free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from superstition and foolish legends.? Indeed, ?Chinese intellectuals had already been challenging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolutism for a century before he [Voltaire] was born? \(pp. 472?3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As if this were not enough, Morris adds that an intellectual movement in 17th to 18th century China known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Kaozheng, ?paralleled western Europe's scientific revolution in every way ? except one: it did not develop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a mechanical model of nature? \(p. 473\). What evidence does Morris adduce for this claim? None ? except )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one: a brief statement on the travels of a civil servant named Gu Yanwu, who filled some notebooks with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed descriptions of farming, mining, and banking; and these writings, apparently, heralded a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empirically based vision of nature. Future Chinese scholars imitated Gu-Yanwu's call for concrete facts over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculation, and this produced a scientific method.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Chinese could have even chosen to develop a mechanical vision of the universe but they were ?still as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excited about ancient inscriptions [the texts of the Han dynasty] as about mining or agriculture.? They were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not as mechanical as the Europeans who, by contrast, were not the wilful choosers of their Newtonian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orientation, but were led to it as a result of their transoceanic explorations; ?the new frontier across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oceans )] TJ ET BT 69.668 208.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(needed)] TJ ET BT 103.652 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( precise measurements of standardized space, money, and time ... [It] would have been obtuse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to wonder whether nature itself was a mechanism? \(p. 476\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is nothing else I can cite from Morris that would substantiate these claims. Searching for the sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he relied on, I was led to Benjamin Elman's )] TJ ET BT 246.152 154.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Philosophy to Philology: Intellectual and Social Aspects of)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Change in Late Imperial China)] TJ ET BT 184.688 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1984\). For Elman the intellectual changes in 17th-18th century China )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituted a veritable ?epistemological revolution?. Chinese scholars began to speak and promote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?evidential research?, as opposed to mere bookish speculations. But Elman never says there was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparable scientific revolution in China. The conquest of the Manchus and the collapse of the Ming in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1644 led some Chinese scholars to find new ways to restore China's greatness by bringing attention to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas of the Warring States period and the Han dynasty. The comparison Elman makes is with the Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance scholars who rediscovered the Greeks and Romans. Chinese scholars, in their search for ancient )] TJ ET endstream endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 219.6797 669.3415 302.6717 681.2215 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.amazon.com/David-Goldmann/e/B001KHMC4E/ref=sr_ntt_srch_lnk_4?qid=1301582674&sr=1-4) >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 329.4917 669.3415 423.1517 681.2215 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=dp_srsubj_allbutton#/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias=stripbooks&field-keywords=Comparing+Islam+and+Christianity&rh=n:283155,k:Comparing+Islam+and+Christianity) >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 71 0 R 74 0 R 77 0 R 80 0 R 83 0 R ] /Contents 69 0 R >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Length 8428 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts, cultivated a philological reading of texts to determine which of many editions of the classics were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really original and which copied or forged additions of later centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elman, in a subsequent book)] TJ ET BT 172.340 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, In Their Own Terms)] TJ ET BT 276.008 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2005\), went on to argue that the Chinese failed to adopt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the basics of Western science, despite, I would add, a huge amount of tutoring of the Chinese by Jesuit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars. He showed that, by 1600, Europe was ahead of Asia in producing basic machines, such as clocks, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levers, and pulleys, which would constitute the basis for the mechanization of agriculture and industry. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There were some consumer-related techniques that Europeans sought to learn from the Chinese, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secrets of producing silk, fine textiles, and porcelain, as well as tea cultivation. Elman does not argue that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this philological movement contained the elements of modern Western science.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wing-Tsit Chan says that Gu Yanwu \(Ku Yen-wu, 1613?82\) and the scholars associated with the kaozheng )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement ?refused to accept anything without evidence,? which is why this movement was called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Investigations Based on Evidence?.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.312 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.312 614.259 m 235.304 614.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 235.304 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But Chan does not read into these statements a Baconian program )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the investigation of nature and the development of useful technologies for the improvement of the human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condition. These scholars were tired of the bookish Sung and Ming Neo-Confucians, their endless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?rationalistic? commentaries on books, and thus they called for the study of "concrete subjects", philology, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, astronomy, geography, and the like. As is clear in the writings of Yen Yuan \(1635?1704\), who also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticized the purely pedantic approach of the Neo-Confucians, the call was for a practical attitude to life, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge connected to action.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 185.984 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 185.984 528.723 m 205.976 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 205.976 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The Han ancients were practical men engaged in archery, chariot-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driving; and it was from this perspective \(not any parallel Western-like perspective\) that Yuan advocated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manual work and contact with concrete realities, against an effeminate bookish education.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beyond Elman, and in direct contradistinction to Morris, Kai-wing Chow \(1994\) argues that Late Imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China witnessed not a philological revolution but the ?rise of Classicism, ritualism, and purism?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 498.668 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 498.668 459.699 m 518.660 459.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 518.660 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The so-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called ?evidential? \(k'ao-cheng\) movement was a response to the threatened position of the Chinese gentry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an effort to restore an elite culture which had been considerably weakened by Ming commercialization. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philological scholarship was a subsidiary component of a broader socio-cultural movement by a class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking to preserve its status. The vision of this movement was conservative, recovery of the ?original? or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?pure? Confucian norms and language. They were dedicated to philological precision in their efforts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieve or recover the pure classical traditions. They rejected the Ming Neo-Confucian appeal to the innate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capacities of the common people, and instead stressed the distinction between the elite gentry and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commoners. ?Filial devotion, loyalty to the monarch, and wifely fidelity? ? these were their mottoes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined with ?punctilious observance of hierarchical relationship, and the exaltation of the ritual authority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Classics.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 112.340 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 112.340 317.139 m 132.332 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chow even challenges Elman's comparison of this movement with the Renaissance, emphasizing that ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ch'ing scholar's abhorrence of personal opinions and divergent patterns of behaviour contrasts markedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the attitudes of Renaissance humanists?