%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140418072355+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140418072355+01'00') /Title (The Younger Pitt. III. The Consuming Struggle) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4191 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Younger Pitt. III. The Consuming Struggle)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By any standards. Ehrman's Pitt is a major achievement. The third volume, covering the years 1797 until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pitt's death in 1806, is no exhausted sequel, no plodding postscript. Pitt died in office, commanding and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting until the end. Ehrman conclude s in full command of his biographical skills: searching in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis, judicious in judgement and apposite in style. In finishing in such a masterly fashion, Ehrman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obviously invites comparison with other great political biographers, past and present. His t ask was both less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and more complex than those of others. There were fewer years to cover: Pitt died aged 46 and his personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life, although opaque, is not centre-stage. On the other hand, his long period at the helm of state ensures that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ehrman's biograph y is very much a study of an era. As with the previous volumes, especially volume 2, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are sections where Pitt is somewhat lost from view, but this is always reasonable. It is impossible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judge his policies unless the problems facing him are fully e xplained. Ehrman's deft and scholarly handling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the background is one of many reasons why his biography is superior to that to which it was generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared when only two volumes were complete: Plumb's Pitt. Ehrman misses Plumb's lightness of tone, bu )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(t his altogether more serious and searching work offers much more to the reader who wants to know about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the minister and his times. As an account of a rise to power, Plumb's first volume was interesting: he grasped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and enjoyed the vitality of his subject. But once in power, Plumb's treatment of Walpole was less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 November, 1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Ehrman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780804727549)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(928pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stanford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.sup.org/book.cgi?id=2093)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palo Alto, CA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeremy Black)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6837 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(satisfactory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For an account of a great minister in office, it is necessary to turn to Ehrman. He does not ignore the private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life; indeed is eloquent, accurately so, on the role of friendship in Pitt's life. Nevertheless, this is a treatment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an individual dedica ted to the burdens of office. Pitt told Hester Stanhope that he must remain unmarried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('for my King and country's sake', Ehrman commenting 'The words, addressed to marriage, might be taken in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a comprehensive sense. For Pitt in essence was indeed single, af fectionate in private but fulfilled in public. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He stood apart, untouched a priest stands untouched at the centre of his avocatiorls; a priest in this instance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of politics and government' \(p.97\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately for Pitt, both proved very difficult. The period of this volume was one of crises and dashed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hopes, a 'consuming struggle' in Ehrman's most apt phrase. These crises, domestic and international, form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the substance of the book. 1797 was a year of crisis surmounted at home, but the French rejection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms at the end of 1796 faced Pitt with the prospect that the war could be indefinitely prolonged! a situation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he made intense but unsuccessful efforts to avoid. The pressures on Pitt were intense as the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coalition was constructed and then failed. Aside from the public strains, there were also serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disagreements within the ministry centring on strategy. Pitt did not lose command of the Commons but his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control of the Minis try deteriorated and this played a major role in the political crisis that precipitated his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resignation: The persistent indecision in the sphere of strategy through much of the year \(l800\), the failure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impinge on largely frustrating events, more intima tely the rising differences between Grenville and Dundas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affected the tone of the Ministry as well as the spirits of the Minister himself'. \(p.517\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When he resigned in 1801 Pitt was suffering from depression and gout. He appeared to have lost the will to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(go on, the desire to lead, the killer instinct that is so important in political leadership. An ability to manage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or to conciliate was no substit ute in the circumstances of the early 1800s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This slackened drive was possibly as important as any wish not to challenge or to be seen to challenge the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King's prerogative in choosing ministers, in explaining why Pitt delayed his attack on his successor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Addington, until 1804. He was certainly pre ssed to mount such an attack by his political friends. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renewal of war with France the previous year had led to pressure for the return of Pitt and for a more broadly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once in office again, Pitt was obviously under great strain. His ability to lead was affected and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgement can be questioned, as in his willingness to desert Melville and his subsequent refusal to advance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Addington's supporters once Melville had f allen. Pitt's neglect to build up a true party can be related to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health and morale as much as to his political views.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Pitt died the Ministry was in a weak state, facing an assertive albeit far from united, parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition and with its foreign policy in ruins after Austerlitz. Pitt was scarcely to blame for Napoleon, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the domestic weaknesses of his min istry were not all his fault. He suffered from the weak nature of 'party' in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period. Furthermore, his resignation in l801 had splintered the Pittite 'party' for he was not replaced by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition party, the policies of which would maintain Pittite u nity, in other words a government in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Foxite Whigs were prominent. In addition, as with other governments, the crucial, often intangible, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressures for cohesion had been lost. While success can lead politicians to temper their rivalries and can h )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elp in the postponement of problems, it is difficult to overcome the rivalries and they and related problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tend to revive when the general situation becomes more adverse, not least when a sense of confidence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear leadership and purpose is lost. Ther e had been important rivalries within Pitt's ministry earlier, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had been contained, whereas the political circumstances of the 1800s made them far more serious. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of success was gone, and the ministry no longer seemed to have much initiati ve, let alone to be in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control of the political agenda.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pitt's state on the eve of his death underlines a major problem with the political system in this \(and other\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ages: the difficulty of parting with a leader who was no longer capable of providing the necessary leadership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and success. George III had no w ish to part with Pitt in 1805-6 and this played a part in ensuring that the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 3978 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pittites had no adequate alternative leader. The Pittite position collapsed with the Minister's death. This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the consequence of any electoral defeat. Under the Septennial A ct, no election was due until 1809. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead, divisions within those who served with, or had served with, Pitt were crucial.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be wrong to blame Pitt alone for the collapse of the Pittite system. The tasks faced by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Government were formidable and the succeeding 'Ministry of All the Talents' was also to fail and be short-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived. Indeed, in 1807 the Pittite system ret urned in the shape of a ministry led by the Duke of Portland and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(containing most of the leading Pittites, and the Whigs thereafter spent many years in opposition. They were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unable to take advantage of the unpopularity and divisions of the Portland ministr y in 1809 and it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replaced by a government under Perceval that continued on a Pittite base. The creation and fall] of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Ministry of All the Talents' was a working through of the consequences of the weaknesses of the Pittite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system. Nevertheless, the revival of the system suggested that the basic conservative principles, policies, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personnel that had characterized it were more successful and appropriate for the government of Britain in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1800s than those of its rivals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An 'Impaired Ministry ... in search of coalitions', domestic and foreign. Ehrman's characterisation of 'an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Administration that was not at ease with itself' \(p.717\) reflects a deep understanding of the possibilities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems of government at this ju ncture. He has produced a major work of scholarship. That it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography is more than incidental, but it does not detract from the scholarship. Instead, it gives it shape and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further interest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All works date; every book can be criticised. Indeed, Linda Colley, in a newspaper review, has attacked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ehrman for adopting an establishment viewpoint. Yet. this volume is a brilliant product of the intelligent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind. I can only hope it is read widely a nd paperbacked swiftly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 419.187 m 240.992 419.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 415.855 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 398.075 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 398.075 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/11)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 396.681 m 316.316 396.681 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 371.704 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 357.304 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/175)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.904 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=5184)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 419.5015 240.9917 431.3815 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=5184) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 396.9955 316.3157 408.8755 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/11) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000541 00000 n 0000000623 00000 n 0000004866 00000 n 0000004975 00000 n 0000005085 00000 n 0000005194 00000 n 0000008755 00000 n 0000008883 00000 n 0000008967 00000 n 0000009032 00000 n 0000015922 00000 n 0000016013 00000 n 0000020044 00000 n 0000020171 00000 n 0000020271 00000 n 0000020399 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 20493 %%EOF