%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 31 0 R 36 0 R 47 0 R 69 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140917042650+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140917042650+01'00') /Title (The Siege and the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. Historiography, Topography, and Military Studies) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4501 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Siege and the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. Historiography, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Topography, and Military Studies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a monster of a book. It must be the most detailed assessment of the fall of Constantinople in 1453 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there has ever been. It subjects the scholarly literature devoted to the subject over the last century-and-a-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half to a searching scrutiny. It is the work of two authors, who between them have a profound knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the written sources, the bibliography, the topography and the material remains relating to the fall of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople. Marios Philippides has been working on the fall of Constantinople for more than 30 years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and has produced a string of distinguished studies on different authors and texts, as well as a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translations and new editions of texts. Walter K. Hanak, who is a generation older, is a specialist in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of medieval Russia. They cooperated on an annotated translation of )] TJ ET BT 397.292 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Tale of Constantinople)] TJ ET BT 528.308 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nestor-Iskander, which is the main narrative in Russian of the fall of Constantinople.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 442.628 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 442.628 136.497 m 456.620 136.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 456.620 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( They rescued the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text from comparative obscurity and demonstrated that it contained an eyewitness account of the fall of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople, which was worth taking seriously. Their new book is divided into two parts, ?The pen? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The sword?, which to all intents and purposes are separate books. The first deals with historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of the fall of Constantinople and the second with military matters. Far from complementing each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other they pull in different directions, which is a reflection of an uncomfortable fact confronting anybody )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing about the fall of Constantinople: there are so many sources, yet so few which are of much value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1101)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 July, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marios Philippides)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walter Hanak)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781409410645)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(125.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(816pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farnham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Angold)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 442.6277 136.8115 456.6197 148.6915 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8951 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when it comes to reconstructing the event.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first part covers what Agostino Pertusi called ?L?eco nel mondo? and concerns itself with the after-life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the fall of Constantinople rather than the event itself. The second part provides an examination of the fall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Constantinople in purely military terms. This section divides into a detailed investigation of the walls of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople and a careful study of the main features of the siege. It is based on painstaking examination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the sources and the material remains with the aim of providing a partial reconstruction. It rests on a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?reliable? ? the authors? word ? sources: Nicol Barbaro?s )] TJ ET BT 318.932 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of the Siege)] TJ ET BT 415.256 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Leonardo of Chios?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Letter to Pope Nicholas V)] TJ ET BT 158.684 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, various letters of Cardinal Isidore, the histories of Doukas and Khalkokondyles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Kritoboulos?s )] TJ ET BT 124.676 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life of Mehmed II)] TJ ET BT 210.992 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. To these must be added Ubertino Puscolo?s )] TJ ET BT 429.968 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Constantinopolis)] TJ ET BT 511.988 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? a long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known but somewhat neglected source, whose full importance the authors bring out, and Tetaldi?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Informations)] TJ ET BT 96.020 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, of which there is now a reliable text of the French version thanks to Philippides. The second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part concentrates on the details of the siege, while the first part looks forward to the 16th century and even to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 19th century. Since it would have made more sense, certainly in chronological terms, to deal with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(siege first, that is where I shall begin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vital to any understanding of the course of the siege are the walls themselves. The authors provide a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painstaking inspection of the walls, which is backed up by excellent photographs and plans. As always there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is much discussion of the St Romanos Gate, which was the key point of the defence in 1453. They maintain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its traditional identification with the Topkapi Gate and are wary of the recent discovery of an inscription by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neslihan Asutay, which points to the St Romanos Gate being identical with the Fourth Military Gate.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 520.328 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 520.328 514.467 m 534.320 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asutay has also put forward strong grounds for believing that from the mid 14th century the imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(residence was no longer the Blakhernai Palace, but was the adjoining palace of the Porphyrogenitos \(now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known as the Tekfur Saray\), which occupies an exposed point at the juncture of the Blakhernai and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theodosian walls.