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.996 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.996 262.371 m 271.988 262.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 271.988 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Let me add, in fact, that the ?philological revolution? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elman saw in 17th?18th-century China had already been pioneered by 14th?century Italian humanists in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their ?rediscovery? of lost ancient Roman classics, which was more important to the humanists than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recovering the classical Greek past. Starting with Petrarch \(1304?74\), who discovered several texts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cicero, including letters, and verified that these were actually written by him, Lorenzo Valla \(1407?54\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried to maturity this philological program by developing sophisticated methods of linguistic analysis to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determine age and authenticity. The best known example of this textual analysis was his determination that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Donation of Constantine, a testament in which Constantine bequeathed his power and wealth to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church, was actually a forgery. The humanistic education program of the )] TJ ET BT 388.940 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(artes liberales )] TJ ET BT 460.940 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasized as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of a practical education that would prepare young men for a civic life. The ideal gentleman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epitomized in Baldassare Castiglione?s, )] TJ ET BT 228.332 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Book of the Courtier)] TJ ET BT 348.332 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(composed between 1508 and 1528\) was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of a citizen who performed all kinds of services, such as taking care of the prince?s household, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managing servants, educating children, providing entertainment, keeping accounts, administering estates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going on diplomatic missions, training in horsemanship, swordplay, and fighting battles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the 18th century, Europe had moved well beyond the study of ancient texts, examining the origins of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 70 0 obj [68 0 R /Fit] endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 72 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.3117 614.5735 235.3037 626.4535 ] >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 73 0 obj [68 0 R /Fit] endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 185.9837 529.0375 205.9757 540.9175 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 76 0 obj [68 0 R /Fit] endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 78 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 498.6677 460.0135 518.6597 471.8935 ] >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 79 0 obj [68 0 R /Fit] endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 112.3397 317.4535 132.3317 329.3335 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 82 0 obj [68 0 R /Fit] endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 84 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 251.9957 262.6855 271.9877 274.5655 ] >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 88 0 R 91 0 R 94 0 R 97 0 R 100 0 R 103 0 R 106 0 R 109 0 R ] /Contents 86 0 R >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Length 9134 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language itself \(Dugald Steward wrote in 1761 his )] TJ ET BT 278.648 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dissertation on the Origin of Language)] TJ ET BT 468.992 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), the etymology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Bible from a ?naturalistic? standpoint, the bio-social evolution of the human species, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnographic study of language groups. Besides, while Morris writes of Chinese ?renaissances?, it has long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been well established that the Renaissance spearheaded by Italy was preceded by what Charles Homer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haskins called ?the Renaissance of the 12th Century?, which saw the culmination of Romanesque art and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginnings of the Gothic, the emergence of vernacular languages, the revival of Latin classics, poetry, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman law, as well as the recovery of Greek science and philosophy, the origins of universities, towns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sovereign state.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 126.332 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 126.332 695.283 m 146.324 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Every epoch in European history has seen major innovations and original giants. The medieval invention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eye glasses and mechanical clocks were part and parcel of what Norman Cantor has called ?a starting point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for new directions and dimensions in all facets of civilized life?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 342.296 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 342.296 640.515 m 362.288 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 362.288 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( May I offer a rough, and rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incomplete, catalogue of these immense achievements: i\) the investiture controversy and the emergence of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctive legal system of canon law which led to the rise of whole new systems of law ? urban law, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchant law, royal law, natural law, divine law ? that served to create a civil society composed of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingdoms, baronies, bishoprics, urban communes, guilds, and universities, each empowered to enact its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinances as well as to adjudicate internal disputes )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 285.308 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 285.308 569.235 m 305.300 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 305.300 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; ii\) the institutionalization of a university )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curriculum ?overwhelmingly oriented toward analytical subjects: logic, science, mathematics, and natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy,? which gave birth to a unique synthesis of reason and revelation, and made Catholicism the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most scholarly religion of the world )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.336 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.336 526.467 m 229.328 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 229.328 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; iii\) an ?epochal shift from qualitative to quantitative perception? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which led to a new conception of time as a succession of quanta, and a new polyphonic music where sounds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be seen as a phenomena moving through time, written on a paper using a codified and standardized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system of notation for all sounds and rests.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 239.336 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 239.336 483.699 m 259.328 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris cavalierly remarks that ?printing [in late Imperial China] had created an even broader readership for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new ideas than in western Europe? in the 1700s \(p. 473\). Morris seems to be claiming that black is white in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denial of the plain facts. The investigations of one of the foremost experts in this area, Cynthia Brokaw, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point to a book publishing and reading culture spreading throughout south China from the late 17th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the early 20th century. But nowhere does Brokaw claim that China witnessed a proliferation of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas. Her research simply traces the networks of itinerant book-selling and bookstores through south-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western China; the spread of primers and textbooks, ritual handbooks, medical manuals, fortune-telling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guides, poetry collections, and novels from the past. Through the dissemination of these books, publisher-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(booksellers were acting as agents of cultural integration, disseminating the core ancient texts of Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture to poor county seats, interior market towns, and isolated peasant villages.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.964 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.964 329.139 m 441.956 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchu emperors, it is true, became great patrons of literature and sponsored enormous projects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compilation and publications, including a vast encyclopedia in 5,020 chapters, and a project which resulted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the collection and reproduction of 3,697 classic works under the title )] TJ ET BT 378.968 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Complete Library of the Four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Treasuries)] TJ ET BT 85.352 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. But the same Manchu \(or Qing\) advocates of these projects conducted the well-known ?literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquisitions? of 1774-89, against books which reflected badly on the alien Manchu rule. Over 10,000 works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were placed on the index of prohibited works, and some 2,320 works were completely destroyed. