%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722051812+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722051812+01'00') /Title (Feeling Persecuted: Christians, Jews and Images of Violence in the Middle Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4752 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Feeling Persecuted: Christians, Jews and Images of Violence in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ever since R. I. Moore published his )] TJ ET BT 212.996 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Formation of a Persecuting Society)] TJ ET BT 404.648 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1987, we have increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come to understand medieval society in terms of its treatment of its ?others?: Jews, lepers, heretics and so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forth.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 60.344 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 60.344 236.289 m 74.336 236.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 74.336 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( New bureaucratic structures starting in the 11th century established themselves by persecuting these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minorities. David Nirenberg added importantly to this analysis by showing the role of violence, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolic violence, in enacting and policing these boundaries.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 329.648 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 329.648 207.777 m 343.640 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 343.640 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And Israel Jacob Yuval opened up another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension of the historiography by showing how Jews and Christians shared a common language of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence and traded motifs back and forth over the religious barricades: Jews killed their families and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves in the Crusades in imitation of Christian ideas of martyrdom.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 383.000 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 383.000 165.009 m 396.992 165.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 396.992 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yuval also demonstrated how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ritual murder accusation against Jews played a key role in the production of Christian saints. For the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victim ? typically a child ? to die at the hands of the Jews was to imitate Christ?s passion. Violence by Jews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a necessary component in the Christian economy of redemption.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Bale has productively built on these and other works in his brilliant study of the medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconography of violence. Drawing primarily ? but not exclusively ? on English materials, he significantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revises Moore by showing that images of violence were significant methods of inculcating Christian virtues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of meekness and clemency. In a paradoxical way, to persecute the Jews was a way of enacting the Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1093)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 May, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Bale)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781861897619)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(254pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reaktion Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Biale)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 60.3437 236.6035 74.3357 248.4835 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 329.6477 208.0915 343.6397 219.9715 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 382.9997 165.3235 396.9917 177.2035 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7994 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(message of love, since the Jews had rejected that message with violence. Or, as Christopher Ocker has put it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a theology of love was just as responsible for the ritual murder accusation as a theology of hate.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 493.268 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 493.268 780.819 m 507.260 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 507.260 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearances to the contrary, Jews were powerful, while Christians were weak, as befit those who imitated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christ. Images of violent Jews reinforced Christians? identities as victims and thus justified their own violent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes toward the Jews. And in some cases, this emotional economy operated without actual Jews, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England after the Jews had been expelled in 1291.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bale places emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 154.664 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(feeling)] TJ ET BT 187.328 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for he believes that ?if we wish to uncover how medieval people thought, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we must take seriously how they felt? \(p. 11\). As opposed to the Enlightenment hierarchy of reason over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotions, the Middle Ages sought to inculcate feeling in its iconography, the primary means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication when literacy was restricted to tiny elites. Love and hate were inextricably intertwined so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that images aroused both of these emotions simultaneously and dialectically. In addition, the feelings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aroused by images of Jews tormenting Jesus were designed to make those viewing these images feel that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events represented were not in the distant past, but instead in the present. Just as Jews are commanded to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience the exodus from Egypt as if it happened to them, so medieval Christians wanted to experience the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passion and resurrection as if they were happening today. This was the temporal import of seeing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eucharist as the )] TJ ET BT 113.000 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(real )] TJ ET BT 135.332 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence of Christ and not a memorial of a distant savior. This was also the role played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by saints martyred at the hands of Jews: their deaths reenacted the crucifixion, thus allowing those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participated in their cult to connect