%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141123181533+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141123181533+00'00') /Title (British Conservatism: the Politics and Philosophy of Inequality) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4424 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(British Conservatism: the Politics and Philosophy of Inequality)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Dorey?s strengths as an analyst of British politics and policy formulation in the 20th and 21st centuries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have here been channeled into a timely historical assessment of the policy principles that have continued to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guide and re-shape the Conservative Party since the late 19th century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 368.948 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 368.948 257.673 m 382.940 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 382.940 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Dorey?s focus is on the role that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative attitudes toward economic inequality have played in responding to collectivist and socialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impulses. Debates over the degree to which inequality should be ameliorated, tolerated, or even encouraged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have engendered an ongoing tug-of-war between ?One Nation? and ?neo-liberal? Conservatives since at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least the mid-20th century. For both students and scholars, Dorey provides a comprehensive narrative and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis that supports an historical understanding of Conservative party ideology and policy, and a platform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for understanding the dilemmas of Conservative policy makers in the second decade of the 21st century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dorey first examines the philosophical assessments of social and economic inequality among Conservatives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in general. The values of social hierarchy and deference, whether rooted in religious interpretation \(certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less significant for Conservatives today\) or in the understood need for some to lead and others to follow to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assure stability, have often been among core Conservative concerns. However, perhaps even more important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been the defense of economic inequality. Conservatives have argued that because of differences in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mental, physical, or even material circumstances, some within society are likely to acquire more than others. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To undo this on contemporary liberal or socialist terms is not only nave, but would necessitate an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1095)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 June, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Dorey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781845113520)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. B. Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jules Gehrke)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 368.9477 257.9875 382.9397 269.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8086 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oppressive state, they contend. Conservative arguments have often been bound to a conception of negative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom in which the lack of restriction on the accumulation or spending of wealth allows for greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom for both rich and poor alike. Enacting a ?positive? freedom by redistributing wealth would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitably doom the overall wealth-creating capacity of the nation; and interfering with wages to exact a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measure of equality would undermine the freedom \(and incentive\) of those with greater abilities or skills and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicize debates over wages. In policy and decision making, Conservatives prefer to let experience and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tested institutions lead rather than abstract theoretical principles, Dorey writes. Human beings rarely fit the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotype of the rational actor set forth by liberals and socialists, and thus any effort to force them into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roles determined by a society with logically deduced roles and programs engenders oppression by the heavy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand of the state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The emergence of ?One Nation? Conservatism in the 20th century is the subject of Dorey?s first analytical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter. While ?One Nation? Conservatives have recognized that some will likely be better off than others, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they have also argued that the plight of the poor may not be of their own making and that attenuating the gap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between rich and poor might well preclude a future revolution. Dorey recognizes the degree to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benjamin Disraeli?s Tory democracy was woven into the fabric of ?One Nation? Conservatism in the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, and gives significant coverage to the Unionist Social Reform Committee \(USRC\) which offered a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantive response to the collectivist era. Yet, it is with his discussion of Harold Macmillan?s attempt at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Middle Way? in the volatile 1930s that Dorey?s research strengths come into their own. Macmillan offered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first substantive consideration of a government role in the economy, a consideration that would become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important after the Labour victory of 1945 made it clear Conservatives would need to retool their responses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a new electoral and industrial era. Dorey?s expertise in this period has already been well-established in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent )] TJ ET BT 66.332 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Conservatism and Trade Unionism, 1945-1964)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 331.340 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 331.340 483.699 m 345.332 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 345.332 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which emphasizes the degree to which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy of ?One Nation? Conservatism was able to prevail in a period of conciliation with labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organizations. In his work here assessing the waxing and waning fortunes of ?One Nation? and ?neo-liberal? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatism, Dorey highlights the importance of )] TJ ET BT 277.664 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Industrial Charter)] TJ ET BT 387.008 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 1947 which set the course for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative policies of the1950s and the 1960s and advocated cooperation between government, industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management and labour. By the late 1970s, ?One Nation? conservatives were on the defensive. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they by no means disappeared during Thatcher?s reign, they found it difficult to maneuver in an environment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which they were too closely associated with the tumultuous days of the late 1970s. Dorey offers a critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of ?One Nation? fortunes in the 1980s, identifying the degree to which they were not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with the crisis of the late 1970s, but restrained by Thatcher and eclipsed by the intense ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach of the ?neo-liberals.? Dorey?s own sympathies seem to lie with the ?One Nation? Conservatives in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their political struggles. As he argues with an analysis of income data \(and suggests even more forcefully in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a critique of ?neo-liberal? policies at the end of his book\) Conservative governments under the influence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?One Nation? Conservatives did rule over a Britain in which the top tiers of British society saw their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(percentage of the nation?s income significantly reduced and the lowest tiers saw theirs expanded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dorey finds the roots of ?neo-liberal? philosophy in a 19th century in which philosophers such as Herbert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spencer argued against the prospect of support for the poor which many Conservatives eventually believed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would only sustain society?s weakest elements and set in train demands for escalating degrees of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform. In abeyance in much of the early 20th century, \(Dorey devotes space only to the activities of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individualist Ernest Benn\), ?neo-liberal? fortunes revived in the 1960s as new Conservative worries about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the welfare state and the effects of state intervention in the economy emerged. Dorey examines the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enoch Powell, who in the 1960s became one of the key voices decrying the rise of the social welfare state. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Powell was soon superseded by a generation of ?neo-liberal? politicians whose social and demographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background represented the changing nature of the Conservative Party. Dorey offers an in-depth assessment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this rising generation, noting their relative distance from the experiences of the two world wars, education )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside of the public school and Oxbridge systems, understanding of themselves as products of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meritocratic society, and reduced willingness to embrace the philosophy of )] TJ ET BT 396.956 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(noblesse oblige)] TJ ET BT 471.284 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. They were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustained by new ideological think tanks on the political right and influenced by the frustration many were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feeling with a Britain in which the welfare state and government involvement in industry seemed to support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an increasingly inefficient society. The decision of the Heath government of 1970 to 1974 to turn back )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 331.3397 484.0135 345.3317 495.8935 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7474 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toward reconciliation with industry after having been apparently elected on the ?Selsdon? program prompted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the solidification of a ?neo-liberal? identity among many younger Conservative MPs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dorey argues that in the 1970s, ?neo-liberals? worked to convince the population that efforts aimed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eliminating inequality were not necessarily the same as those that aimed at the elimination of poverty. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, allowing those in the upper ranks of society to earn more did not necessarily mean the growth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poverty for those at the bottom, but rather were reflective of new opportunities created as the welfare state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was rolled back and individuals were allowed to rise based upon merit. Conservative ?neo-liberals? worked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to distinguish between the deserving and undeserving poor and, while arguing that the latter would be aided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a cut in the very things that fostered their dependency, also argued that the former would be aided as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(costs for the latter were reduced. Dorey outlines the policies of ?neo-liberals? in the 1980s and 1990s as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced taxes, restricted pay increases in the public sector, limited the power of unions, abolished Wages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Councils, and supported tough managers. While the number of manufacturing jobs was dramatically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced, the number of those in the service sector was increased \(many of these were often temporary or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lower-paying\). Overall, the expenditures of the government in social welfare did increase. These overall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increases masked the limits or reductions that were put on individual payouts and reflected instead the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing numbers on poor relief. The ideological and policy-oriented focus of Dorey?s narrative leaves out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the political struggle in which ?neo-liberal? initiatives were fashioned and introduced, and thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limits complete understanding of the contentious politics of the period. Yet, by remaining focused on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessing the evolution of ?One Nation? and ?neo-liberal? political thought and policy, Dorey?s work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides both a substantive and accessible understanding of the transfer of political and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy to policy in the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dorey?s assessment of Conservative struggles in the post-Thatcher era of the 1990s and early 21st century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only provides a valuable introduction to the issues likely to continue to face the party under Cameron, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but includes a number of sharp critiques of the world fashioned by proponents of ?neo-liberalism.? Though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party leaders initially argued for a return to the centre to challenge Labour on its own ground, they far too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily swung back to right-wing populism with disastrous consequences in the 1990s. Dorey argues that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion of those who believed the party?s loss of 4 million votes between 1992 and 1997 was due to it not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staying far enough to the right was ?palpable nonsense? \(p. 171\). In assessing the move toward ?civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatism? in the 21st century, Dorey gives pride of place to David Willetts who began arguing in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1990s that support must be given to civic institutions as the bedrock of society, rather than the state, itself. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dorey?s work will no doubt be read by those wishing to gain added perspective on Conservative efforts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past year, and he offers it, though leavened with a number of candid observations. In his discussion, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals his frustrations regarding the results of a Britain governed for over a decade with ?neo-liberal? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principles at its heart. ?Celebrity imitation, not social mobility, has seemingly become the goal of many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poorer people, and the criterion by which they judge themselves \(and each other\)? \(p. 170\). ?Arguably, too, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three decades of untrammeled neo-liberalism and individualism have transformed many people first and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foremost into economic consumers instead of social citizens, more interested in another visit to a shopping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre than being active in their neighbourhood? \(p. 175\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dorey finds that the struggle over inequality is being re-fashioned by the emergence of ?civic Conservatism? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and David Cameron?s desire stated desire to revisit poverty as a relative measure rather than as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforward line of material deprivation identified by ?neo-liberal? Conservatives. After offering a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candid critique of the society created by ?neo-liberal? policies, Dorey?s look at the efforts Oliver Letwin and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillip Blond in once again championing the role of the social seems a personal appeal for a return to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions of ?One Nation? Conservatism. However, Dorey believes that the lack of a Conservative response )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the significant income gap between Britain?s wealthiest earners, particularly as it became a major public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue in 2009, argues against its commitment to reducing inequality. He writes of Cameron?s Hugo Young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speech in November of 2009, ?Nor did he [Cameron] posit any connection between advocacy of greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal responsibility and the behaviour of the ?super-rich?, particularly in routinely demanding or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expecting enormous salaries or bonuses. It is as if Bram Stoker had written Dracula without any reference to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vampires!? \(p. 191\). Dorey?s critique seems to exaggerate the necessary connection between the principles )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7612 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?civic Conservatism? and the prioritization of reducing salaries among Britain?s top earners. Nonetheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his skepticism regarding the practical results of the Conservatives? faith in intermediary institutions that can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overcome the failures of centralized reform under New Labour is better placed. ?Non-state actors might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to provide services and support to the poor and socially marginalised, but it is not yet clear how this, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself, will reduce the gulf between the rich and poor, particularly as David Cameron?s Conservatives are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly unlikely to make a serious effort at curbing pay at the top, regardless of their occasional denunciation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of bankers? bonuses in the autumn of 2009? \(p. 191\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dorey?s final analytical chapter returns to the theme of Conservative ideology and policy in the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. He enters into a careful examination of why it is that the Conservatives have been able to count on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively consistent 25 per cent to 30 per cent support among the working class. He finds strong indications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the working class?s upper ranks have continued to be worried about threats to their status posed by those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moving up from below, and that deference to a social, political, and business elite in government and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry has continued to make itself felt. In addition, many in the lower ranks of the middle class in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s felt themselves in a precarious economic position )] TJ ET BT 305.984 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vis vis)] TJ ET BT 344.648 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the power of working-class activism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercised through trade unions, and the Labour Party?s efforts to effect equality. ?Indeed, the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precarious the )] TJ ET BT 104.660 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(petit bourgeoisie)] TJ ET BT 185.660 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( adjudges its position to be, the more it seems to commit itself to forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right-wing Conservatism which promise to restore order and stability, tackle the trade unions, reward hard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work and individual endeavour, curb welfare provision and cut taxes? \(p. 237\). Finally, he notes that many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Britain have ?pathologised? the poor suggesting that their plight is related to individual failings rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than structural factors that can be addressed through efforts to achieve equality. Thus, while many may decry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excessive salaries earned in the City, they do not necessarily recognize a connection to the struggles of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the bottom of the socio-economic ladder. Others, Dorey concludes, even if not blaming the poor, suggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that their presence is unavoidable in modern life and efforts to eradicate inequality may be fruitless.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, Dorey?s work effectively ties together emergent ideological themes of the 19th century with policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formulation and debate in the 20th century, providing an effective primer for those wishing to analyze or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate Conservative philosophy or policy in the early 21st century. His work remains focused and of great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value to students as well as scholars seeking to conceptualize the currents of Conservative thought and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assess their effects on a Conservative Party once again recalibrating its attitudes toward inequality. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessments appear underlain by distrust of the ?neo-liberal? impact upon Britain and thus will likely be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctantly absorbed by some observers and supporters of the party, itself. He suggests that a form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?cognitive dissonance? has emerged as many in Britain have not recognized a direct connection between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high salaries and a concentration of wealth at the top of society and low salaries paid to the poor \(p. 248\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But this term should perhaps be reconsidered given that many ?neo-liberals? do indeed argue that wealth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generated at the top has not undone economic efficiency nor adversely affected the ability of the poor to rise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on their own merits. In sum, Dorey?s assessments of British Conservatism are likely to be vigorously read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his assiduous research on both Labour and Conservative policy to be of significant interest well into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 224.355 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Dorey has recently collaborated with other scholars on works which were, unfortunately, not )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to be consulted in the preparation of this review. See Peter Dorey, Mark Garnett and Andrew )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Denham, )] TJ ET BT 110.672 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Crisis to Coalition: The Conservative Party, 1997?2010)] TJ ET BT 410.684 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2011\); and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Dorey and Alexandra Kelso, )] TJ ET BT 231.968 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(House of Lords Reform Since 1911: Must the Lords Go?)] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, Hampshire, 2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 222.332 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 222.332 135.315 m 276.320 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Dorey, )] TJ ET BT 127.664 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Conservatism and Trade Unionism, 1945?1964)] TJ ET BT 391.676 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 473.000 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 473.000 121.059 m 526.988 121.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 96.197 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 77.215 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 59.435 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 59.435 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1095)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 58.041 m 328.316 58.041 l S endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 222.3317 135.6295 276.3197 147.5095 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 472.9997 121.3735 526.9877 133.2535 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 58.3555 328.3157 70.2355 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1095) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5534)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000573 00000 n 0000000662 00000 n 0000005138 00000 n 0000005247 00000 n 0000005357 00000 n 0000005466 00000 n 0000009027 00000 n 0000009155 00000 n 0000009239 00000 n 0000009268 00000 n 0000009396 00000 n 0000009432 00000 n 0000009516 00000 n 0000017655 00000 n 0000017685 00000 n 0000017813 00000 n 0000017849 00000 n 0000017914 00000 n 0000025441 00000 n 0000025539 00000 n 0000033204 00000 n 0000033332 00000 n 0000033387 00000 n 0000033515 00000 n 0000033570 00000 n 0000033696 00000 n 0000033792 00000 n 0000033857 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34215 %%EOF