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchu rulers also imposed strict controls over teaching and the academies, and carried out punishments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against thousands of authors and their families, executions, enslavements, exiles, and tortures.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.288 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.288 203.091 m 505.280 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the meantime, a rather small region of Europe, England, was being flooded with print materials: )] TJ ET BT 510.944 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(belles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(letters)] TJ ET BT 64.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, novels, magazines, newspapers, philosophical treatises, scientific manuals, pulp fiction, periodicals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the like ? as we learn from Roy Porter?s learned and vivacious book, )] TJ ET BT 387.608 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment, Britain and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Creation of the Modern World)] TJ ET BT 180.680 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2001\). During the 1620s about 6,000 printed titles had appeared in England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing to almost 21,000 during the 1710s, and to about 56,000 by the 1790s. The total in separate book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pamphlet titles published between 1660 and 1800 was over 300,000, with an estimated 200 million )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(copies sold. These numbers are all the more exceptional when we consider that the population in Britain in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1750 was only about 6.5 million, whereas in China it was around 210 million in 1700. By the 1770s, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(total annual sale of newspapers )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.980 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(25\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.980 62.787 m 206.972 62.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 206.972 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, when there were nine dailies in London and 50 provincial weeklies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was over 12 million. ?By 1800, a staggering 250 periodicals had been launched in England?, including )] TJ ET endstream endobj 87 0 obj [85 0 R /Fit] endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 89 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 126.3317 695.5975 146.3237 707.4775 ] >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 90 0 obj [85 0 R /Fit] endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 92 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 342.2957 640.8295 362.2877 652.7095 ] >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 93 0 obj [85 0 R /Fit] endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 95 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 285.3077 569.5495 305.2997 581.4295 ] >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 96 0 obj [85 0 R /Fit] endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 98 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 209.3357 526.7815 229.3277 538.6615 ] >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 99 0 obj [85 0 R /Fit] endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 101 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 239.3357 484.0135 259.3277 495.8935 ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 102 0 obj [85 0 R /Fit] endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 104 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 421.9637 329.4535 441.9557 341.3335 ] >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 105 0 obj [85 0 R /Fit] endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 107 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 485.2877 203.4055 505.2797 215.2855 ] >> endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 108 0 obj [85 0 R /Fit] endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 110 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 186.9797 63.1015 206.9717 74.9815 ] >> endobj 110 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 111 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 114 0 R 117 0 R 120 0 R 123 0 R 126 0 R 129 0 R 132 0 R ] /Contents 112 0 R >> endobj 112 0 obj << /Length 10582 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magazines written by and for women, dealing with love, marriage and the family, education, etiquette and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health. Ten thousand copies were printed of the third edition \(1787-97\) of the )] TJ ET BT 408.620 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encyclopaedia Britannica)] TJ ET BT 534.272 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 537.272 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(26\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 537.272 780.819 m 557.264 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris is not thinking of economic indices merely when he writes that ?as late as 1750, the similarities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the Eastern and Western cores were still striking? \(p. 503\). ?It is hard not to see?, he reflects a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentences down, ?a certain kinship between sprawling eighteenth-century novels of manners such as Samuel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richardson?s )] TJ ET BT 101.672 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Clarissa)] TJ ET BT 142.352 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Cao Xueqin?s )] TJ ET BT 236.336 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dream of the Red Chamber)] TJ ET BT 368.984 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 503\). I cannot see a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarity.)] TJ ET BT 86.024 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dream of the Red Chamber)] TJ ET BT 218.672 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, first printed in the late 1700s, is known as one of ?The Four Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Classical Novels? of Chinese literature. Many other tales were written, satirical, edifying, criminal, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentimental stories, but today they are generally not seen as having the status of great books of the world. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strictly speaking, none of the Great Classical Novels were novels. The word ?novel? came into use only at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the end of the 18th century in England as a transliteration of the Italian word ?novella. The roots of the novel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be traced back to i\) Spanish picaresque tales \(1500s\) with their strings of episodic adventures held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together by the personality of the central figure; ii\) Elizabethan prose fiction and the translation of ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek romances into the vernacular, iii\) French heroic romance with its huge baroque narratives about thinly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veiled contemporaries \(mid-17th century\) who always acted nobly and spoke high-flown sentiments. What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British novelists added in the 1700s was a more unified and plausible \(down-to-earth\) plot structure, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharply individualized and believable characters, and a less aristocratic \(or more ?middle class?\) style of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing. The novel, in these respects, was invented in Europe, particularly after 1750.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 442.940 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(27\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 442.940 540.723 m 462.932 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 462.932 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was ?associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from its inception,? in the words of Porter, ?with individualism and a certain political liberalism?