existentially with the events of the first century. Morever, in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify with Christ, contemporary Jews had to be pressed into service to fulfill the role of the alleged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient persecutors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As in contemporary horror films, the role of violence in medieval iconography was to enact a symbolic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universe of good versus extreme evil. To reinforce good required scenes of extraordinary violence. Bale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quotes from Prudentius?s )] TJ ET BT 159.008 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Psychomachia)] TJ ET BT 228.992 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a late Latin text that visualized the battles between the virtues and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vices and that would have been known, he says, to all medieval schoolboys. Here is how this text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes Soberness smashing the lips of Indulgence with a rock: ?the teeth within are loosened, the gullet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cut, and the mangled tongue fills it with bloody fragments; her gorge rises at the strange meal; gulping down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pulped bone she spews up again the lumps she has swallowed? \(p. 34\). This is a discursive representation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of violence, but medieval visual representations of violence were just as graphic. In both cases, explicit, gory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence served the salutary purpose of recruiting the loyalties of its readers/viewers on the side of good.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bale demonstrates the intertwining of the virtuous Christian and the malevolent Jew by reading a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of medieval images and texts. One of the most striking is an early 14th-century wooden statue of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enthroned Virgin with Child. Behind and below this maternal image is Herod?s Massacre of the Innocents. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The drama, as Bale rightly calls it, of this statue thus juxtaposes the tenderness of the Madonna with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cruelty of the Jews, a prefiguration of their later cruelty against Christ himself. And we can assume that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone who viewed this statue would also be impelled to think of more recent accusations of Jews killing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian children.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Jews perpetrating violence in many of the images Bale investigates are often depicted as ugly. He is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quick to point out that the large noses and other grotesque features of these representations are not racial in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature, although modern racial anti-Semites certainly borrowed them from the Middle Ages. These features )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are supposed to signal inner moral qualities such as lack of compassion and a violent disposition. Like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern cartoon strip, medieval iconography functions by extreme, grotesque contrast. Interestingly ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following Moshe Barasch )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.000 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.000 162.579 m 174.992 162.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 174.992 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? Bale points out that these Jews are almost invariably depicted in profile, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed to Christians who appear either fully or partially in frontal poses. As a result of this juxtaposition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he concludes: ?The Jewish profile acts ? in style and in content ? to bring conflict into the reader or viewer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own religious, textual and visual experience? \(p. 75\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The presumed ?ugliness? of the Jew in these Christian images brings to mind a Jewish retort that Bale might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have quoted. It appears in the )] TJ ET BT 178.316 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sefer Nizzahon Vetus)] TJ ET BT 280.316 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a 13th-century compendium from Germany of Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polemical arguments against Christians. Why, the text wonders, are Christians beautiful and Jews ugly? It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because Jews observe the menstrual prohibitions while Christians do not. Like fruit that starts white and then )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 493.2677 781.1335 507.2597 793.0135 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 160.9997 162.8935 174.9917 174.7735 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7353 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becomes red as it ripens, the Jews are pure when conceived and become ugly \(red here equals ugly and may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflect darker Mediterranean complexion\) when they are born. Christians are the opposite: red at conception )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(due to menstrual blood\) and white when born. The Jews thus accept Christian conventions of beauty but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invert their meaning: those who appear beautiful are really ugly ? and immoral -- within, while those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear ugly are moral and therefore beautiful inside. What you see is not what you get.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a fascinating chapter on ?The Jew?s hand?, Bale shows that )] TJ ET BT 336.608 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(touching)] TJ ET BT 378.608 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Jews aroused great anxiety, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting that, like the biblical leper or menstruant, physical contact with them would render the Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impure. Jews thus became symbolic untouchables. This dimension of Jewish violence is to be found in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of an extra-canonical story in which Jephonius the Jew appears at the funeral of the Virgin, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(touches her bier and, as a result, his hands either miraculously wither or are amputated. He only recovers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from this deformity when he converts to Christianity. Bale insightfully traces the history of this story and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various representations in visual art as well as in several medieval pageants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bale might have looked to an early medieval Jewish text, the )] TJ ET BT 329.312 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Toledot Yeshu)] TJ ET BT 397.652 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for satirical confirmation that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the touch of the Jew creates ritual impurity. This anonymous ?life of Jesus? mocks Jesus as the son of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adulterous menstruant. In a crucial scene, he steals the name of God and uses it to fly. The rabbis enlist Judas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iscariot ? represented here as a hero ? to go after him, also with the divine name. After some aerial combat, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judas brings Jesus back down to earth by urinating on him. Although urine is not a biblical pollutant, in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text, it has the power to contaminate Jesus and cause him to lose the power of the divine name.