%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916203949+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916203949+01'00') /Title (Land, Law and People in Medieval Scotland) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4204 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Land, Law and People in Medieval Scotland)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land, Law and People in Medieval Scotland)] TJ ET BT 247.676 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is best viewed as six self-contained studies under two broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(headings: ?Land and law? and ?Land and people?. In the first part Professor Neville discusses the existence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and functioning of baronial courts, the development of the process of perambulation \(a particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent aspect of the work of sheriff courts and their predecessors in the extant sources\), and the adoption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of charters and seals in the 12th and 13th centuries. The second part consists of studies of a cross-border )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family, peasant un-freedom, and the role of friendship, particularly in the context of lordship. The most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cogent common factor is the predominance of charter evidence in the treatment of all these subjects. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Neville brings an impressive knowledge of this material to bear on these themes, including much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is unpublished. There are nuggets of new information here as well as new insights. As such the book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not just for historians of Scotland, but potentially of greater significance: it offers much food for thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the riches that charter-evidence can provide, even if this is largely a matter of quarrying their textual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(content rather than mining their formal aspects. At the same time, this means that the book should not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded as an attempt to provide a rounded picture of ?law, land and people?, even if charters and similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formal documents are far and away the principal source for these topics in a Scottish context. There are other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts, as well as non-written material, that have been brought to bear on these issues by other Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, but which get only limited mention here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1098)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 May, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cynthia Neville)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780748639588)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dauvit Broun)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8694 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the themes \(particularly the adoption of charters\) build on Professor Neville?s earlier work in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation to Lennox and Strathearn, culminating in her )] TJ ET BT 292.316 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Native Lordship in Medieval Scotland)] TJ ET BT 474.980 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 477.980 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 477.980 768.819 m 491.972 768.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 491.972 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original contributions are the final two chapters, on un-freedom and on friendship. The lot of peasants in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland in the 12th and 13th centuries has not been explored with any thoroughness since Archie Duncan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magisterial )] TJ ET BT 90.344 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scotland: the Making of the Kingdom)] TJ ET BT 270.668 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 273.668 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 273.668 726.051 m 287.660 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 287.660 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Neville?s discussion does not aim to supersede )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duncan?s. She has, at the very least, put the subject of peasant un-freedom back on the agenda. The problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that the kind of material that makes this such an absorbing topic for research in relation to parts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England is simply not available for any part of Scotland. The charter evidence is almost all there is: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earliest rental is from the very end of the 13th century. The usual documentary diet is otherwise broken only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the depositions of witnesses relating to the Kirkton of Arbuthnott from the case between the bishop of St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrews and Donnchadh of Arbuthnott , which was settled \(remarkably\) at a synod of the diocese of St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrews at Perth in 1206. The chapter on friendship is the most innovative. Here her reading of this issue in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other periods, places and contexts fuses with her intimate knowledge of the documentary material to produce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a fresh and very valuable contribution to our understanding of the range of social interactions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpinned the exercise of lordship. Another important discussion of lordship is in the fourth chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where the focus narrows onto the complex history of the Muschamp lords of Wooler in Northumberland and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their connections with Scotland. This is a compelling and thought-provoking case study. They found support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the earls of Dunbar, in whose orbit was also the earl of Strathearn; this led to the marriage between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mael su II, earl of Strathearn, and the heiress of the Muschamp inheritance, and eventually Mael su?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquisition of his wife?s estates on her death. Professor Neville deftly traces the development of this family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the context of the challenges and opportunities arising from Mael su?s four marriages; having weathered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the uncertainty of Alexander III?s minority, the cross-border links were eventually severed by the wars of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence, but only after the success of Robert Bruce and uncompromising attitude of Edward II made it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible to maintain meaningful cross-border connections.