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 502.976 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(28\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 502.976 526.467 m 522.968 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England played the leading role in this genre, cultivating a new sensibility for authenticity, personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience and feeling, a spirit of non-conformity towards rigid and ?insincere? conventions, a fascination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the inner depths of the affective self. )] TJ ET BT 236.972 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Clarissa)] TJ ET BT 277.652 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was just one of such novels; consider )] TJ ET BT 462.296 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pamela)] TJ ET BT 498.956 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sir Charles Grandison)] TJ ET BT 143.360 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by the same author; Sarah Fielding?s )] TJ ET BT 327.008 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Adventures of)] TJ ET BT 417.332 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(David Simple)] TJ ET BT 482.324 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1744\), Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brooke?s )] TJ ET BT 82.340 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fool of Quality)] TJ ET BT 177.344 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1765\), Daniel Defoe?s )] TJ ET BT 295.640 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Robinson Crusoe )] TJ ET BT 381.644 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1719\), and )] TJ ET BT 439.964 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Moll Flanders)] TJ ET BT 508.964 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1722\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oliver Goldsmith?s )] TJ ET BT 131.348 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Vicar of Wakefield)] TJ ET BT 242.336 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1764\), Lawrence Sterne?s )] TJ ET BT 377.288 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tristram Shandy)] TJ ET BT 457.628 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1759-67\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Sentimental Journey)] TJ ET BT 142.664 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1767\), and more popularly Charlotte Smith?s )] TJ ET BT 369.980 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Emmeline)] TJ ET BT 417.968 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1788\), )] TJ ET BT 458.960 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ethelinde)] TJ ET BT 504.956 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1789\),)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Celestina)] TJ ET BT 79.352 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1791\), )] TJ ET BT 120.344 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Desmond)] TJ ET BT 165.668 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1792\), )] TJ ET BT 206.660 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Old Manor House )] TJ ET BT 317.984 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1793\), )] TJ ET BT 355.976 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wandering of Warwick)] TJ ET BT 488.300 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1794\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Banished Man)] TJ ET BT 124.676 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1794\),)] TJ ET BT 162.668 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Montalbert)] TJ ET BT 219.668 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1795\), )] TJ ET BT 260.660 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marchmont)] TJ ET BT 316.652 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1796\), )] TJ ET BT 357.644 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Young Philosopher)] TJ ET BT 470.984 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1798\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There were numerous heterodox publications associated with the British Enlightenment. How can Morris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state in all seriousness that there was a ?broader readership for )] TJ ET BT 336.932 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(new ideas)] TJ ET BT 384.596 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? in China? The point is not that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China was lacking in eminent thinkers such as Ku Yen-wu, Tai Chen \(1723?77\), and Chang Hsueh-ch?eng )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1736?96\) ? all three viewed by Gernet as the ?most profound and original thinkers? of their time.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.260 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(29\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.260 329.139 m 524.252 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 524.252 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these scholars were always preoccupied with the Classics, commenting on them, debating, challenging, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or re-evaluating past interpretations. Looking at England alone, during the same period, we find a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentally different list: Edmund Burke, Adam Smith, David Hume, John Locke, Bernard Mandeville, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Ferguson, Isaac Newton, Jeremy Bentham, Thomas Reid, Samuel Clarke, Erasmus Darwin, Edward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gibbon, William Godwin, Francis Hutcheson, Samuel Johnson, Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift and, if we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to add a woman, Mary Wollstonecraft.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 245.300 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(30\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 245.300 243.603 m 265.292 243.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris, called a ?polymath? by at least two reviewers, must surely know that he is playing tricks with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical facts, but somehow as a Party intellectual who knows in which direction the evidence must be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altered to fit with the multicultural line, he has satisfied himself, through the exercise of Orwellian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doublethink, that the actual historical evidence was not violated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He follows closely Kenneth Pomeranz?s claim that the industrial revolution was initiated in England ?more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by accident than design?. He emphasizes colonial resources, easy access to coal mines, and especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England?s proximity to the Atlantic and the opportune emergence of ocean-crossing navigational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technologies.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.676 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(31\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.676 105.555 m 117.668 105.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 117.668 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( By combining Diamond?s long term argument on the domestication of plants and animals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Pomeranz?s short term emphasis on England?s geographical good luck, Morris believes he has solved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the enigma of human history. It never occurs to him to pay some attention to the devastating criticisms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mounted against every major empirical claim made by Pomeranz.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 349.628 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(32\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 349.628 62.787 m 369.620 62.787 l S endstream endobj 113 0 obj [111 0 R /Fit] endobj 114 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 115 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 537.2717 781.1335 557.2637 793.0135 ] >> endobj 115 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 116 0 obj [111 0 R /Fit] endobj 117 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 118 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 442.9397 541.0375 462.9317 552.9175 ] >> endobj 118 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 119 0 obj [111 0 R /Fit] endobj 120 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 121 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 502.9757 526.7815 522.9677 538.6615 ] >> endobj 121 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 122 0 obj [111 0 R /Fit] endobj 123 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 124 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 504.2597 329.4535 524.2517 341.3335 ] >> endobj 124 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 125 0 obj [111 0 R /Fit] endobj 126 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 127 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 245.2997 243.9175 265.2917 255.7975 ] >> endobj 127 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 128 0 obj [111 0 R /Fit] endobj 129 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 130 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 97.6757 105.8695 117.6677 117.7495 ] >> endobj 130 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 131 0 obj [111 0 R /Fit] endobj 132 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 133 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 349.6277 63.1015 369.6197 74.9815 ] >> endobj 133 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 134 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 137 0 R 140 0 R 143 0 R ] /Contents 135 0 R >> endobj 135 0 obj << /Length 7781 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The actual history of Europe?s industrialization hardly gets more attention than ?what-ifs? questions about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China?s non-industrialization. In a chapter entitled ?The Western age,? which starts on page 503, Morris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally focuses on Europe ? mind you, through the prism of Marx?s condemnation of England?s capitalism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and only until page 515, as he returns to the East, the ?defeat, humiliation, and exploitation? it suffered ?at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western hands? \(p. 520\). From here on, the rest of the book is almost entirely about the ?astonishing? speed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with which Easterners assimilated Western modernization, and the faster rate of development exhibited by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China after the 1990s, until we are led to a conclusion in which he explores the future.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris?s consideration of the future seems to be purely technological and unconcerned with cultural matters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is how reviewers have invariably read his concluding chapter. Influenced by the New Age futurist Ray )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kurzweil?s idea of ?singularity?, Morris proposes that human life will be transformed by technology at an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanding speed. The human species is approaching ?a massive discontinuity? via the fusion of humans with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(computers and robots and the emergence of genetically engineered life forms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But this ostensibly scientifically neutral vision is essentially a continuation of Morris?s disparaging attitude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards everything Western and European. These new technologies, in the long run, will ?obliterate the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geography?, including any distinction between east and west; we will come together ?in a global village?