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first four chapters of Bale?s book consist of carefully constructed and interrelated readings. To the mind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this reader, chapters five and six are less satisfactory, primarily because they seem less related to Bale?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major theme. In chapter five, he investigates pilgrimages to Jerusalem, either the real Jerusalem or ?virtual? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jerusalems, often represented by buildings in Europe created to look like the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is all very interesting material, but the question of violent Jews more or less vanishes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the next chapter ?Making Calvary,? Bale examines the traditions of Queen Helena who ?found? the true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cross as well as various Christian holy sites in Jerusalem in the 4th century. According to one legend that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circulated from the early Middle Ages, a Jew, conveniently named Judas, tries to throw Helena off the track, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but after being tossed into a well, he shows her the true cross and converts to Christianity. Bale is quite right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the antagonism of the Jew here, as in Christianity generally, is essential to the founding myths of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion. But while this point reinforces the Jewish role discussed in earlier chapters, antagonism here is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly connected to violence, the predominant theme of the earlier chapters in the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a final chapter, Bale usefully turns to how Jews appropriated and transformed the language of medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence. He focuses in particular on the York massacre of 1190, contrasting the Christian account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William of Newburgh with the Jewish renditions of Ephraim of Bonn, Joseph of Chartres and Menachem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Worms. Drawing on biblical motifs, but reworking them, these medieval Jews created a culture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(martyrdom \()] TJ ET BT 94.340 251.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kiddush ha-shem)] TJ ET BT 175.328 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). So, too, albeit in more cryptic form, did Jewish illuminated manuscripts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the Prato Haggadah \(Passover liturgy\) with its hunters chasing hares. However, Bale recognizes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the latter imagery represents cross-cultural borrowings as much as it does a specifically Jewish response to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian persecution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This discussion of Jewish responses to Christian iconographic violence might have been extended to give the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish side more of its due. The extraordinary violence that one finds in the Hebrew Chronicles of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusades as well as the )] TJ ET BT 148.328 154.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(piyyutim)] TJ ET BT 189.656 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(liturgical poems\) commemorating these events suggests that Jews, no less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than Christians, found positive meaning for their own identities in the cruelty of the Other. Other texts could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be mined profitably to show that the powerless minority harbored fantasies of violent revenge by projecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence onto the Christian majority. Yet, even if Bale has not provided a full account of the Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriation of this theme, he has given other historians crucial road markers of how to think about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship of a minority to a hostile majority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bale concludes convincingly by arguing against reading back modern anti-Semitism into the Middle Ages, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7408 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the kind of ?backshadowing? identified by Michael Andre Bernstein in his book )] TJ ET BT 421.964 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foregone Conclusions)] TJ ET BT 530.960 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does have to wonder, however, whether the dynamics of representational violence in medieval sources don?t )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teach us something about their modern counterparts \(and vice-versa\) after all. Many years ago, the folklorist, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Dundes, in discussing the medieval blood libel, used Freudian theory to argue that Christians engaged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in ?projective inversion,? that is, the attribution to the Jews of something that the Jews don?t actually do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(consume blood\) but that Christians do \(drink Christ?s blood in the Eucharist\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.332 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.332 723.795 m 425.324 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 425.324 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Guilt over consuming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christ found its target in those who were believed to have killed him. Bale is unimpressed by the ability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freudian theory to explain the medieval dynamic, but without necessarily buying Dundes? hypothesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely, it may be useful to think about why a dominant culture feels the need to portray itself as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerless victim. Clearly, Christianity valorizes Christ as a meek sufferer, but it may be that the ?cognitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissonance? involved in constructing a violent society \(and medieval Europe was indeed exceedingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent\) on the basis of a religion of clemency and love required the projection of violence onto the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerless Jews.