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The version under review includes runs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 30 newspapers, predominantly from the United States, spanning the years 1764?2005 and totalling some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27 million pages. The newspapers are drawn from three collections: ?US newspapers?, which contains 16 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers including the )] TJ ET BT 158.996 358.859 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New York Times )] TJ ET BT 240.668 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1851?2007, )] TJ ET BT 303.992 358.859 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Washington Post )] TJ ET BT 388.664 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1877?1994\), )] TJ ET BT 455.984 358.859 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wall Street Journal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1889?1993 and )] TJ ET BT 114.668 344.603 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chicago Tribune)] TJ ET BT 196.340 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1849?1987\); ?Black Newspapers, which contains a further 9 American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications including the )] TJ ET BT 161.684 330.347 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chicago Defender )] TJ ET BT 253.004 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1910?75\), and )] TJ ET BT 328.652 330.347 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Baltimore Afro-American )] TJ ET BT 454.640 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1893?1988\); and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much smaller ?International titles?, which contains five publications from Britain, Ireland and India. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich collection of material is accessed via ProQuest?s new interface, currently being implemented across a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of their products, which permits basic full-text searching across the publications as well as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive ?Advanced search? for more sophisticated queries. Given the importance of the newspapers that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it contains and the easy way in which this interface provides access, )] TJ ET BT 362.948 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ProQuest Historical Newspapers )] TJ ET BT 525.284 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a significant contribution to both the study of the press and to modern history more broadly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ProQuest Historical Newspapers)] TJ ET BT 193.352 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers unrivalled access to some of the world?s most important modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers. Resources like this, however, do not come cheap, often costing tens of thousands of pounds in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first instance and committing libraries to annual access fees running to the thousands.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.960 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.960 188.649 m 475.952 188.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 478.952 190.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ProQuest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Newspapers )] TJ ET BT 147.356 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is competing in a crowded marketplace, where a number of different resources ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some commercial, others funded with public money ? provide access to historical newspapers on a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different terms. One of the oldest resources is a commercial product: Heritage Microfilm?s )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(newspaperARCHIVE)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 131.799 m 136.004 131.799 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 139.004 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 152.996 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Initially launched in 1999, this resource now claims to be the largest in existence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(containing over 3000 individual publications and running to 115 million pages. A more recent commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rival is Readex?s \(a subsidiary of Newsbank\) )] TJ ET BT 254.300 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(World Newspaper Archive)] TJ ET BT 381.620 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which currently consists of four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major collections ? )] TJ ET BT 128.336 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(African Newspapers, 1800?1922)] TJ ET BT 286.004 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(43 publications; 20 to come\); )] TJ ET BT 436.664 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Latin American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Newspapers, 1805?1922 )] TJ ET BT 155.684 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(36 publications; two to come\); )] TJ ET BT 309.344 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(East European Newspapers, 1835?1922)] TJ ET BT 502.676 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currently; 18 to come\); )] TJ ET BT 147.332 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(South Asian Newspapers, 1864?1922)] TJ ET BT 326.672 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(7 currently; two to come\) ? with two more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1096)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 June, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ProQuest)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Mussell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 461.9597 188.9635 475.9517 200.8435 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 473.2517 158.6803 473.2517 158.6803 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.newspaperarchive.com/) >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 131.9395 136.0037 143.8195 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.newspaperarchive.com/) >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 10313 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major collections in production. These commercial resources face fierce competition from a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive publicly-funded resources. In the United States the National Digital Newspaper Program \(NDNP\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently launched )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 121.988 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 121.988 766.737 m 381.308 766.737 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 384.308 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 398.300 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2007\), a resource that currently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers free access to 457 publications and contains around 3.5 million pages. In 2001 the National Library of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Zealand launched )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 147.644 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Papers Past)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 147.644 738.225 m 205.976 738.225 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 208.976 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 222.968 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, providing free access to 63 publications. In 2008 the National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Library of Australia launched )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.312 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australian Newspapers)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.312 723.969 m 291.656 723.969 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 294.656 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 308.648 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which provides free access to 130 Australian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications and is now cross-searchable with the rest of the library?s holdings via their portal, )] TJ ET BT 491.948 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trove.)] TJ ET BT 522.944 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is also, of course, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.668 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Google News Archive)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.668 695.457 m 225.320 695.457 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 228.320 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 242.312 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2006?