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But before that happens, China will ?rule and the world will be Easternized? \(pp. 589?90\). What I find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arresting, or perhaps not, since this is a view commonly endorsed in academia and supported by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive globalist billionaire George Soros, is the defeatist way Morris welcomes the decline of the West. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The patterns established in the past suggest that the shift of wealth and power from West to East is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inexorable? \(p. 614\). He finds it a bit alarming that Americans speak of decline as if it were a terrible thing; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after all, ?if you just substitute America and China, you get really remarkably similar kinds of things?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps this is better than what Soros said not long ago: ?I have to say that today China has a more, not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a more vigorous economy, but actually a better functioning government than the United States?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 495.620 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(33\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 495.620 445.443 m 515.612 445.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 515.612 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are many who believe this and look at the rise of China and the decline of the West with great enthusiasm. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This way of thinking, including talk of a global village, is conterminous with Morris's geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determinism and his claim that humans are all the same regardless of cultural background, religious beliefs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and intellectual life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris writes: ?If we think about culture in a broader, more anthropological sense, the West's history again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to be one example of a larger pattern rather than a unique story.? The key word here is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?anthropological?. Anthropology studies the repeatable behaviours of large numbers of faceless people, and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as such, it is a discipline which has been effectively set against the elite culture of the West. From the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective of what thousands and millions of humans do routinely to survive ? the energy they consume, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tools they have, the fertility of the land ? the achievements of singular individuals seem trivial. ?Humans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are all much the same wherever we find them; and, because of this, human societies have all followed much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(same sequence)] TJ ET BT 123.320 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of cultural development. There is nothing special about the West?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.268 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(34\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.268 262.371 m 465.260 262.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This emphasis on a common cultural humanity is consistent with the officially established academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology of ?diversity? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 147.668 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(35\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 147.668 221.859 m 167.660 221.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 167.660 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which is intended precisely to do away with the notion that Western nations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have a distinctive, particular identity. Not only is there no such thing as a pan-European identity but such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things as Britishness or Germanness are dismissed as ethnocentric and even dangerous. The humans who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabited the British Isles for millennia developed a culture no different from the ones who inhabited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tasmania; humans are all the same, interchangeable and malleable. The British national culture does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really exist \(by which multiculturalists mean that it should not exist\). Americans and the Chinese are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practically \(in terms of economic growth and biological longevity\) the same, or at least similarly enough that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their differences don't really make much of a difference. The American Declaration of Rights with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peculiar imposition of strict limits on the ends of the federal government, and its protection of individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberty, is akin to the ideals of the Communist Party in China.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If only one could find in Morris a common human nature with some redeeming qualities; but that is not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case. The ?bottom line?, he writes, is that all humans are equally ?lazy, greedy, and fearful? \(p. 194\). These )] TJ ET endstream endobj 136 0 obj [134 0 R /Fit] endobj 137 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 138 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 495.6197 445.7575 515.6117 457.6375 ] >> endobj 138 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 139 0 obj [134 0 R /Fit] endobj 140 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 141 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 445.2677 262.6855 465.2597 274.5655 ] >> endobj 141 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 142 0 obj [134 0 R /Fit] endobj 143 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 144 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 147.6677 222.1735 167.6597 234.0535 ] >> endobj 144 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 145 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 148 0 R 151 0 R 153 0 R 155 0 R 157 0 R 159 0 R 161 0 R 163 0 R 165 0 R 167 0 R ] /Contents 146 0 R >> endobj 146 0 obj << /Length 9028 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispositions are the driving forces of social development, and since they are the same everywhere, it is ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maps rather than the chaps? that account for the differences in the rates of innovation. He repeats this phrase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? ?history is made by lazy, greedy, and fearful? people ? throughout the book \(pp. 99, 112, 26, 359, 467, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(557, 559, 571,618\). Towards the end, at the same time as he is hyping up fears about the ?shocking scale of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental degradation?, Morris becomes more dismissive, even contemptuous, of ordinary people, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regularly calling them ?bungling idiots? \(pp. 565, 568, two times in 578, 616\). Absent here is the social ethic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was distinctive of the British Enlightenment, according to which humans generally were endowed with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?moral sense,? a ?fellow-feeling? that inspired in them sympathy, benevolence and compassion for others. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris is far closer to the French Enlightenment?s mistrust of the common people, the ?imbecility?, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?idiocy? of the ?multitude?, of the ?rabble?, as Voltaire, Diderot, Holbach, Helvetius, Lamettrie, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rousseau were wont to write.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.324 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(36\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.324 652.515 m 196.316 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 196.316 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The difference is that Morris is contemptuous of great men as well: ?I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have argued throughout this book that great men/women and bungling idiots have never played as big a part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in shaping history as they have believed they did? \(p. 616\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 317.312 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(37\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 317.312 624.003 m 337.304 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the same token, Morris credits himself with proposing a ?Morris Theorem?: ?to explain the entire course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history ... I hope that the evidence presented in Chapters 2?10 has borne this out? \(p. 559\). Then he warns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us that the ?next forty years will be the most important in history? ? that is, the remaining years of his life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Disrespectful of the Western past, mistrustful of the democratic will of the unlettered masses, but looking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward to a more enlightened future, Morris closes with these final words: ?only historians can draw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together the grand narrative of social development , only historians can explain the differences that divide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanity and how we can prevent them from destroying us? \(p. 622\). He claims in the introduction to be the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only historian to have put together a grand narrative of history unifying long-term and short term theories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development. In other words, only Morris can prevent humanity from destroying itself. Astonishing indeed!