%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 49 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150523185533+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150523185533+01'00') /Title (Britain and the Weimar Republic: The History of a Cultural Relationship) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4663 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Britain and the Weimar Republic: The History of a Cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Relationship)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In March 2011, BBC Two broadcast a 90-minute adaptation of Christopher Isherwood?s )] TJ ET BT 462.284 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Christopher and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(His Kind )] TJ ET BT 80.024 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1976\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.016 250.545 m 129.008 250.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 129.008 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Leaving aside its possible merits and/or shortcomings, the airing of this TV-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatisation was indicative of an on-going fascination with Isherwood?s portrayal of the decadent, Nazi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ridden Berlin of the Weimar Republic, captured most famously in his )] TJ ET BT 369.980 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Berlin Novels )] TJ ET BT 438.644 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in Bob Fosse?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1972 film )] TJ ET BT 84.020 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cabaret)] TJ ET BT 123.356 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Undoubtedly, popular perceptions of the first German Republic in the Anglophone world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been and continue to be shaped primarily by accounts given by Isherwood and his friends W. H. Auden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Stephen Spender. Not only has popular imagination been dominated by Isherwood & co., but also, to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great extent, previous academic research on contemporary British interaction with the Republic. Colin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Storer?s well-researched, clearly organised and very readable )] TJ ET BT 331.904 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain and the Weimar Republic)] TJ ET BT 491.228 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remedy this unrepresentative picture of British intellectual attitudes towards Weimar Germany that has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hitherto been presented.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Storer outlines in his introduction, focus on the Isherwood-circle has obscured the ?sheer number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British intellectuals who visited Germany in this period, and the diversity [...] of these visitors? \(p. 5\), who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have previously been discussed rather briefly, or unjustly forgotten altogether. While one might quibble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slightly with the subtitle of the book ? )] TJ ET BT 219.356 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History of a Cultural Relationship)] TJ ET BT 405.044 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( might lead one to expect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1097)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 June, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colin Storer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781848851405)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(56.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. B. Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tara Windsor)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.0157 250.8595 129.0077 262.7395 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8005 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of mutual perceptions or two-way cultural relations ? this can be overlooked as Storer clearly sets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out his purpose in his introduction: ?to provide the first broad comparative study of the attitudes of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals towards Weimar Germany, examining the diversity of these attitudes, at the same time looking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for areas of commonality in the discourse on the Weimar Republic? \(p. 10\). Storer also seeks to trace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degrees of change and continuity in British attitudes to Germany between the pre- and post-First World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eras, and to assess ?what made a country that had recently been an enemy in the most destructive conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe had ever known so attractive and fascinating to British intellectuals in the 1920s? \(p. 2\). Having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stated his aims succinctly at the start, Storer keeps to them clearly and consistently throughout his work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereby succeeding not only in broadening the range of British commentators associated with the Weimar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic beyond the Isherwood-Auden group, but also in challenging the dominant perception that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British fascination with Weimar Germany was almost exclusively based on two overriding aspects: its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vibrant homosexual nightlife, on the one hand, and the apparently unstoppable rise of Nazism and inevitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse of democracy, on the other. In fact, Storer traces a wide range of ideas, issues and themes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attracted British intellectuals to the Weimar Republic ? especially, but by no means only to Berlin ? such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its association with crisis, instability and victimhood, as well as modernity, decadence, youth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebelliousness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One key aim of Storer?s study, then, and one of its greatest strengths, is to bring to light previously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected British accounts of Germany after 1918. While Isherwood and friends are not completely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disregarded, since they were certainly important if overemphasised British observers of Weimar Germany, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Storer draws together an impressive number of lesser-known figures who travelled to Germany between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1918 and 1933, and who recorded their experiences and impressions either in published or unpublished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms \(e.g. correspondence, diaries, articles, books\). The scope of the study is established in its broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of ?intellectuals? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 189.656 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 189.656 469.443 m 203.648 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 203.648 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, focussing especially on ?professional writers of one sort or another? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3\). In order to the aid the reader who, quite understandably, might not be familiar with some of Storer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chosen intellectuals, an appendix of biographical notes is included to provide orientation for the main text. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22 individuals are listed in this appendix which gives a good indication of the breadth of Storer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.020 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.020 412.419 m 113.012 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 113.012 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Reference is also made to memoirists, civil servants, military personnel and public figures, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further enhancing and contextualising the wide-reaching perspectives examined. The range of examples that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Storer has unearthed and analyses in his book, especially previously marginalised female accounts, therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes his claim to give a broader, more representative picture of British attitudes to the Weimar Republic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholly convincing and successful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is organised into seven thematic chapters, each of which serves well as a stand-alone section while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also fitting nicely into the bigger picture. Moreover, this thematic approach emphasises that diversity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those commonalities Storer has set out to highlight. Chapter one examines ?British travel and tourism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weimar Germany? and expounds various motivations for visiting the Republic. Storer notes that at that time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany, and in particular Berlin, was a crossroads for European travel on both an East-West and a North-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South axis. The war had temporarily interrupted British travel to Germany ? which had been developing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the 18th century ? but was quickly resumed after hostilities ended, albeit in considerably altered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances. Having distinguished between various groups of visitors to Germany, ranging from military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personnel and diplomats to holiday-makers touring the western and southern regions, Storer outlines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse nature of British ?intellectual travel? to the Republic, setting the scene for the rest of the book. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprecedented number of British intellectuals visited Germany after the war; some purely for pleasure, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in search of career opportunities or in professional capacities as correspondents or in order to research for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books and articles, others wanted to observe the exciting and turbulent situation in the new Germany for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves, seeing their trips as educational and, in some cases, acts of self-discovery and rebelliousness. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The number of intellectual visitors peaked in periods of crisis ? 1921?4 and 1929?33 ? suggesting that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely the Republic?s instability, and the general feeling that history was being made in Germany, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attracted them to it. One could add other reasons for visiting Germany to those described here, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals who were invited by German political, social or cultural institutions or who travelled with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific task of fostering intellectual understanding and co-operation, but since it is not Storer?s intention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give a comprehensive account ? he points out that this would be impossible in one volume \(p. 6\) ? such )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 189.6557 469.7575 203.6477 481.6375 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.0197 412.7335 113.0117 424.6135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7676 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples would be welcome enhancements rather than necessary additions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two presents a skilful analysis of the manifold ways in which the First World War and the peace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement which followed it affected British views of Germany. Storer outlines the bitter ?war of words and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images? \(pp. 34?5\) waged by both sides during the war, which contrasted with a greater degree of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?professional comradeship? \(p. 37\) between opposing troops on the battlefront, and which ?rumbled on? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35\) long after the armistice was called, shaping and reflecting post-war attitudes. While some British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals adopted uncompromisingly anti-German stances, others adhered to a longer standing theory of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Two Germanies? which discerned between a ?bad? authoritarian, military, \(Prussian\) Germany and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?good?, liberal, cultural Germany.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 198.644 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 198.644 669.027 m 212.636 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 212.636 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This view remained influential after the war, especially with those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathised with an ?untainted? non-militarist Germany \(p. 47\). Strong pacifist desires to prevent future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict after the horrors of 1914-18 led many, such as the writer and artist Wyndham Lewis, to promote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding between Britain and Germany, almost unconditionally, whether they considered themselves to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be basically ?pro-German? or not. Not only the experience of war but also a lack thereof affected the outlook )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of intellectuals who had not seen military service, while floods of war literature after 1918, including the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular reception of German war writings, fictional and non-fictional, reflected British post-war attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the former enemy. Storer demonstrates how the subsequent peace settlement aroused great curiosity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst Britons towards the Weimar Republic. Although the atmosphere was still tense, sympathetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes were widespread and diverse, and not necessarily a sign of ?pro-Germanism? \(p. 52\). This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely due to the feeling that the Treaty of Versailles was too harsh and would be dangerous for Europe?