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Questions can, however, be raised about the conceptual framework which is used to give cohesion to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. In the main, this is not simply of Professor Neville?s making, but reflect wider challenges for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of Scotland in the 12th and 13th centuries, challenges which arise from the way the subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been tackled by generations of scholars. The 12th and 13th centuries saw the infrastructure of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland take shape: sheriffs and counties, common law and parliament, burghs and parishes, castles and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocracy, and the use of writing in the arena of landholding and government. These were modelled to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant degree on English practice, and knights, clerics and merchants from England played a crucial role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in establishing and sustaining these developments. By the end of this period, Gaelic was in decline or dead in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the areas where these changes had come together and become part of the fabric of society. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation has typically been explained within a framework of ethnic opposites, with ?Celt? or ?Gael? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representing what is old and conservative, whereas change and progress is identified as ?English? or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(usually\) ?Anglo-Norman?. In a groundbreaking article, Matthew Hammond has shown how this framework )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is rooted in 19th-century assumptions that a people \(?race?, indeed\) by definition had its unique culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(customs and character.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 143.648 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 143.648 243.603 m 157.640 243.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.640 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The most pervasive legacy is this sense of people as culturally and socially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct. This, of course, is no longer consonant with our understanding of these issues in the 21st century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is about 180 degrees away from what it was when the founding fathers of Scottish history as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly discipline were writing in the 19th century. The explanatory force of the paradigm of ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polarity could also be questioned looking at more recent work on the 12th and 13th centuries. The changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were initiated and largely controlled by the most powerful members of secular society, for their benefit: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earls \()] TJ ET BT 63.668 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mormar)] TJ ET BT 105.668 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and, above all, the king. Although there is evidence in particular contexts of antipathy to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaels and their culture \(for example, as part of the Cistercian vision of establishing a properly Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society\), this does not mean that English-inspired innovations were )] TJ ET BT 359.324 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ipso facto)] TJ ET BT 406.328 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( anti-Gaelic. As Hammond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises, we are talking here \(at least in David Carpenter?s ?Scotland of the sheriffs?\) of the development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a single society ? at local and regional level in particular ? without any indication that, among those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sectors of society visible in the documentary record, ethnic differences became allied to distinctions in law, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social status or political opportunity. A narrative framework grounded in ethnic opposites sits uneasily in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this context. It might be protested that the distinction between the English origins of the innovations and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 477.9797 769.1335 491.9717 781.0135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 273.6677 726.3655 287.6597 738.2455 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 143.6477 243.9175 157.6397 255.7975 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7638 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigrants and ?native? people and social structures remains relevant wherever and whenever any of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes of change began. It is certainly part of the story. What is in dispute is the usefulness of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast, and of the ethnic labels that go with it, in explaining the changes that occurred. Other dynamics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem to hold more explanatory potential, such as the desire of those with any social or political standing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustain and improve their position.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It appears that Professor Neville?s response to Hammond?s analysis \(although this is not articulated as such\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been to attempt to reframe the paradigm of ethnic polarity so that change is no longer represented as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Anglo-Norman? or ?English?. Inspired, presumably, by Robert Bartlett?s idea of the ?Europeanising of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe?, Neville has placed ?Europeanisation? rather than ?Anglicisation? in the foreground. The Gaels, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, remain as a category, now contrasted with ?Europeans?. The chapter on friendship, we are told, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers another approach to understanding the ?cultural encounter that took place between Gaels and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans? \(p. 8\); the 13th century in Scotia \(Scotland north of the Forth\) was ?a period of accommodation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the institutions of the Gaelic past and those of the contemporary European world? \(p. 21\). If this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an attempt to maintain the old explanatory framework in a new guise, it has \(as far as this reviewer is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned\) had the opposite effect, ushering it towards oblivion. The most immediate problem is that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes Gaels appear to be non-Europeans. Do Europeanised Gaels cease, by definition, to be Gaels? Is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitable association with the encounter between ?Europeans? and ?natives? elsewhere in the world in more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern times intentional? Asking these questions is not to deny the force of Robert Bartlett?s classic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the ?Europeanisation of Europe?, but to query the usefulness of applying it in this way. Is this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended as a way of dealing with the ?Englishness? of Scotland that emerges in this pivotal period? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly, there are occasions where it seems that ?European? has been used to limit, or even erase, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to ?English? or ?Anglo-Norman?: for example, knights? feus are ?new, European-style tenures? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 20\); castles are ?European-style strongholds? \(ibid.\); and reference is made to ?the written deeds that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European newcomers had made popular in the kingdom in the twelfth century? \(p. 27\). True, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newcomers, strongholds and tenures were not exclusively English, but they were predominantly, if not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially, English or Anglo-Norman.