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 450.195 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Lawrence Rose, )] TJ ET BT 168.656 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Italian Renaissance of Mathematics: Studies on Humanists and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mathematicians from Petrarch to Galileo)] TJ ET BT 264.008 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Geneva, 1975\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 344.648 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 344.648 403.923 m 398.636 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jared Diamond, )] TJ ET BT 143.000 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guns, Germs, and Steel)] TJ ET BT 256.652 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Norton, 1999\), p. 14.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.640 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.640 389.667 m 418.628 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, pp. 8?9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 127.676 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 127.676 375.411 m 181.664 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These words are taken from Morris?s article, ?Latitudes, not attitudes: how geography explains )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history?, )] TJ ET BT 108.680 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Today)] TJ ET BT 177.680 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 60, 11 \(2010\). Similar expressions can be found in )] TJ ET BT 429.320 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Why the West Rules)] TJ ET BT 524.300 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60?1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.344 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.344 332.643 m 144.332 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Scruton, ?Multiculturalism R.I.P?, )] TJ ET BT 264.680 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Spectator)] TJ ET BT 381.332 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(December 2010 ? January 2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 304.131 m 118.004 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Morris, ?Latitudes, not attitudes: how geography explains history.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.312 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.312 289.875 m 458.300 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 277.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. E. R Lloyd makes this observation as well in )] TJ ET BT 299.672 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Way and the Word. Science and Medicine in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Early China and Greece)] TJ ET BT 181.664 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 2002\), co-authored with Nathan Sivin, who writes chapter )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on ancient Chinese science. Lloyd does not connect this competitive spirit to the aristocratic character )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ancient Greece, arguing instead that it was somehow generated out of the argumentative atmosphere )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the democratic assemblies.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 205.988 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 205.988 218.595 m 259.976 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Werner Jaeger, )] TJ ET BT 139.640 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paideia. The Ideals of Greek Culture)] TJ ET BT 317.624 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Vol. I: )] TJ ET BT 357.956 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Archaic Greece: The Mind of Athens)] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1986 [1939]\), pp. 114?35.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 233.984 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 233.984 190.083 m 287.972 190.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 177.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.106 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. E. R Lloyd describes this agonistic atmosphere well:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.821 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Far more than their counterparts in most other ancient civilizations, Greek doctors, philosophers, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.565 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sophists, even mathematicians, were alike faced with an openly competitive situation of great )] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.309 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensity. While the modalities of their rivalries varied, in each the premium, to a greater or less )] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.053 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree, was on skills of self-justification and self-advertisement, and this had far-reaching )] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.797 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences for the way they practiced their investigations as well as on how they presented their )] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.541 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(results?. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.285 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Herodotus travelled around Egypt in the fifth century ?he was astonished to find no organized )] TJ ET endstream endobj 147 0 obj [145 0 R /Fit] endobj 148 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 149 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 176.3237 652.8295 196.3157 664.7095 ] >> endobj 149 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 150 0 obj [145 0 R /Fit] endobj 151 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 152 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 317.3117 624.3175 337.3037 636.1975 ] >> endobj 152 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 153 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 154 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 344.6477 404.2375 398.6357 416.1175 ] >> endobj 154 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 155 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 156 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 364.6397 389.9815 418.6277 401.8615 ] >> endobj 156 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 157 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 158 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 127.6757 375.7255 181.6637 387.6055 ] >> endobj 158 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 159 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 160 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 90.3437 332.9575 144.3317 344.8375 ] >> endobj 160 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 161 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 162 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 304.4455 118.0037 316.3255 ] >> endobj 162 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 163 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 164 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 404.3117 290.1895 458.2997 302.0695 ] >> endobj 164 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 37 0 R >> endobj 165 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 166 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 205.9877 218.9095 259.9757 230.7895 ] >> endobj 166 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 40 0 R >> endobj 167 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 168 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 233.9837 190.3975 287.9717 202.2775 ] >> endobj 168 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 45 0 R >> endobj 169 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 171 0 R 173 0 R 175 0 R 177 0 R 179 0 R 181 0 R 183 0 R 185 0 R 187 0 R 189 0 R 191 0 R 193 0 R 195 0 R 197 0 R 199 0 R 201 0 R 203 0 R ] /Contents 170 0 R >> endobj 170 0 obj << /Length 11220 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(games; [but] open competition in games is incompatible with such rigidly stratified societies as those )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the ancient Near East, with their Pharaohs and other absolute monarchies at the apex, divinely )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanctioned and sometimes gods themselves?. As cited in John Keegan, )] TJ ET BT 406.640 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Warfare)] TJ ET BT 508.304 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1994\), p. 247.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.012 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.012 752.307 m 185.000 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 727.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman Davies, )] TJ ET BT 145.664 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe, A History)] TJ ET BT 233.324 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1997\), p. 25.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 380.960 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 380.960 726.051 m 440.948 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 713.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, p. 28.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.348 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.348 711.795 m 176.336 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 698.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Edward Grant, )] TJ ET BT 157.988 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God & Reason in the Middle Ages )] TJ ET BT 325.640 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2001\); James Hannam, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God's Philosophers: How the Medieval World Laid the Foundations of Modern Science )] TJ ET BT 488.552 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009\); Alasdair Macintyre, )] TJ ET BT 200.324 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God, Philosophy, Universities: A Selective History of the Catholic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philosophical Tradition )] TJ ET BT 182.036 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Lanham, MD, 2009\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 284.684 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 284.684 654.771 m 344.672 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 641.