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future. The peace and its consequences therefore generated British perceptions of German victimhood and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instability, accompanied by dismay at unfair and ?un-British? \(p. 56\) treatment of Germany, so that Treaty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionism was not only an expression of resentment in defeated Germany, but also found much support in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. Critics included intellectuals who had been present in Paris but felt let down by the conduct and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcome of the conference, such as Harold Nicholson, W. H. Dawson and J. M. Keynes, all of whom feature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominently in this highly instructive chapter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three expands on this interest in the long-term effects of the war and peace settlement by examining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?differing and often contradictory accounts? of British visitors to the occupied Rhineland. This chapter is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly interesting as it provides ?a valuable alternative perspective? \(p. 63\) on British views of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weimar Republic? beyond more familiar accounts of Weimar Berlin. Storer explains that the Rhineland was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a ?vantage point? from which British commentators observed developments in Germany \(p. 62\), not least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it was a ?safe? location, which was also the ?focal point? \(p. 63\) for matters arising from the peace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement. Many early accounts were attempts to make sense of the post-war world, while others sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raise awareness of conditions in Germany, highlighting disease and food-shortages under the Allied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blockade ? particularly amongst women and children ? and economic turmoil. Fears of revolution and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of long-lasting physical and psychological burdens of the blockade and Treaty, which conveyed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of foreboding for the future, brought about shifts in British opinions towards Germany throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920s. Reports on the extent and nature of contact between Britons and occupied Germans varied; in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases there was little contact, others saw the Rhineland as a ?haven for international co-operation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciliation? \(pp. 69?70\), others still experienced hostility from their German hosts, especially after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruhr crisis. Additionally, some accounts compared the British occupation with the French occupation, often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlighting French deployment of colonial troops and playing on racial prejudices to reflect more positively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the British occupiers, while other accounts ignored the French aspect. Overall, the diversity of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences and perceptions of the situation in the Rhineland stands out in this chapter which greatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deepens our understanding of British intellectual attitudes to post-war Germany.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Storer?s analysis of British attitudes to Berlin in the Weimar period in chapter four gives a much-needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuanced account of British views and experiences of the German capital city, which have often been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oversimplified in previous research. Usually associated with the homosexual encounters of Isherwood and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friends, Storer agrees that Berlin did attract many ?sex tourists? \(p. 103\), but shows that even Berlin?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nightlife was multifaceted: on the one hand, it boasted modern dance, jazz and cabaret acts, a centre of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?sexual tolerance, [?] freedom and hedonism? \(p. 88\), on the other hand, prostitution, drug-dealing and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 198.6437 669.3415 212.6357 681.2215 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7588 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gambling were the ?unsavoury professions? \(p. 90\) of Berlin?s ?criminal underworld? \(p. 91\) which many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berliners turned to in order to deal with the financial hardships of the post-war period. While many British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visitors were attracted by Berlin?s decadence, others were disappointed and some even appalled by it. Yet in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other accounts, Berlin?s notorious nightlife did not even feature. It was above all Berlin?s modernity that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drew in its visitors and the excitement and fervour it exuded in politics, the arts and lifestyle more generally. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berlin offered experimentation, innovation and was a centre for avant-garde culture: Storer includes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly fascinating passages on Alfred Hitchcock?s formative experiences in Berlin in 1924, German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences on his films, and Weimar cinema?s inspiration for the London Film Society. Alongside its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promise for the future, Berlin?s connotations as the capital of the former enemy, a place of revolution, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress and rebellion made it a ?daring place? \(p. 104\) to visit for many British intellectuals, but was also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes considered ? especially in retrospective accounts ? quite depressing, a ?freak show? \(p. 93\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather fragile. Given the popularity of Berlin as a destination for British intellectuals, there was a tendency to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see it as ?emblematic? not only of the ?)] TJ ET BT 223.316 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(zeitgeist)] TJ ET BT 262.652 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the 1920s? \(p. 105\) but also of the entire country, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points at once to the need to treat generalisations made about the Republic based on experiences in Berlin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with caution, as well as to the central importance of these views of Berlin to our understanding of attitudes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war Germany as a whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five focuses on ?Female intellectuals and the Weimar Republic? thereby remedying the previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male-bias in understandings of British attitudes to Germany in this period. Storer?s chosen female visitors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range from more conventional, though feminist figures like Vera Brittain to the rebellious Jean Ross, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many in between, and were often drawn by similar issues as their male counterparts, such as crisis and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victimhood, youth, modernity, artistic creativity and the opportunity for ?alternative lifestyle[s]? \(p. 107\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But there were also notable differences between male and female perspectives, the latter being concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just as much with the Treaty and occupation, for example, as other so-called ?women?s questions? \(p. 108\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as childcare, education, reproductive issues and the position and role of women in