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not only about the best choice of words. It suggests that the basic framework of ethnic opposites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to be so deeply embedded in Professor Neville?s thinking \(and, it must be emphasised, this is true to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant extent for all of her and my generation\) that it gives extra momentum to statements and ideas that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fit the paradigm, a momentum that is not always warranted by the evidence. The part of the paradigm where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this false momentum is most apparent is in her presentation of Gaels as conservative, even backward \(a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrayal that has clear echoes with older historiography, of course\). This is revealed particularly clearly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her discussion of the development of written documents and seals. We are told, for example, that Gaelic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnates were ?much slower than most of their Anglo-Norman and European contemporaries to incorporate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the technology of writing fully and firmly into the business associated with lordship? \(p. 81\). This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported by evidence that Gaels in the Lennox had a ?simplistic understanding of written instruments? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(82\), and ?continued to privilege the oral testimony of eye-witnesses and of local men with deep roots in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community? \(p. 83\): ?so, too, must countless other landholders living elsewhere in Gaelic Scotland? \(p. 83\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In support of this, attention is drawn to instances where Gaelic lords, when making a significant endowment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a monastery, stipulated that their bodies were to be buried in that house. This is taken to mean that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?used their own bodies as pledges of the commitments they undertook?, betraying ?a deep-seated belief in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the power of their physical presence? and therefore a less sophisticated or complete trust in documents \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(82\). But the association of an endowment with the donor?s burial is not peculiarly Gaelic. In Scotland it can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be found across the spectrum of landholders in the south and east: in the first half of the 13th century this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes Waltheof of Strachan, Adam son of Cospatric of Little Reston, Thomas Gordon, Thomas of Lundie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Robert Shotton \(a Northumberland landholder with cross-border interests\). There is also Donnchadh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Duncan\), earl of Mar who, like Thomas of Lundie, owed his position to ancestry from Gaels, and was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost certainly a Gaelic-speaker: both, however, were thoroughly ?Europeanised?. It also seems curious to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard stipulations in a charter about the donor?s burial as evidence of a simplistic understanding of written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instruments, when we only know about it because it was recorded in such an instrument. The example cited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of privileging oral testimony ahead of the written word is a charter of 1277 which Neville presents as the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7792 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product of the beneficiary?s \(the bishop of Glasgow?s\) insistence that a gift by ?the representative of a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old native Lennox family? \(p. 83\) of access to timber for building the cathedral?s bell-tower and treasury be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed to writing. It was surely in the beneficiary?s interests, rather than the donor?s, to do so, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore tells us little or nothing about the donor?s attitude to documents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When it comes to the discussion of when Gaels began to use seals, suspicions grow deeper that the argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has not been generated chiefly from the raw evidence itself. We are told that, ?notably absent from the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group of extant seals are examples belonging to the Gaelic magnates who were such prominent members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ruling aristocracy of the period?, with one exception \(Donnchadh of Carrick\). Neville goes on to explain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?seal usage among the great territorial lords who lived north of the Forth was, in fact, highly unusual?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the earliest examples in some earldoms in the 1220s and 1230s, while others \(Mar, Menteith and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sutherland\) are not found until the 14th century \(p. 86\). She notes that the loss of seals is undeniable: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?nevertheless?, she continues, ?the impression that Gaelic magnates were slow to adopt waxen seals as valid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressions of their authority and identity is noteworthy?, so much so that ?the exceptions to this general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule? \(such as the extant seals of Donnchadh II earl of Fife and his son, Mael Coluim, in the late 12th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century\) are deemed to be significant, suggesting that ?exposure to the royal court? was a factor \(p. 87\). But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can the chronology of surviving seals support any of these inferences? Only if it is assumed that the earliest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charters of earls north and west of the Forth ? there are surviving examples during the reign of William I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1165?1214\) of charters of earls of Angus, Atholl, Buchan, Caithness \(who was also earl of Orkney\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lennox, Mar and Strathearn, as well as Fife ? were not authenticated by the earl?s seal without any mention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the charter itself)] TJ ET BT 127.328 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a substitute. This \(as Professor Neville would instantly recognise, I have no doubt\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be an astounding state of affairs. The charters, on the contrary, are )] TJ ET BT 387.920 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(prima facie)] TJ ET BT 442.916 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( evidence that these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earls had seals: the chronology of extant examples ? dependent not only on the survival of original single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sheets, but also the preservation of tongues and seal-tags, never mind the wax itself ? is irrelevant, except for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studying the vicissitudes of survival.