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a similar way, the Nazis portrayed Germany as the victim of a world Jewish conspiracy and justified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apocalyptic violence as the only way to defend against this enemy. To be sure, Nazis and medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christians differed from each other in countless ways, but they shared this particular dynamic: the majority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projected their own urge toward violence onto those who were the weakest. Christianity provided the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagery for this projection in its formative texts and, as Bale has strikingly shown, medieval Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations further reinforced the fatal image of the violent Jew and the Christian victim. It was this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2,000-year iconographic tradition that modern anti-Semites secularized and infused with the new ?scientific? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of blood and race.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 464.451 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. I. Moore, )] TJ ET BT 126.008 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Formation of a Persecuting Society)] TJ ET BT 317.660 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 396.308 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 396.308 432.435 m 450.296 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Nirenberg, )] TJ ET BT 150.992 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Communities of Violence)] TJ ET BT 271.652 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.640 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.640 418.179 m 415.628 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israel Jacob Yuval, )] TJ ET BT 159.320 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Two Nations in Your Womb: Perceptions of Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and the Middle Ages, )] TJ ET BT 169.004 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trans. Barbara Harshav and Jonathan Chipman \(Berkeley, CA, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 502.268 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 502.268 389.667 m 556.256 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Ocker, ?Ritual murder and the subjectivity of Christ: a choice in medieval Christianity?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Harvard Theological Review)] TJ ET BT 203.336 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 209.336 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(91, 2 \(1998\), 153?92.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 312.656 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 312.656 361.155 m 366.644 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moshe Barasch, )] TJ ET BT 144.332 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Giotto and the Language of Gesture)] TJ ET BT 317.996 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1987\), pp. 159?62.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 474.644 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 474.644 346.899 m 528.632 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Dundes, ?The ritual murder or blood libel legend: a study in anti-Semitic victimization through )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projective inversion?, in )] TJ ET BT 183.332 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Blood Libel)] TJ ET BT 260.672 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Alan Dundes)] TJ ET BT 349.988 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Madison, 1992\), pp. 336?78.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.308 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.308 318.387 m 546.296 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 293.525 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Today)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historytoday.com/blog/books-blog/miri-rubin/christians-jews-images-violence-middle-ages)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 263.619 m 530.648 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 533.648 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 260.287 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 242.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 242.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1093)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 241.113 m 328.316 241.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 216.136 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5528)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.336 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.historytoday.com/blog/books-blog/miri-rubin/christians-jews-images-violence-middle-ages)] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 411.3317 724.1095 425.3237 735.9895 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 396.3077 432.7495 450.2957 444.6295 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 361.6397 418.4935 415.6277 430.3735 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 502.2677 389.9815 556.2557 401.8615 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 312.6557 361.4695 366.6437 373.3495 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 474.6437 347.2135 528.6317 359.0935 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 492.3077 318.7015 546.2957 330.5815 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 263.9335 530.6477 275.8135 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historytoday.com/blog/books-blog/miri-rubin/christians-jews-images-violence-middle-ages) >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 241.4275 328.3157 253.3075 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1093) >> endobj xref 0 54 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000581 00000 n 0000000684 00000 n 0000005488 00000 n 0000005597 00000 n 0000005707 00000 n 0000005816 00000 n 0000009377 00000 n 0000009505 00000 n 0000009589 00000 n 0000009618 00000 n 0000009744 00000 n 0000009780 00000 n 0000009809 00000 n 0000009937 00000 n 0000009973 00000 n 0000010002 00000 n 0000010130 00000 n 0000010166 00000 n 0000010257 00000 n 0000018304 00000 n 0000018334 00000 n 0000018462 00000 n 0000018498 00000 n 0000018528 00000 n 0000018656 00000 n 0000018692 00000 n 0000018757 00000 n 0000026163 00000 n 0000026303 00000 n 0000033764 00000 n 0000033794 00000 n 0000033922 00000 n 0000033958 00000 n 0000034086 00000 n 0000034141 00000 n 0000034269 00000 n 0000034324 00000 n 0000034452 00000 n 0000034507 00000 n 0000034635 00000 n 0000034690 00000 n 0000034818 00000 n 0000034873 00000 n 0000035001 00000 n 0000035056 00000 n 0000035183 00000 n 0000035333 00000 n 0000035461 00000 n trailer << /Size 54 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35557 %%EOF