%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150629210102+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150629210102+01'00') /Title (The Insurgent Barricade) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4867 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Insurgent Barricade)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In May 1995 Alain Corbin organised a conference on the history of the barricade, quite a novel departure at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that time. Being asked to focus exclusively on one part of the insurrectionary process intrigued those of us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invited to contribute. The findings, published by the )] TJ ET BT 286.676 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Socit de l?histoire du dix-neuvime sicle)] TJ ET BT 496.964 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, drew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the barricade as a feature of 19th-century revolutions, particularly in France. The theme was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken up subsequently by Thomas Bouchet and Jill Harsin.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 316.328 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 316.328 229.161 m 330.320 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 330.320 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Bouchet highlighted the repercussions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed revolt rather than the impact of barricades on the events. Harsin offered descriptions of a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically disruptive events from urban revolts to attempts to assassinate Louis-Philippe, but said little about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the actual function of the barricade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Traugott has written an impressive number of works on 19th-century France include a ground-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaking study of the June Days, )] TJ ET BT 194.324 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Armies of the Poor. Determinants of Working-Class Participation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parisian Insurrection of June 1848)] TJ ET BT 202.676 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 208.676 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a compilation of worker autobiographies which are essential reading for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an undergraduate student of 19th-century social history, )] TJ ET BT 305.300 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The French Worker: Autobiographies from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Early Industrial Era )] TJ ET BT 135.020 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1993\) and seminal articles on 1848.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 310.328 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 310.328 103.113 m 324.320 103.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 324.320 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Holding a joint Chair in History and Sociology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the University of California, his stated determination to discuss concept and narrative separately gives this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study a new perspective and agenda. While chapters one to three and five to eight are descriptive accounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the use of barricades, the other chapters are more wide-ranging and theoretical. The more narrative chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1100)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 July, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Traugott)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780520266322)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(436pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of California Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkeley, CA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pamela Pilbeam)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 316.3277 229.4755 330.3197 241.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 310.3277 103.4275 324.3197 115.3075 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7296 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insist on a different chronology and a broader geographical perspective than most earlier studies. Historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have tended to assume that barricades only became a feature of urban revolt in the 19th-century. Traugott )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insists, quoting contemporary accounts and illustrations, that barricades were used two centuries earlier. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book also emphasises far more comprehensively than any earlier work the extent to which the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example was replicated in all the European revolts of 1848. Indeed if the ?Arab spring? of 2011 had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred before this volume appeared, there may well have been a chapter at least on Freedom Square, Cairo.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barricades evolved from the heavy chains that were strung from side to side of urban streets in parts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe in medieval times by prosperous citizens to defend themselves, sometimes from royal troops, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes from the local ?underclass?. At the end of the 13th century the citizens of Ghent successfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used chains stretched across their streets to assert Flemish autonomy. In 1356 armed conflict was intense in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France, both between Valois and Navarre factions and from the English under Edward III. In the extreme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat of civil disorder, tienne Marcel, a wealthy merchant and senior administrator \()] TJ ET BT 447.260 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(prvt de marchands)] TJ ET BT 548.576 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Paris ordered the forging of heavy chains, firmly attached on the walls on either side of the main Paris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(streets. However the chains were not reinforced by barrels etc and the term barricade was not used.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the late 16th century chains were reinforced with barrels \(hence the term\), carts, preferably loaded with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavy objects, paving and cobble stones, hefty lumps of furniture and whatever chunky material came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand. The first defences that were identified as barricades were erected in Paris in 1588, although there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence that similar constructions were used a generation earlier. In 1588, during his conflict with the duc )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de Guise, Henri III tried to maintain control of Paris by stationing over 6,000 troops in the capital. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Traditionally the capital had been held in order by its own militia. Citizens stretched chains across the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(streets to try to keep out the king?s troops. The comte de Brissac, a close associate of Guise, suggested that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chains be reinforced with barrels filled with earth and paving stones. Within a few hours the Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quarter was covered in barricades and the king?s troops were unable to gain control. Brissac is thus often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credited with inventing barricades, but perhaps only because their use on this occasion led to political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change, contributing to the demise of the Valois dynasty. The idea of using barricades for urban defence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spread to Lyon in 1589 and later to other cities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next significant instance was during Louis XIV?s minority when the Frondes, conflict between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(parlements)] TJ ET BT 87.344 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, representing the aspirations of the local elites, and the Regent, the Queen Mother, led to a period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of prolonged upheaval. In 1648 again the specific provocation which sparked off barricade construction was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the presence of massed royal troops in Paris. What was striking was the speed with which barricades were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thrown up and the scale, perhaps 1,260 barricades were defended by 100,000 Parisians for three days. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Almost equally disturbing for the authorities was the ubiquity of a popular memory of 1588 and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spontaneity of these barricades. The barricades of 1648 did nothing to resolve the conflict, but the memory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the sustained upheaval of which they were a part, ensured that Louis XIV and his successors were careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to protect royal power. Barricades disappeared in France until the 1789 Revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barricades next contributed to political change in Brussels in 1787. The Austrian Emperor Joseph II, as ruler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Brabant, attempted to institute reforms reminiscent of those urged by Enlightenment writers, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious toleration and the abolition of guild privileges. The local elite, Roman Catholic, intensely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative and proud of the autonomy of their Estates and their Civil Guard, protested at the lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consultation. They stretched chains, reinforced by paving stones etc, to keep royal troops out of Brussels. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Their successful rising and other instances of barricade construction led to full scale revolution and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temporary independence in Brabant, terminated by invasion by French republican troops in 1792 and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposition of precisely the reforms attempted by Joseph II.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the prolonged upheaval of the 1789 Revolution, barricades were erected on a number of occasions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although historians tend to overlook them, and this author seems to note them merely to be absolutely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precise, without trying to claim that these instances had any importance. Barricades were built on 14 July )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1789 when the Bastille fell to a revolutionary crowd. They also appeared in Paris in June 1791 after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king?s flight to Varennes and twice in 1795, but they were very minor features of disruption in this period.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7860 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was in the 19th century that barricades made the greatest contribution to political change. They were built )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1827 when Charles X clashed with the National Guard, and with far more import in July 1830, when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barricading of central Paris lost the king his throne. Spurred on by the Parisians, the Belgians raised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barricades against the Orange dynasty, and successfully proclaimed their independence. In June 1832 came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most dramatically documented set of Parisian barricades, vividly recounted by Victor Hugo and still built )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nightly in a London theatre. In February 1848 the Paris revolution which unseated the Orleanist king, Louis-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philippe, saw barricades erected by the same skilled workers, in the same locations as in 1830 and 1832. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even more notable, barricades were a central feature of the unprecedented tsunami of revolts that followed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Parisian example in most European capitals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barricade culture was conveyed in engravings and the new European illustrated press, which quickly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed its middle-class readers of the Paris revolution. Many of these images appear in this volume, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although one should recall that the art by which today?s undergraduates remember these events, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meissonnier, Hugo, Flaubert and Delacroix was, with the exception of )] TJ ET BT 374.960 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liberty Guiding the People)] TJ ET BT 505.952 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1848, Meissonnier?s )] TJ ET BT 161.324 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memory of Civil War \(The Barricades,1848, shown first at the Salon in 1850-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1851, Hugo?s Les Misrables )] TJ ET BT 180.344 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1862 and Flaubert?s )] TJ ET BT 293.000 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?ducation sentimentale )] TJ ET BT 419.660 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1869. Perhaps a better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of direct influence was the fact that foreign workers who had participated in the Paris revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often took to the streets in their own capital cities, just as today?s Libyan rebels learned their fighting in Iraq. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1848 was the highpoint of barricade building, but only the Parisian February vintage actually led to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permanent change of regime. In 1871 barricades were confined to France, mainly to Paris, and were stylised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbols, rather than practical weapons, as the illustrations \(p. 16 and p. 192\) reveal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The two final chapters focus on the wider perspective. There were 155 instances of barricade construction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over three centuries, 92 of which occurred in France. Graphical representations show they were a real threat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of regime change only in 1588, 1648, 1789, 1830, 1848 and 1871, and then mainly in France. Around 4,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barricades featured in the 1830 revolution. Their revolutionary efficacy declined with railways, the telegraph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the replacement of narrow streets with wide boulevards. However their mythic, symbolic influence went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on to far exceed their practical impact in trying to unseat a regime. Unlike other insurrectionary techniques, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the barricade was remarkably consistent in its structure over three centuries, as was the way in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insurrectionary crowds spontaneously organised themselves. Barricades could inspire less committed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens and their opponents. The