\), which currently contains around 2500 publications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from around the world. The UK press is covered by the British Library and Gale Cengage?s )] TJ ET BT 478.256 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Newspapers, 1600?1900)] TJ ET BT 152.684 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which consists of two collections, )] TJ ET BT 324.008 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(17th?18th Century Burney Collection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Newspapers )] TJ ET BT 95.684 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 116.012 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(19th Century British Library Newspapers)] TJ ET BT 316.028 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 319.028 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 319.028 652.515 m 333.020 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 333.020 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thanks to Joint Information Systems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Committee \(JISC\) funding it is free to access from within UK Higher Education institutions but outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these is limited to subscribers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A useful list of digitized newspapers \(and their respective conditions of access\), organized by country, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been maintained on )] TJ ET BT 131.000 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wikipedia)] TJ ET BT 179.660 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( since 2006.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.320 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.320 583.491 m 251.312 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 251.312 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This list makes it clear that there is no shortage of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical material available in digital form, often for free. What )] TJ ET BT 343.952 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ProQuest Historical Newspapers)] TJ ET BT 503.288 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is access to most of the best-known American newspapers of the past 200 years. Many of these are available )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere \(for instance, publications still in existence such as the )] TJ ET BT 349.628 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New York Times)] TJ ET BT 428.300 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 451.628 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Washington Post )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide access on a subscription basis through their own websites\), but the ability to cross-search such an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important corpus makes this an invaluable resource for anybody interested in the American press or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American history more broadly. The publications included in the resource as ?Black newspapers? are a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating resource in their own right but, although marketed separately, really need to be consulted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside the ?US newspapers? with which they share a print culture. The ?International newspapers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection is much more limited, consisting only of the )] TJ ET BT 299.348 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guardian )] TJ ET BT 349.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 369.344 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Observer, Irish Times )] TJ ET BT 477.332 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 494.660 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Weekly Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times)] TJ ET BT 62.684 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 68.684 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scotsman)] TJ ET BT 114.680 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the )] TJ ET BT 158.672 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times of India)] TJ ET BT 228.008 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. These are all important publications, of course, and presumably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ProQuest will enhance this part of the resource, but they sit oddly amongst the strong and diverse selection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of American publications that make up its bulk.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By providing access to \(fairly\) comprehensive runs of these particular papers in a searchable form, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ProQuest Historical Newspapers )] TJ ET BT 196.352 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutes a major resource of value to anyone interested in modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. But it does so, like all digital resources based upon this material, by transforming newspapers into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something else. Nearly all these resources deliver articles in the form of segments of page images, made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(searchable via a transcript produced by optical character recognition \(OCR\) technology. By indexing content )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and making it available online, this methodology allows digital resources to overcome most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant difficulties associated with using the press archive in hard copy. )] TJ ET BT 397.964 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ProQuest Historical Newspapers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeks to justify its price by offering itself as the only place where its constituent publications can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consulted at once and in so complete a form. The index, although limited to verbal information and reliant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on both the quality of the newsprint and the efficiency of the OCR software, opens up this vast and complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archive, allowing its users to find material within runs and trace it across them. As this content is delivered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the web, access to the archive is available 24 hours a day to anybody with a subscription and an internet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection. The crucial question, then, is not whether )] TJ ET BT 294.308 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ProQuest Historical Newspapers)] TJ ET BT 453.644 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is worth its price tag )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(it is clearly what the market will bear\) or whether it will contribute to our understanding of history \(there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no doubt that it will, and in significant ways\), but on how it transforms the newspapers that it republishes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(digital form.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In ProQuest?s marketing materials they make much of the fact that the resource will be useful for both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?casual explorers and serious researchers?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 239.600 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 239.600 131.811 m 253.592 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 253.592 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The usual way to accommodate these user groups is through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interface, providing different levels of complexity for different users \(or uses\). )] TJ ET BT 431.252 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ProQuest Historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Newspapers )] TJ ET BT 95.684 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now uses ProQuest?s generic interface, launched in 2010 and currently being implemented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across their resources. Its default is a basic search and it is admirably uncluttered, offering a very usable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gateway to content. All users are familiar with Google?s web search and so are comfortable when confronted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a simple search box and the minimum of information about what is to be searched. For more detailed )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 121.9877 779.3623 121.9877 779.3623 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/) >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 121.9877 766.8775 381.3077 778.7575 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/) >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 147.6437 750.8503 147.6437 750.8503 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 147.6437 738.3655 205.9757 750.2455 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz) >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.3117 736.5943 179.3117 736.5943 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/home) >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.3117 724.1095 291.6557 735.9895 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/home) >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 120.6677 708.0823 120.6677 708.0823 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://news.google.com/newspapers) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 120.6677 695.5975 225.3197 707.4775 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://news.google.com/newspapers) >> endobj 39 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 319.0277 652.8295 333.0197 664.7095 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 237.3197 583.8055 251.3117 595.6855 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 239.5997 132.1255 253.5917 144.0055 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 50 0 R ] /Contents 49 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Length 7885 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(queries, the advanced search allows readers to use the usual range of Boolean operators and take advantage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the metadata encoded within the resource. Some of these are fairly standard \(?Author?, ?Document title?