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 121.340 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 121.340 457.443 m 135.332 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 135.332 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The authors have nothing to say about this and therefore miss its important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications. It is well known that on 6 April 1453 Constantine XI handed over the defence of the imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(palace to the Venetian)] TJ ET BT 140.984 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( bail)] TJ ET BT 168.656 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. But, following Asutay this was the Tekfur Saray and not the Blakhernai Palace, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is the traditional \(and the authors?\) assumption. In her favour is the large number of commanders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attested for the Blakhernai sector, which would have made the presence of the Venetian)] TJ ET BT 455.240 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( bail)] TJ ET BT 485.912 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( there more or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less superfluous. The emperor?s decision to entrust the defence of the imperial palace to the Venetians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means that his whereabouts during the siege are mysterious, whence Michel Balard?s )] TJ ET BT 446.936 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bon mot)] TJ ET BT 485.936 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: ?il est partout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(et nulle part dans la ville?. His elusiveness supports Balard?s conviction that the emperor played little active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part in the defence of the city, which he left in the hands of western commanders.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 424.928 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 424.928 343.395 m 438.920 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 438.920 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Balard?s stylish and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptive essay does not impress Philippides and Hanak \(p. 5, n. 10\). However, they fail to challenge his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissive treatment of Constantine XI. They are apparently unaware that the emperor?s role in the defence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the city is a historical problem. Tucked away at the very end of the book in an appendix on the death of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Loukas Notaras \(p. 599\), they note that Ubertino Puscolo talks of the emperor establishing his headquarters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in tents set up between the inner and the outer walls, but fail to provide a correct reference. The passage in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question \(iv. 309?14\) makes it quite clear that the emperor commanded the exposed stretch of walls around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the St Romanos Gate in conjunction with the Genoese condottiere Giovanni Longo Giustiniani. Far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doing next to nothing, it would seem that the emperor was at the heart of the defence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the whole, the book confirms traditional views about the conduct of the defence and offers little new in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way of interpretation. It is not new to suggest that the contribution of artillery to the Ottoman success )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was largely psychological, though the authors appear to believe that it is. They are hardly breaking new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground with their emphasis on the relative ineffectiveness of the Ottoman artillery. They grudgingly credit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kelly DeVries with anticipating them \(p. 552, n. 18\), but then criticize him on the grounds that he doesn?t )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know the sources as well as they do and has failed to appreciate Mehmed II?s ?elastic? approach to siege )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warfare. This may seem a minor point, but they have failed to understand his line of argument, to which a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of intimate knowledge of the sources is irrelevant. DeVries is suggesting that the Ottoman artillery was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective, but not in the ways usually supposed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 261.656 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 261.656 89.043 m 275.648 89.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 275.648 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He draws attention to passages in Kritoboulos?s )] TJ ET BT 512.288 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mehmed II)] TJ ET BT 86.324 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, from which we learn that Mehmed II designed mortars, which were a real threat once set up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close to the Golden Horn. DeVries?s point is that the large cannon may not have done decisive damage to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 520.3277 514.7815 534.3197 526.6615 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 121.3397 457.7575 135.3317 469.6375 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 424.9277 343.7095 438.9197 355.5895 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 261.6557 89.3575 275.6477 101.2375 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7992 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the land-walls, but the mortars operating in the port area stretched the defence to breaking point. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supervision of these mortars offers a reasonable explanation for Mehmed II?s despatch of his cannon-maker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Urban to the Golden Horn sector. It is certainly more plausible than the authors? assumption that it was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of demotion because his great bombard had not achieved the anticipated success against the land-walls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 456\). DeVries?s suggestion that Ottoman artillery was more effective than is usually supposed is in line )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with recent work, which has pointed to the Ottoman ability to exploit advances in artillery warfare. E. C. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antoche underlines the speed with which the Ottomans created an artillery train.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.608 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.608 709.539 m 434.600 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 434.600 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( They had virtually no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artillery at the battle in Varna in 1444, but four years later they won a victory over the Hungarians at Kosovo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thanks in large measure to their field artillery. It should not be forgotten that this was the battle where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mehmed II, so to speak, won his ?spurs?. It would have alerted him to the value of different kinds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artillery. Mehmed II was a man of great curiosity and intelligence, as becomes immediately apparent from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perusal of his one schoolbook to survive. It makes more plausible Kritoboulos?s information about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conqueror?s contribution to the development of artillery at the time of the siege.