latter, usually the military, might, as in 1830 and February 1848, be won )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over to the rebels by the sight of local people, including retired military and women and children, defending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a barricade, and providing the hungry, thirsty soldiers with sustenance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps another reason why barricades ceased to be effective after February 1848, which is not dealt with in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book, was that soldiers became hardened to guerrilla warfare when they used artillery techniques that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not necessitate them seeing their enemy at close quarters. Traugott constantly repeats that barricades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were designed to defend a neighbourhood. He might have taken this further to consider whether barricades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had less resonance when workers no longer worked and lived in the same area. This was the case in Paris by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the March 1871, and perhaps contributed to the failure to erect barricades spontaneously. The increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of the state to deprive those who manned barricades of their liberty and a livelihood, which is also not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned in this volume, is another factor which smothered insurrection after June 1848 in France. Louis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hinckner, in )] TJ ET BT 97.004 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Citoyens-combattants Paris, 1848-1851)] TJ ET BT 297.668 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 300.668 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 300.668 191.091 m 314.660 191.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 314.660 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shows how those who fought on the barricades in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1830 and February 1848 were treated subsequently as heroic citizens to be rewarded, whereas those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joined barricades in June 1848, December 1851 and March 1871 always remained rebels, unworthy of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state pension, even from the Third Republic. Unfortunately Traugott does not discuss such aspects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychology which made people into barricade insurrectionaries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This review has put together a continuous narrative of barricades and their relative success, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergraduates may seek and at first will be disappointed at its absence in this volume, despite the excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graphs \(pp. 81?2\). The substantial appendix A \(pp. 243?311\) consists of a database of barricade events, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which includes not only comparable statistical data for each barricade, but also a brief summary of each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(event, but the overall effect is bitty and disconnected. The volume will be valuable for students, particularly )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 300.6677 191.4055 314.6597 203.2855 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 3470 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those working on 19th?century history and those trying to fathom why fascination with barricades grew as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their effectiveness as revolutionary tools declined. The three-century chronological span is admirable. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion on barricades and the culture of revolution should make students think, provoke debate, and take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the topic further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.803 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Bouchet, )] TJ ET BT 151.676 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Roi et les barricades. Une histoire des 5 et 6 juin 1832 )] TJ ET BT 432.332 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Paris, 2000\); Jill Harsin, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Barricades. The War of the Streets in Revolutionary Paris, 1830?1848 )] TJ ET BT 406.004 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.664 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.664 672.531 m 559.652 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Traugott, )] TJ ET BT 140.336 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Armies of the Poor. Determinants of Working-Class Participation in the Parisian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Insurrection of June 1848 )] TJ ET BT 191.336 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Berkeley, CA, 1985\); )] TJ ET BT 301.652 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The French Worker: Autobiographies from the Early )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Industrial Era )] TJ ET BT 135.356 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 241.676 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 241.676 629.763 m 295.664 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis Hinckner, )] TJ ET BT 145.004 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Citoyens-combattants Paris, 1848?1851 )] TJ ET BT 350.672 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Villeneuve d?Ascq, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 483.308 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 483.308 615.507 m 537.296 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 590.645 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rorotoko)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.rorotoko.com/index.php/article/mark_traugott_book_interview_insurgent_barricade/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 560.739 m 498.296 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 501.296 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 557.407 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 539.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 539.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1100)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 538.233 m 328.316 538.233 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 513.256 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 498.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7739)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.456 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.rorotoko.com/index.php/article/mark_traugott_book_interview_insurgent_barricade/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 505.6637 672.8455 559.6517 684.7255 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 241.6757 630.0775 295.6637 641.9575 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 483.3077 615.8215 537.2957 627.7015 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 561.0535 498.2957 572.9335 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.rorotoko.com/index.php/article/mark_traugott_book_interview_insurgent_barricade/) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 538.5475 328.3157 550.4275 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1100) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000526 00000 n 0000000622 00000 n 0000005541 00000 n 0000005650 00000 n 0000005760 00000 n 0000005869 00000 n 0000009430 00000 n 0000009558 00000 n 0000009642 00000 n 0000009671 00000 n 0000009799 00000 n 0000009835 00000 n 0000009864 00000 n 0000009992 00000 n 0000010028 00000 n 0000010093 00000 n 0000017442 00000 n 0000017526 00000 n 0000025439 00000 n 0000025469 00000 n 0000025597 00000 n 0000025633 00000 n 0000025745 00000 n 0000029268 00000 n 0000029396 00000 n 0000029451 00000 n 0000029579 00000 n 0000029634 00000 n 0000029762 00000 n 0000029817 00000 n 0000029944 00000 n 0000030087 00000 n 0000030215 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30311 %%EOF