%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916201323+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916201323+01'00') /Title (Soviet Medicine: Culture, Practice, and Science) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4201 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Soviet Medicine: Culture, Practice, and Science)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1990 Susan Gross Solomon and John F. Hutchinson published )] TJ ET BT 349.688 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Health and Society in Revolutionary Russia)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 243.417 m 48.008 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, an edited volume that has served as a touchstone for scholars of medicine, gender, revolution, culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionalization, economics, and state power. Frances L. Bernstein, Christopher Burton, and Dan Healey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(call to mind this forbearer in the sweep and scope of their)] TJ ET BT 310.292 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Soviet Medicine: Culture, Practice and Science. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not an accident. Indeed, the volume is dedicated to Solomon, who is also a contributor, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hutchinson, who passed away unexpectedly in 2002. Bernstein, Burton, and Healey have set a good model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for themselves and produced an ambitious and impressive volume building on this foundation as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanding into new fields and interpretive frameworks. They do not set off on this task alone, but are joined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by an international band of scholars of the history of medicine from Canada, Japan, Russia, the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingdom, and the United States.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A symposium at Swansea University in 2005 brought together most of the authors and their essays show the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes of the field in the years since the publication of Solomon and Hutchinson?s volume. As the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent introduction by Bernstein, Burton, and Healey makes clear, the essays in the volume reflect many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the changes within the field of Russian and Soviet history in that time as well as the moves within medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1103)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 July, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frances Bernstein)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Burton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dan Healey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780875804262)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(37.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northern Illinois University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dekalb, IL)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tricia Starks)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 243.7315 48.0077 255.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7517 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history during that period. The essays as a whole display increased attention to the question of how medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practitioners worked with or against the state \(tsarist and Soviet\) as experts, more insight into the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of utopian medical planning, new research into the ways medical professionals exercised, gained, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lost authority with revolution or regime change, greater awareness of the experiences of patients outside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropole, and further scholarship on the post-war period. The introduction is a fantastic resource on its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and should be a helpful to anyone trying to acquaint themselves with the field either as student or instructor. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first essay in the volume bridges the revolutions of 1905 and 1917 and their impacts upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychiatric profession. Using discussions among psychiatrists at meetings and in print, Irina Sirotkina argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in ?Toward a Soviet psychiatry: war and the organization of mental health care in revolutionary Russia? that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1917 exposed the many problems of the profession in terms of organization, funding, image, and personnel. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The upheaval of war and civil war left facilities impoverished and patients subject to disease and famine. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many in the profession found themselves more interested in immediate survival than long term liberal ideals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of egalitarian, non-hierarchical leadership. In addition, ideals of communal administration were challenged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by different-than-expected outcomes from experimental leadership. After October, a mistrust of the public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coupled with worries over scant resources and a general image problem within the profession and society led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychiatrists to dovetail their interests with the state, and press for a strong central administration. Sirotkina )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlines a group of professionals who did not fight but joined with the state as a source of leadership, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources, and legitimacy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Later essays by Bernstein and Healey similarly explore the effects of the revolution on medical ?expertise? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and specifically look at how the work of medical professionals contributed to conceptions of a new Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(person and their sexuality. In ?Behind the closed door: VD and medical secrecy in early Soviet medicine?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frances L. Bernstein develops a fascinating tale using the 1927 Lev Semenovich Fridland book )] TJ ET BT 494.960 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Behind the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Closed Door: Notes of a Venereal Doctor. )] TJ ET BT 240.668 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book, censored in the 1930s, did not reappear until 1991. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sensationalistic and provocative, Fridland?s book was unlike other sex pamphlets of the period that courted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy by draining their discussion of all interest. Instead, Fridland?s controversial book used venereal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disease as an entre to discussion of confidentiality and the social duties of doctors following the revolution. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Commissar of Health Semashko argued initially that illness was not a disgrace but a misfortune, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realities for those who had venereal disease \(wrongful termination or eviction, etc.\) made Soviet doctors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctantly accept secrecy plus forced treatment and mandatory notification if patients left treatment. As with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sirotkina?s study of psychiatrists, Bernstein finds medical professionals who cooperated with and desired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central authority rather than resisting it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professional expertise harnessed to the needs of state is at issue in the work of Dan Healey as well. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Defining sexual maturity as the Soviet alternative to an age of consent? shows how changing concepts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the age of majority were affected by social and cultural context. While under the tsars, girls as young as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eleven were considered of age, in the early 1900s new ideas about maturity and the dangers of premature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual contact emerged and many of these fears resurfaced again after 1917. The Bolsheviks did not fix an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age of consent, but instead argued for the use of sexual maturity in courts, thus allowing forensic medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experts into the debate and medicalizing sexual citizenship in Soviet Russia. Experts decided that sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maturity fluctuated according to the gender, ethnicity, climate, society, culture, and even diet of a subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and used these calculations to buttress long-standing prejudices about people from the south, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degenerative nature of women?s desire, and males as being psychologically and women biologically driven.