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philippides and Hanak are undoubtedly correct that the defenders had until the very end the better of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle. They saw off the artillery attack on the land-walls; they dealt with the mining of the walls; they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burnt the great siege tower. It all came down to the last assault on the evening of 28 May 1453. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defenders drove off two waves of attack, but were unable to resist the final onslaught by the Janissaries, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if, as always, it was a close run thing. In the end, the decisive moment was the departure from the field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battle of the mortally wounded )] TJ ET BT 185.000 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(condottiere)] TJ ET BT 239.660 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Giustiniani. But it has usually been assumed that it was only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisive because the Turks had already penetrated the outer-wall through a postern gate known as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kerkoporta. Philippides and Hanak devote an appendix to this \(pp. 619?23\), but avoid coming to any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions. The problem is that Doukas is the only historian of the siege, who retails this episode. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be no corroboration. There are also problems of identification of the gate in question. Doukas places it at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lower end of the imperial palace, which following Asutay is likely to have been the Tekfur Saray rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the Blakhernai. In which case it was situated at one of the weak points of the defences, where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blakhernai and Theodosian walls met. On this reading the Kerkoporta allowed access to the area between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the inner and outer lines of the Theodosian walls. This was critical because the defenders only held the outer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(walls. Philippides and Hanak have their doubts about Doukas?s evidence, because he was not an eyewitness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but against this he is known to have interviewed some of the janissaries, who were among the first to get into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the city. The balance of probability suggests that Doukas?s information is correct. It is difficult otherwise to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain the suddenness of the defence?s collapse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If by and large ?The sword? leaves the traditional picture intact, its value is that it has subjected it to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intense scrutiny. At another level, it offers a clear and well-organised narrative of the defence of the city. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The pen? is more diffuse, but this is a reflection of the task in hand, which is to follow the historiography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and mythology of the fall of Constantinople from the 15th to the 19th centuries. There is little emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eyewitness accounts and other contemporary sources beyond tabulating them very efficiently. The real focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of attention is on the development of a historiographical tradition. In the West interest in the fall of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople soon faltered and shifted to the Ottomans themselves. It was different for the Greeks under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman rule, for whom the fall of Constantinople still cast a shadow over their sense of identity in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16th century. This was a comparatively neglected topic, when Philippides began working on it some 30 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years ago. He now brings his work to a very satisfying conclusion in two chapters: the first deals with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronicle of the last centuries of Byzantium usually referred to as the Pseudo-Sphrantzes, while the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaks new ground by examining the myths, legends, and tales, which grew up around the fall of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople. It is a reminder of the different levels at which memory works. The chronicle of the Pseudo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sphrantzes was a work of the late 16th century by a well-known forger, Makarios Melissourgos, one time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bishop of Monemvasia. Despite the high regard he accords it Philippides demonstrates beyond doubt that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section devoted to the siege and fall of Constantinople has no independent value, but derives almost entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Leonardo of Chios. Any additional details stem from Melissourgos?s own agenda of family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aggrandisement. It is ironic that we still have to rely very largely on the original edition of 1578 for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leonardo of Chios?s eyewitness account of the fall of Constantinople despite its enormous importance for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the later development of the historiography of the event, which Philippides has traced so assiduously over )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 420.6077 709.8535 434.5997 721.7335 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 8832 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on myths, legends and tales is subtitled ?A folk history?. It is a topic, which really deserves a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book to itself. The authors have opted for a selective approach. So, they include the humanist interpretation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the fall of Constantinople, which was predicated on the parallels with the fall of Troy. These allowed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction of quite unhistorical elements, such as the rape of a virgin on the altar of St Sophia by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conqueror in revenge for the Trojan virgin raped at the time of the fall of Troy. Against this, the )] TJ ET BT 496.928 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daniel)] TJ ET BT 66.680 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are left out, despite being one of the key texts used to predict )] TJ ET BT 364.964 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(post eventum)] TJ ET BT 427.952 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the fall of Constantinople. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This means that Agostino Pertusi?s posthumous work )] TJ ET BT 295.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fine di Bisanzio e fine del mondo)] TJ ET BT 456.344 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the subject ? is not even cited in the vast bibliography.