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are other places where deeply embedded assumptions about Gaels seem to have influenced the reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the evidence. Some of this is more clear-cut than others. I find it difficult, for example, to see how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perambulation of the boundary between Kinblethmont and a neighbouring estate in Angus, in 1219, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducted by ?Gaelic worthies from Kinblethmont? \(p. 23\), described elsewhere as ?a group of seven Gaelic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenants living in Kinblethmont? \(p. 54\). Two are brothers of leading men in Angus, and a third is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grandson of another. The emphasis seems to be on youth, and the men treading the bounds have been drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the lowest rung of landowning or managerial society in the region, rather than locals dwelling in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kinblethmont itself. \(This would not be the only case in which this is apparent: the perambulation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balfeith in the Mearns is another example.\) They are, however, likely to have been Gaelic speakers. Her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depiction of Gaels in perambulations as the inhabitants of the estate in question seems also to contribute to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider assumption that Gaels were predominantly associated with )] TJ ET BT 349.304 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nativi)] TJ ET BT 376.640 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? the peasantry tied to an estate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, presumably, lies behind her conviction that ?in Scotland, as in Ireland, the medieval peasant experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was shaped as much by ethnic and racial, as by social mores? \(p. 169\). If \(as I think it must\) be conceded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, as late as the 1220s, Gaels were not infrequently numbered among the local and regional leaders in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angus and the Mearns, however, it becomes difficult to see how Gaelic and )] TJ ET BT 400.940 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nativi)] TJ ET BT 428.276 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would have been regarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as linked in most of this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the end of the day this book seems to be most successful when it leaves ethnicity as an explanatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework out of the reckoning and responds more directly to the source material. In those parts ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly chapters four \(on managing cross-border interests\) and chapter six \(on friendship in the context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of lordship\) ? the ability of the evidence to provoke unexpected detail and new insights is most apparent. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where the age-old paradigm of Gaels as ?behind the times? comes into play, however, the momentum seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to rest too often on assumptions generated from the paradigm itself, and runs the risk of missing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities provided by the evidence to challenge these assumptions. The attempt to refashion the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polarity of conservative Gaels/Celts transformed by English/Anglo-Norman influence and incomers into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast between Gaels and Europeans seems only to bring this framework into deeper waters as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaningful interpretative tool. On the evidence of this book, no makeover of the old ways of thinking is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 3192 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely to be convincing; equally, it is apparent in some parts of this book that it is possible to discuss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important and captivating aspects of this period of Scottish history without recourse to the old paradigm. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once the narrative framework of ethnic polarity is set aside as a prop to guide us through this period, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be much easier to understand how this society, on the ground of local and regional experience, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managed to change so fundamentally. It will then be easier to recognise that those aspects we can readily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify as traceable from English practice or rooted in earlier patterns of lordship and social identity were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very far from being ?opposites?, not least because they grew together into the rhythm and fabric of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly unified political and legal entity: the kingdom of the Scots.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 661.779 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cynthia Neville, )] TJ ET BT 146.348 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Native Lordship in Medieval Scotland: The Earldoms of Strathearn and Lennox)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Dublin, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.344 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.344 615.507 m 192.332 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archie Duncan, )] TJ ET BT 142.988 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scotland: the Making of the Kingdom)] TJ ET BT 323.312 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Edinburgh, 1975\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.968 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.968 601.251 m 471.956 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Hammond, 'Ethnicity and the writing of medieval Scottish history',)] TJ ET BT 434.324 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scottish Historical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Review)] TJ ET BT 98.672 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 85 \(2006\), 1-29.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 182.660 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 182.660 572.739 m 236.648 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 531.151 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 513.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 513.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1098)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 511.977 m 328.316 511.977 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 487.000 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 472.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/5548)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 138.3437 615.8215 192.3317 627.7015 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 417.9677 601.5655 471.9557 613.4455 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 182.6597 573.0535 236.6477 584.9335 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 512.2915 328.3157 524.1715 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1098) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000551 00000 n 0000000633 00000 n 0000004889 00000 n 0000004998 00000 n 0000005108 00000 n 0000005217 00000 n 0000008778 00000 n 0000008906 00000 n 0000008990 00000 n 0000009088 00000 n 0000017835 00000 n 0000017865 00000 n 0000017993 00000 n 0000018029 00000 n 0000018059 00000 n 0000018187 00000 n 0000018223 00000 n 0000018253 00000 n 0000018381 00000 n 0000018417 00000 n 0000018482 00000 n 0000026173 00000 n 0000026238 00000 n 0000034083 00000 n 0000034188 00000 n 0000037433 00000 n 0000037561 00000 n 0000037616 00000 n 0000037744 00000 n 0000037799 00000 n 0000037927 00000 n 0000037982 00000 n 0000038110 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38206 %%EOF