society and politics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While often engaging with topical issues like the \(in\)famous figure of the ?new woman? \(p. 113\) and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illegality of abortion, most British women were uninterested or unimpressed with Berlin?s nightlife, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serves as an important qualification to the previously held idea that Berlin?s decadence dominated British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views of the Republic. In uncovering a range of women?s accounts, Storer shows how these ?doubly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlight the diversity in British attitudes towards the Weimar Republic? as they differed from one another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as the ?majority discourse provided by their male compatriots? \(p. 122\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six questions how far fictional accounts of the Republic went towards creating a lasting ?Weimar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotype?. Storer problematises the issue that Isherwood?s novels have not only dominated Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American visions of the Weimar Republic, but have also often been seen ?as works of contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reportage, or even history, rather than fiction? \(p. 123\). Examining a wider set of fictional works set in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weimar Germany by authors such as John Buchan, Robert McAlmon and Winifried Holtby, Storer sees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these representations as a ?prism? through which to view contemporary attitudes towards Germany and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens. Continuity and change is important here: pre-war representations tended to divide Germans into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?good?, soulful intellectuals versus ?bad?, threatening ?Hunnish? militarists \(pp. 144?5\), with the latter then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominating wartime propagandistic images of the enemy. Post-war depictions portrayed Weimar Germany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as quite different to its imperial predecessor, creating a ?complicated and multifaceted? stereotype \(p. 145\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which incorporated many of the themes we have already encountered such as the Treaty and occupation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans as dignified victims in the face of defeat and upheaval, Berlin?s colourful social scene, and a near )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsession with youth and vitality in the Republic, all of which were seen with varying degrees of sympathy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and criticism. Interestingly, however, Storer notes some ?echoes? \(p. 146\) of pre-war images, with many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works still containing notions of ?good? and ?bad? Germans, and sometimes suggesting an underlying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibility that the modern dynamism, youthfulness and economic potential of the new Germany could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outstrip Britain, which can be seen as ?strikingly close? \(p. 147\) to pre-war anxieties.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter examines British attitudes to Nazism in the 1920s, in order to test the validity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common perception that the Weimar Republic was a ?doomed democratic experiment [?] whose eventual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replacement by the National Socialist dictatorship was inevitable? \(p. 148\). Storer demonstrates that this was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 8356 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a contemporary perspective, and that opinions on Nazism ranged from out-and-out opposition, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambivalence, to outright admiration and apology, all for varied reasons. In the early 1920s, British comment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Nazism was rare and saw the so-called ?)] TJ ET BT 243.284 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fascisti)] TJ ET BT 281.288 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 149\) as a marginal Bavarian phenomenon rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than a national political party. Interest in National Socialism increased throughout the period and often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected the political fortunes of the Party. Storer detects a good deal of confusion in British accounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazism, especially about where to place it in the political landscape, which can be largely explained by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement?s own contradictory nature and ideology. While some saw the Nazis as ?agents? of renewal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional values, a solution to Weimar?s ills and weaknesses, others recognised that their ideas were new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?just as alien to the old Germany as the Republic? \(p. 163\). Sympathy came from Britons who saw in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazism a vital ?bulwark against Bolshevism? \(p. 164\) and hoped for Treaty revision, while reservation was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed by those who found their violent tactics unsavoury. No matter what their stance on the Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement itself, however, and despite a widespread perception of crisis and instability, none of Storer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selected intellectual visitors thought that the Republic was doomed to collapse, or that a Nazi seizure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power was imminent. Moreover, whenever there was talk of a prospective Nazi government, it was expected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be within the constitutional system and moderated by coalition partners. This chapter successfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a differentiated picture of British views of Nazism, while also reflecting on attitudes to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic as a whole. Storer?s discussion of British perspectives of Weimar politics and prognoses for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic system might have been enriched further by considering opinions on other parties and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements where possible, although this would have entailed either the reconceptualisation of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular chapter, or the addition of an extra one. Indeed, any questions raised about aspects or angles not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covered in Storer?s study are entirely a reflection of its strength and the reader?s desire for more of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Storer provides a great deal of fascinating detail which is not only useful but makes the book a compelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read. Inevitably, there are a number of unfortunate minor typographical errors, while the header of chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one ? ?Germany wants to see you? ? is also intriguingly used to head the introduction, and there are one or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two factual ambiguities: the term ?Weimar Republic? might not have been in English usage before 1933, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is not strictly a ?construct of historians? \(p. 4\), as it certainly appeared, if rarely, in German discourse in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late 1920s )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 103.676 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 103.676 398.163 m 117.668 398.