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wing-Tsit Chan, )] TJ ET BT 147.680 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy)] TJ ET BT 329.996 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 1963\), p. 709.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 475.316 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 475.316 640.515 m 535.304 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 627.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, pp. 703?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.676 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.676 626.259 m 199.664 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 613.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kai-wing Chow,)] TJ ET BT 144.008 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Rise of Confucian Ritualism in Late Imperial China )] TJ ET BT 419.360 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chicago, IL, 1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 517.676 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 517.676 612.003 m 557.672 612.003 l S BT 64.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 597.747 m 84.008 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 584.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, pp. 3, 227.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 140.348 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 140.348 583.491 m 200.336 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 570.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, p. 230.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.348 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.348 569.235 m 182.336 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 556.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Homer Haskins, )] TJ ET BT 184.664 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Renaissance of the 12th Century)] TJ ET BT 361.652 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published originally in 1927, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenged Burckhardt?s view that the Italian Renaissance saw ?the first modern individuals?. Haskins )] TJ ET BT 64.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminded historians that ?the continuity of history rejects violent contrasts between successive )] TJ ET BT 64.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods? \(1972, v\). I agree in the paradoxical sense that Western history has been continually )] TJ ET BT 64.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discontinuous.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 133.688 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 133.688 497.955 m 193.676 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 485.098 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman Cantor, )] TJ ET BT 145.004 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Civilization of the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 315.344 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1994\), p. 305.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 432.668 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 432.668 483.699 m 492.656 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 470.842 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harold Berman, )] TJ ET BT 144.332 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Law and Revolution: The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition )] TJ ET BT 474.344 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MA, 1983\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.344 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.344 455.187 m 180.332 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 442.330 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grant, )] TJ ET BT 97.340 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God & Reason in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 261.992 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 264.992 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 264.992 440.931 m 324.980 440.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 428.074 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alfred Crosby, )] TJ ET BT 139.004 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Measure of Reality: Quantification and Western Society, 1250?1600)] TJ ET BT 468.308 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997\). We could go on writing about medieval creativity in literature, for example: Capellanus and a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vernacular literature dealing with love, romance, seduction, and adulterous affairs; El Cid and a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vernacular poetry dealing with the epic; Dante and the placement of vernacular literature on a par with )] TJ ET BT 64.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biblical and classical literature; Chaucer and the freeing of poetic diction and the use of participial )] TJ ET BT 64.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructions and a wider vocabulary that includes more polysyllabic words; Guibert de Nogent, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pierre Abelard and the discovery of the human persona, of privacy and the need to be ?on one?s own?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to mention the proliferation of heterodox religious movements, Cistercians, Victorines, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franciscans, Dominicans, and the ?democratization? and ?laicization? of mystical experience ? all )] TJ ET BT 64.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolized in a Gothic architecture with a new dynamic spirit of movement upward, soaring spires )] TJ ET BT 64.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and extended vaulted arches.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 202.640 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 202.640 284.115 m 262.628 284.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 271.258 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cynthia Brokaw, )] TJ ET BT 149.012 271.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commerce)] TJ ET BT 203.996 271.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Culture: The Sibao Book Trade in the Qing and Republican Periods)] TJ ET BT 64.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, MA, 2007\))] TJ ET BT 180.668 256.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.668 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.668 255.603 m 243.656 255.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 242.746 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John King Fairbank, )] TJ ET BT 165.344 242.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(China, A New History)] TJ ET BT 271.352 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, 1992\), pp. 158?9; Jacques Gernet, A )] TJ ET BT 64.016 228.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Chinese Civilization)] TJ ET BT 213.032 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1990\), p. 505.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 346.352 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 346.352 227.091 m 406.340 227.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 214.234 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newspapers, a major medium in the creation of a mass readership, were invented in Europe in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century. It has been said that the regular Chinese )] TJ ET BT 360.284 199.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pao)] TJ ET BT 378.284 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(or reports of court affairs\) )] TJ ET BT 64.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circulated among the educated civil servants for more than a thousand years \(AD 618-1911\) was the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forerunner of the modern newspaper. But if we define the term ?newspaper?as denoting, in the words )] TJ ET BT 64.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Johannes Weber, ?printed medium appearing at regular short intervals of at least once a week, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced in relatively large print runs, sold to the public at a moderate price and providing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information to a sizable number of readers about important current events and developments around )] TJ ET BT 64.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world?, the first newspaper sheet appeared in Strassburg in 1605. By the 1620s a variety of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers were circulating in central Europe. Speaking of a broad readership for new ideas, let it be )] TJ ET BT 64.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said that by the mid-seventeeth to eighteenth century, newspapers ?were the most widely read secular )] TJ ET BT 64.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material? in Europe. ?They provided a seedbed for the broadening political education which fostered )] TJ ET BT 64.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of the Enlightenment?. See Johannes Weber, ?Strassburg, 1605: The origins of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 171 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 172 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.0117 752.6215 184.9997 764.5015 ] >> endobj 172 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 48 0 R >> endobj 173 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 174 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 380.9597 726.3655 440.9477 738.2455 ] >> endobj 174 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 51 0 R >> endobj 175 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 176 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 116.3477 712.1095 176.3357 723.9895 ] >> endobj 176 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 56 0 R >> endobj 177 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 178 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 284.6837 655.0855 344.6717 666.9655 ] >> endobj 178 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 59 0 R >> endobj 179 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 180 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 475.3157 640.8295 535.3037 652.7095 ] >> endobj 180 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 70 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[(Enlightenment, Britain and the Creation of the Modern, )] TJ ET BT 393.680 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 73?92.