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 368.996 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 368.996 669.027 m 382.988 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 382.988 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There is a connection, which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missed, in the shape of the aspiring humanist Ubertino Puscolo, who has left one of the most interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eyewitness accounts of the fall of Constantinople in his poem )] TJ ET BT 331.988 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Constantinopolis)] TJ ET BT 414.008 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. He recounts his experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the fall of Constantinople in a surprisingly down to earth fashion. He sought explanation for the terrible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcome not in the classical past but, in the same way as so many others, in portents and prophecies. One of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first things that he did when he was released from captivity in 1454 was to translate into Latin a Greek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(version of the )] TJ ET BT 103.004 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visions of Daniel)] TJ ET BT 186.344 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Philippides and Hanak single out a quite different topic: the traditions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grew up about the death of the last Byzantine emperor and the site of his tomb. Again they are selective. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They only consider in passing the well-known legend of the ?Marble Emperor? entombed at the Golden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gate. They concentrate instead on the traditions, which surfaced in the early 19th century, to the effect that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the burial place of the last Byzantine emperor was either at an inn on Vefa Meydan or at Gul Camii. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is a fairly obvious connection to be made between the Gul Camii and the death of the last Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor, this is not the case with the Vefa Meydan. Was it, the authors wonder, perhaps the place of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(execution of the many Byzantine aristocrats put to death after the Ottoman triumph on Mehmed II?s orders? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It has been usual to identify the Gul Camii with the church of St Theodosia, whose feast-day falls on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fateful 29 May, whence the connection to the death of the emperor. Philippides and Hanak give good reasons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for supposing that this traditional identification should stand. They offer a fascinating glimpse of the Greek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community of Istanbul in the early 19th century, but fail to explain why it was at this point that it became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in traditions about the burial place of the last Byzantine emperor? I was surprised that nothing was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made of the sword of the last Byzantine emperor, which became a )] TJ ET BT 354.272 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cause clbre)] TJ ET BT 419.912 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the late 19th century. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1886 on the coming of age of Prince Constantine, the heir-apparent to the throne of the kingdom of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hellenes, the Greek community of Istanbul presented him with a sword, on the understanding that it had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belonged to his namesake, the last Byzantine emperor. There is a political agenda here, which would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been well worth exploring.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These traditions about the last Byzantine emperor alerted members of the expatriate communities of mid to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late 19th-century Istanbul to the importance of the fall of Constantinople in 1453. The foundations of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern historiography of the event go back to the work of a small group of cosmopolitan scholars resident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Istanbul, who interested themselves in the antiquities and history of Byzantine Constantinople, men, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the Belgian Philipp Anton Dthier, the German A. K. Mordtmann and his son J. H. Mordtmann, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Sir Edwin Pears, the Greek, but American-educated A. G. Paspates and the American Alexander )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Van Millingen, whose )] TJ ET BT 144.008 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine Constantinople)] TJ ET BT 267.680 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, originally published in 1899, was incidentally republished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last year in paperback by Cambridge University Press. Philippides and Hanak acknowledge their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement, but are more interested in revealing its limitations. As they say, ?if this [i.e. our] study had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been compiled at the end of the nineteenth century or in the course of the twentieth, our understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(siege of 1453 would have been on a more solid foundation.? \(p. xvii\) There is no false modesty here about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing on the shoulders of giants! The authors are rightly concerned that too often studies of the fall of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople have been a matter of recycling the work of the pioneers, despite its faults. They believe that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subject needs to be revitalized by looking at the evidence afresh and by scrutinizing uncritical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restatement of accepted ideas and conclusions. They ignore recent popular work on the fall of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople. The two scholars who they have in their sights are Sir Steven Runciman )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.648 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.648 101.043 m 475.640 101.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 475.640 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Agostino )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pertusi.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.352 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.352 86.787 m 84.344 86.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 84.344 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In their different ways both men were significant figures in the world of scholarship of their day. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They would never have thought of themselves as giants, but they cast their shadow over this book, even if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philippides and Hanak offer only the most grudging recognition of their contribution to the study of the fall )] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 368.9957 669.3415 382.9877 681.2215 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 461.6477 101.3575 475.6397 113.2375 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 70.3517 87.1015 84.3437 98.9815 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R ] /Contents 48 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Length 9523 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Constantinople. Runciman is dismissed as a popular or a very popular historian. In the authors? opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his approach has severe limitations, ?and his narrative does not differ substantially in outlook or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations from the earlier studies of numerous worthy predecessors? \(p. xvi\). To do Runciman justice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he understood this only too well. Over the siege he did not think that there was a great deal he could add to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sir Edwin Pears?s study of the fall of Constantinople. He even wondered whether the story of 1453 merited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another book. He also realised that the study of events was out of fashion. Even when he was writing in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s few historians believed that events had any significant bearing on the shaping of history. Runciman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justified his study of the fall of Constantinople on quite different grounds. He was writing as ?a tribute to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unquenchable vitality of the Greek spirit?, in which ?the Greek people is the tragic hero?. This is a literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than strictly speaking an historical approach to the subject. At least, Runciman recognised the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistemological problems involved in writing about an event, which is more than can be said for Philippides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Hanak. His choice of a literary theme not only gives unity to his book, but it also forces the reader to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think of the meaning of an event in different, not strictly speaking historical, terms. Pertusi understood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equally well the difficulties presented by the study of an event. He sought to counter the subjectivity implicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in any assessment of the significance of an event by assembling an anthology of texts. He supported this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a detailed chronology, a brief evaluation of the authors selected, and a commentary on the individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts. This approach the authors of the book under review find wanting on the grounds that ?in certain cases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important information was omitted for inexplicable reasons?. It is indeed true that important information has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been omitted, but scarcely for inexplicable reasons. It was just that Pertusi?s publishers were less generous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to him in terms of space than Ashgate has been to Philippides and Hanak. Here a word of thanks is in order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Ashgate and before it Variorum for their support of Byzantine studies. On a very rough reckoning about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one-sixth of an enormously long book is taken up by extracts from the sources followed by translation into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English. On occasion the same extracts are repeated within a few pages. A criticism might be that at times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this methodology takes over the book. The detailed rehearsal of the sources has of course its value and often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals that others have not been as scrupulous as Philippides and Hanak in their weighing of the evidence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But it makes for a nose-to-the-grindstone piece of work, which often misses or is simply not interested in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(larger picture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 390.915 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 360.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nestor-Iskander, )] TJ ET BT 147.320 360.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Tale of Constantinople \(Of its Origin and Capture by the Turks in the Year 1453)] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(From the early Sixteenth-Century Manuscript of the Troitse-Sergieva Lavra, No.773\) \(New Rochelle, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NY, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 118.340 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 118.340 330.387 m 172.328 330.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 317.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Asutay, ?Die Entdeckung des Romanos-Tores an den Landmauern von Konstantinopel?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Byzantinische Zeitschrift)] TJ ET BT 183.020 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 96 \(2003\), 1?4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 262.340 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 262.340 301.875 m 316.328 301.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 289.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Asutay-Effenberger, )] TJ ET BT 179.972 289.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die Landmauer von Konstantinopel-Istanbul. Historisch-topographische und )] TJ ET BT 64.016 274.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(baugeschichtliche Untersuchungen)] TJ ET BT 232.988 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berlin/New York, 2007\), 134?42.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.960 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.960 273.363 m 455.948 273.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 260.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Balard, ?Constantinople vue par les tmoins du siege de 1453?, in )] TJ ET BT 400.316 260.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople and its )] TJ ET BT 64.016 246.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hinterland)] TJ ET BT 116.684 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. C. Mango and G. Dagron \(Aldershot, 1995\), 169?77.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 394.640 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 394.640 244.851 m 448.628 244.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 231.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 231.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. DeVries, ?Gunpowder Weapons at the Siege of Constantinople, 1453?, in )] TJ ET BT 435.620 231.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War and Society in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 217.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eastern Mediterranean, 7th?15th Centuries)] TJ ET BT 274.676 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Y. Lev \(Leiden/New York/Cologne, 1997\), 343?62.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 202.083 m 118.004 202.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 189.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. C. Antoche, ? Du )] TJ ET BT 164.000 189.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tabor)] TJ ET BT 190.004 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( de Jan ?i?ka et Jean Hunyadi au )] TJ ET BT 349.292 189.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tbur engi)] TJ ET BT 404.288 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( des armes ottomanes?, )] TJ ET BT 523.928 189.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Turcica)] TJ ET BT 64.016 174.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 36 \(2004\), 91?124.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.336 174.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.336 173.571 m 215.324 173.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 160.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 160.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Pertusi, )] TJ ET BT 118.016 160.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fine di Bisanzio e fine del mondo. 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