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 117.668 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the aggressive German wartime manifesto signed by 93 academics and intellectuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was published in October 1914, not 1917.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.668 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.668 383.907 m 248.660 383.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 248.660 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, these slight criticisms, while worth mentioning, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no means detract from the quality of the work as a whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Storer successfully fulfils his stated objective to correct and broaden our understanding of British attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the Weimar Republic beyond the previous preoccupation with the Isherwood-Auden circle. Yet the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fruits of this investigation can also be seen in a wider research context. Despite much general work on Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German relations after 1918, cultural relations remain remarkably under-explored, which makes any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution such as Storer?s most welcome. While this is not a work on mutual Anglo-German perceptions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is of great interest to students of Anglo-German intellectual relations after the First World War since it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers valuable insights into the British side of this cultural relationship, while also telling us much about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weimar Republic itself. Scholars of Weimar will appreciate Storer?s situating the Republic in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international context, something not often considered beyond formal foreign policy. Finally, Storer?s work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also contributes to a recent academic trend of presenting differentiated analyses of diverse aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weimar, in order to advance our understandings of the Republic beyond its longstanding dichotomous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association with ?Glitter and Doom?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 212.996 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 212.996 186.579 m 226.988 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 153.075 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Christopher and His Kind)] TJ ET BT 189.032 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( broadcast on Saturday 19 March 2011 on BBC Two. For more details see <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00ztfl9)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 106.803 m 275.000 106.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 278.000 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 291.992 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 9 May 2011].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.724 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.724 106.803 m 469.712 106.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Storer works with an understanding of ?intellectuals? as ?leading cultural figure[s], the creator[s] of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas and the shaper[s] of opinion? and as a ?catch-all term encompassing writers \(of both fiction and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-fiction\), artists, academics, critics and some journalists? \(p. 3\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.300 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.300 64.035 m 440.288 64.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 51.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biographical information is given for: Evelyn, Princess Blcher; H N. Brailsford; Claud Cockburn; W. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 103.6757 398.4775 117.6677 410.3575 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 234.6677 384.2215 248.6597 396.1015 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 212.9957 186.8935 226.9877 198.7735 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 107.1175 274.9997 118.9975 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00ztfl9) >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.7237 107.1175 469.7117 118.9975 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 386.2997 64.3495 440.2877 76.2295 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R ] /Contents 50 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Length 5500 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. Dawson; Norman Ebbutt; A.G. Gardiner; G. E. R. Gedye; Cicely Hamilton; Gerald Hamilton; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winifred Holtby; John Maynard Keynes; Wyndham Lewis; Robert McAlmon; Edmund Dene Morel; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Moss; Lilian Thompson Mowrer; Harold Nicolson; Morgan Philips Price; Jean Ross; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Sackville-West; Frederick Augustus Voigt. The book also features other, better-known )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures, such as Graham Greene and Vera Brittain, whose biographical information is assumed to be )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known to the reader, so the range of examples is even greater than the appendix suggests.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.920 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.920 723.795 m 546.908 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On this theory of ?two Germanies? see, for example, Paul Kennedy, )] TJ ET BT 393.944 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of the Anglo-German )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Antagonism 1860?1914)] TJ ET BT 178.352 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1980\), p. 398.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 295.676 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 295.676 695.283 m 349.664 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The history of the term ?Weimarer Republik? has been the subject of recent German historical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, see Sebastian Ullrich, ?Mehr als Schall und Rauch. Der Streit um den Namen der ersten )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deutschen Demokratie?, in )] TJ ET BT 195.320 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die ?Krise? der Weimarer Republik. Zur Kritik eines Deutungsmusters)] TJ ET BT 537.632 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moritz Fllmer & Rdiger Graf \(Frankfurt/Main, 2005\), pp. 187?207.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.980 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.980 638.259 m 453.968 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On this notorious ?Manifesto of the Ninety-Three German Intellectuals? see, for example, John Horne )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Alan Kramer, )] TJ ET BT 153.320 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(German Atrocities, 1914: A History of Denial )] TJ ET BT 376.640 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Haven, CT, and London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001\), pp. 280-285, and Jrgen von Ungern-Sternberg and Wolfgang von Ungern-Sternberg, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Der Aufruf ?An die Kulturwelt!?. 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