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 444.008 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(26\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 444.008 780.819 m 503.996 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Ian Watt?s )] TJ ET BT 138.992 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of the Novel)] TJ ET BT 241.652 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, CA, 2001 [1957]\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.624 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(27\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.624 766.563 m 446.612 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Porter, )] TJ ET BT 99.344 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment, Britain and the Creation of the Modern)] TJ ET BT 364.676 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 283.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 403.676 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to 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or An Essay Upon Whoring )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1724\), Henry Kames?s )] TJ ET BT 181.316 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gentleman Farmer; Being an Attempt to Improve Agriculture by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Subjecting it to the Test of Rational Principles)] TJ ET BT 286.364 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1776\), William Alexander?s )] TJ ET BT 432.668 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Women)] TJ ET BT 519.992 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1779\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannah More?s )] TJ ET BT 143.324 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strictures on the Modern System of Female Education)] TJ ET BT 403.628 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1779\), Judith Drake?s )] TJ ET BT 519.272 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Essay )] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Defence of the Female Sex)] TJ ET BT 204.308 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1696\), Richard Steele?s )] TJ ET BT 328.616 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Tender Husband)] TJ ET BT 429.944 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1705\), Mary Astell, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Some Reflections upon Marriage)] TJ ET BT 222.332 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1700\), John Clarke?s )] TJ ET BT 333.980 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Essay upon the Education of Youth in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Grammar-schools)] TJ ET BT 151.340 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1720\), Sarah Trimmer?s )] TJ ET BT 278.312 411.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fabulous Histories Designed for the Amusement and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Instruction of Young People)] TJ ET BT 199.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1786\), George Ballard )] TJ ET BT 316.652 397.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memoirs of Several Ladies of Great Britain who )] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(have been Celebrated for their Writings or Skill in the Learned Languages, Arts and Sciences)] TJ ET BT 513.656 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1752\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Hanway, )] TJ ET BT 142.328 368.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defects of Police)] TJ ET BT 224.312 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1775\), Joseph Priestley )] TJ ET BT 345.968 368.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History and Present State of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 354.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Electricity, with Original Experiments)] TJ ET BT 248.012 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1767\), Richard Price, )] TJ ET BT 363.656 354.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Free Discussion of the Doctrines of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Materialism and Philosophical Necessity)] TJ ET BT 261.680 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1778\), These, and many more, were all works with new )] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.676 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(30\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.676 324.627 m 151.664 324.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 311.770 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a lecture he gave at the Carnegie Council, October 28, 2010, Morris said the following regarding )] TJ ET BT 64.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the arrival of Europeans in the Americas: ?There are other factors as well involved of course, but the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans are the ones who settle in the Americas, take it over, and kill the enormous majority of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(native population with their )] TJ ET BT 200.012 268.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(disgusting European germs)] TJ ET BT 332.012 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/resources/transcripts/0331.html#1)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 253.347 m 382.976 253.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 385.976 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 399.968 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 18 April 2011]. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not long ago, )] TJ ET BT 132.680 228.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New York Times)] TJ ET BT 232.352 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(October 31 2010\) reported some new findings indicating ?that all )] TJ ET BT 64.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three of the great waves of plague originated from China?, including the so-called ?Black Death? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which killed about 30 per cent of the European population. I wonder what the reaction of an audience )] TJ ET BT 64.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be if someone had stated that there is now confirmation that the Black Death was brought on by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?disgusting Chinese germs?.Westerners are so used to this ethno-masochistic way of speaking \(Morris )] TJ ET BT 64.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was born in England\), that the audience let it passed with a compliant, if unsatisfied, laughter.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 514.292 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 514.292 155.811 m 554.288 155.811 l S BT 64.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(31\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 141.555 m 84.008 141.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 116.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(32.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, Philip Huang, ?Development or involution in eighteenth-century Britain and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China,? )] TJ ET BT 107.012 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Asian Studies)] TJ ET BT 224.684 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 61, 2; Peer Vries, ?Are coal and colonies really crucial? Kenneth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pomeranz and the great divergence,? )] TJ ET BT 243.956 88.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of World History)] TJ ET BT 365.624 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 12; Ricardo Duchesne, ?On the rise of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the west: Researching Kenneth Pomeranz?s great divergence?,)] TJ ET BT 367.928 73.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Review of Radical Political Economics)] TJ ET BT 555.248 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(36, 1 \(Winter 2004\), 52-81.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 196.328 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(32\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 196.328 58.275 m 256.316 58.275 l S endstream endobj 207 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 208 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.9637 795.3895 382.9517 807.2695 ] >> endobj 208 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 108 0 R >> endobj 209 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 210 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 444.0077 781.1335 503.9957 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[(33.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 77.012 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 98.012 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National Post)] TJ ET BT 164.360 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(November 16 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 271.004 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(33\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 271.004 795.075 m 330.992 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(34.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The cited words in this paragraph are from ?Latitudes, not attitudes: how geography explains history?. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For similar passages in the book, see 29?30.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 275.660 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(34\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 275.660 766.563 m 335.648 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Peter Wood's )] TJ ET BT 151.160 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Diversity: The Invention 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