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(etc.\) but there are others such as ?Page?, ?Section? and ?Document type? \(?Advertisement?, ?Editorial?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Front page?, ?Letter to the editor?, ?News? etc\) that respond to the newspapers, allowing users to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interrogate them in imaginative ways.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Results are displayed in a list sorted by relevance \(although how this is calculated is not detailed anywhere\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the user can opt to sort by date and further refine the list by type of metadata \(?Publication title?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Document type?, ?Keyword?, ?Database?, ?Date? etc\). Results can be exported, cited \(via Refworks\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed or saved and there is a nice visualization showing the distribution of hits over time. When the user )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clicks on a result, the article opens as a pdf document, this familiar format allowing the user to easily grasp )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the basic functionality. In addition, ProQuest have provided the same options that appear on the results )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(screen \(export, cite etc.\), as well as a list of the metadata attached to the article, and have included an )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(AddThis)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 612.003 m 76.016 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 79.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 93.008 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( box so that users can share links over various social media. They have also built in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crowdsourcing element to the interface, allowing users, when signed-in, to tag articles and share their tags )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with others. User-generated metadata is a well-established part of many digital resources, but tends to be of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most value when users feel they are part of a community. There is much potential here, but it will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting to see the extent to which is utilized by the users of these subscription resources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In offering a generic interface for their products, ProQuest are selling the idea that they are providing access )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to content, rather than republishing it in a new form. As it is a generic interface, it contains no information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about either the resource or its contents. Although users can see a list of the publications within )] TJ ET BT 494.624 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ProQuest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Newspapers)] TJ ET BT 144.356 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, there is nothing about the newspapers, their historical significance, or even their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope. As the web is only a browser window away, this kind of general information is, perhaps, not so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important. But there is also nothing about how the newspapers were selected or digitized. In fact, the entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of how these articles have got to the screen has been excluded. This includes their derivation \(which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(run? Which edition? From which archive?\), their condition \(what is there? What is missing?\), how they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced \(from hard copy? Microfilm?\), how they were edited \(cropped? De-skewed?\), how they relate to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the transcripts \(what is the text that is searched? Has it been corrected?\), and how the metadata schema was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designed and implemented. There are two undocumented histories of production here, one for the printed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspaper and one for digital resource, and both are essential if users are to put what they find in context. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Without such information, the user cannot establish how the digital material relates to the print material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon which it is based.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the consequences about imposing a generic interface is that search is privileged over browse. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a missed opportunity: one of the notable aspects of )] TJ ET BT 280.988 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ProQuest Historical Newspapers )] TJ ET BT 443.324 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the amount of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metadata that appears to have been encoded \(without the documentation, of course, one cannot be sure\). If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(users want to browse the contents of the resource, they can use the ?Publications? link situated alongside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two search options, ?Search? and ?Advanced Search?. This brings up a list of 108 different ?publications?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really different runs of the 30 publications that make up the resource, from which users can select one to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore in more depth. From here, users can browse by decade, year, month and issue, finally opening up a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set of results that correspond to the articles, in page order, that make up a particular issue. If a user wants to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flick through the pages of an issue rather than browse a list of article titles \(and accompanying metadata\), he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or she must open up an article and then click on ?Page view \(clickable\)?. Although neither of these methods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of browsing are particularly elegant, they are vital if users are to develop a sense of the newspapers as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discrete publications, with their own structures and organizational logic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The lack of information provided in the interface and the privileging of search make it difficult for the user )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to fully take advantage of the potential of the resource. As mentioned above, there is a fairly rich set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metadata encoded within the resource, but this has not been fully exploited in its design and, because it is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented, it is difficult for the user to work out how it might be employed in the course of his or her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research. A good example of this is the way that the resource makes images accessible. The press, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a vital repository for a whole range of visual material, from illustrations in advertisements to documentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photographs, and the ability to access this material is incredibly valuable. Although images are marked with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 612.3175 76.0157 624.1975 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.addthis.com/) >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 55 0 R ] /Contents 53 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Length 7554 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metadata \(presumably either ?illustration? or ?Image / Photograph?, judging from the search options\), the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(search actually runs on any verbal information that accompanies the image. As there is no way to browse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images, users must try and guess the sorts of words that might appear in accompanying articles or captions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For some users, this works very well: the user who wants images of a particular event, for instance, will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well served and the corpus is large enough to provide some results for even the more esoteric queries; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, those users interested in the images themselves, rather than what they represent, will find it very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to locate what they want and, of course, any images that lack accompanying text will be lost within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the archive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those using the resource to research visual material are likely to be disappointed. Although it is not stated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anywhere, the source of the page images appears to be microfilm produced with a high tonal contrast. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means that the tones of the printed image, whether engraving or photomechanical reproduction, have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced to large areas of black and white in the digital representation. The quality varies according to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication, the condition of the page, and the size and type of image. Line drawings, for instance, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reproduced very clearly, but quite a few photographs have become entirely obscured. Given the time and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expense involved in producing digital images from hard copy, it is understandable that ProQuest have drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon existing collections of microfilm, particularly if they are already in their possession. However, visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material, whether images or typographical features, is an integral component of the newspaper. If this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resource is to serve researchers as the principal mode of access to these publications, then it is vital that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visual material adequately represented. Or, at the very least, documented so that researchers can understand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why it appears as it does.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taken on its own terms, )] TJ ET BT 152.672 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ProQuest Historical Newspapers )] TJ ET BT 315.008 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a way to search this material that is so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-executed that it is likely to become the principal mode of access for those lucky enough to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subscriptions. The importance of the newspapers that it contains and the considerable effort expended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make them searchable guarantees that it will have a far-reaching impact on a range of disciplines interested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 19th and 20th centuries. On these terms, the resource is an undoubted success, opening up the archive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in such a way that its value is clear for all to see. Nevertheless, we should not overlook the conditions upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which we are given access to this wealth of content. In privileging search over browse, the article over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(page \(or, indeed, the issue or run\), and the verbal over the visual, )] TJ ET BT 348.944 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ProQuest Historical Newspapers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceives the newspaper as a repository of information and encodes this conception within its design. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marketing materials claim that the resource permits users to ?travel digitally back through centuries to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become eyewitnesses to history? and it is as indices to their times, rather than cultural agents in their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right, that these newspapers have been digitized.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 266.636 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 266.636 329.139 m 280.628 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 280.628 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Given the cost of producing a digital resource on this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale, especially one that republishes content that is still in copyright, we can be sure that ProQuest know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their market. On the evidence of this resource, ProQuest are targeting casual users who want to read written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of past events. It can certainly be used to study the press ? searchable runs of newspapers are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves a substantial boon for media historians and there is a degree of flexibility in the interface ? but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the researcher will necessarily be working against the grain of the resource. ProQuest are competing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breadth of scope, combining content from different newspapers; however, the newspapers themselves have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been harvested for articles that are offered to users without the necessary context which would allow them to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discriminate between them. As the generic database is rolled out across their different resources, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles become further removed, taking their place alongside other types of content from other data sets. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ProQuest Historical Newspapers )] TJ ET BT 196.352 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republishes a glorious set of material from the past but, in order to make it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pay, does so in the form of an expensive resource that cannot do full justice to the rich and complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers that constitute its content.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 124.563 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ProQuest asked that I remove the any reference to how much their resource costs as they do not make )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their prices available in the public domain, preferring instead to provide them on an institution-by-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution basis. Their prices depend on size and type of institution, and they offer discounts to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions that subscribe to multiple resources. So, if you want to know how many tens of thousands )] TJ ET endstream endobj 54 0 obj [52 0 R /Fit] endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 266.6357 329.4535 280.6277 341.3335 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R ] /Contents 58 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Length 4621 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something like this resource will cost your institution, ask a librarian.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 396.668 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 396.668 795.075 m 450.656 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reviewed in )] TJ ET BT 127.340 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History )] TJ ET BT 221.000 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Martin Conboy. See ?Review of )] TJ ET BT 393.980 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The 19th Century British Library )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Newspapers website)] TJ ET BT 161.684 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(review no. 730\)? <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 262.424 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/730)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 262.424 766.563 m 480.068 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 483.068 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET BT 497.060 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30 April 2011].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.344 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.344 752.307 m 192.332 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?List of online newspaper archives?, )] TJ ET BT 242.636 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wikipedia)] TJ ET BT 291.296 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2001-\) <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:List_of_online_newspaper_archives)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 723.795 m 428.648 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 431.648 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET BT 445.640 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 18 April )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 709.539 m 149.000 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Centuries of discovery online: )] TJ ET BT 217.328 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ProQuest Historical Newspapers)] TJ ET BT 376.664 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(no date\) <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.proquest.com/assets/literature/products/databases/HNP.pdf)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 681.027 m 404.984 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 407.984 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10])] TJ ET BT 427.976 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 18 April 2011].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 666.771 m 118.004 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Centuries of discovery online?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.320 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.320 652.515 m 273.308 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 608.671 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 590.891 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 590.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1096)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 589.497 m 328.316 589.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 564.520 Td 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