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to these works that look towards issues of expertise and professionalism, the volume also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes pieces that conceive of tsarist and Soviet medical care in the context of imperial policy. Dmitry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mikhel?s ?Fighting plague in Southeast European Russia, 1917?1925: a case study in early Soviet medicine? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceives of plague policy as an imperial policy of social control and political order and details the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transmission of pre-revolutionary specialists into post-revolutionary anti-plague measures. Conceptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the colonial other weave through the policies of both states as plague is conceived of as a threat from East to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West that even after the bacteriological revolution is blamed on the dangers that the East ? and especially the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement and culture of the ?Kirghiz? ? brought to the doorsteps of European Russia. Mikhel details the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7455 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anxieties of authorities, which occasioned policies for the enlightenment of the population and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveillance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Gross Solomon?s essay ?Foreign expertise on Russian terrain: Max Kuczynski on the Kirghiz Steppe, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1923?4? recounts conceptions of the ?Kirghiz? but from the vantage point of German medical expeditions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian regions in the 1920s. Solomon focuses on the work of Max Kuczynski who journeyed to the steppe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where he attempted to develop new field of ?ethnopathology? with which he hoped to bring greater focus on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social factors in disease. Kuczynski argued that medical research had much to learn from the field as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the laboratory, and Solomon deftly analyzes the ways in which field research can be part of or separate from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their area of study. Solomon argues that Kuczysnki remained isolated from the Soviet interpretations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlined by Mikhel of the backwardness and danger of the ?Kirghiz? to instead develop a more nuanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation than the simple binary of civilized/uncivilized in conception of disease among nomads.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As with Solomon?s essay, international connections between medical experts emerge in the work of Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Z. David. David shows in his ?Vaccination against tuberculosis with BCG: a study of innovation in Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Public Health, 1925?1941? the connections with the French that energized the Soviet campaign to vaccinate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Bacilles Calmette Guerin \(BCG\). Tuberculosis, perhaps the leading cause of disease between 1890 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1940, was a scourge in Russia. The vaccination campaign, dependent upon international trust and ties with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French, began in the 1920s. When a financing mechanism and earmarked funds developed in the mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s, the program expanded exponentially. By 1960 the program was enormous, with 15.2 million children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vaccinated and almost universal coverage of the population achieved. Regional problems ? supply, training, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personnel, and cooperation problems ? showed the difference that the enthusiasm or intransigence of local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical professionals could make to the implementation of central directives. In this case, David highlights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the innovative and proactive work of professionals in protecting the health of their populations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Several essays follow the current interests of the profession in the post-war years by addressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionalization against the backdrop of late Stalinism. Marina Sorokina highlights the work of Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical and forensic experts on the international stage in ?Between power and experts: Soviet Doctors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine Katyn?. Using accounts of the Soviet Katyn?Commission, sent in 1944 to investigate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katyn?massacre site and buttress claims that the Germans not Soviets had committed mass murder, Sorokina )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that while the NKVD and NKGB controlled the commission, physicians experienced and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responded to Stalinist power in complicated ways. Experts were important to the Soviet public face in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war period, and even though all the investigators were loyal communists there was a negotiation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between expert and state as they attempted to complete their work according to professional standards with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the degree of doubt typical of their fields. When such hedging or doubt was not acceptable, experts were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?corrected? and professional standards aligned with state directives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The troubles of medical personnel dealing with another outgrowth of Stalinist policy ? the post-war famine ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounds ?Medical expertise and the 1946?47 famine: the identification and treatment of a state-induced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illness? by Veniamin F. Zima. Chronic malnutrition struck roughly 60 million people in 1946?7 in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territories of Russia, Ukraine, and Moldavia with a typhus epidemic following. Not only was help to victims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stalled by a lack of aid, but also problematic, argues Zima, was the complicity of physicians in the limitation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on communication about famine and slow government responses. In particular, he details the elaboration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alimentary Toxic Aleukia \(ATA also known as ?drunken bread?\) and mass outbreaks of the disease in 1946 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as malnourished people sought out unharvested grain in fields under snow and fell prey to the illness caused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by bad grain. In a typical bit of Soviet irony, the government created both the famine and the expertise to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diagnose the illnesses that famine created.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The under-researched demographic and environmental crises of the late Soviet period serve as backdrop to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the essays of Mie Nakachi, Donald Filtzer, and Christopher Burton. All move forward from the pioneering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1992 work )] TJ ET BT 88.676 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ecocide in the USSR: Health and Nature under Siege)] TJ ET BT 345.308 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Christopher Davis and Murray )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Feshbach.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 82.340 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 82.340 79.299 m 96.332 79.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 96.332 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In Mie Nakachi?s ??Abortion is killing us?: women?s medicine and the dilemmas for postwar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctors in the Soviet Union, 1944?48?, debates among medical professionals and statistical information are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to discuss the conundrum that while abortion is outlawed in 1936 the number of registered terminations )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 82.3397 79.6135 96.3317 91.4935 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7135 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rises every year until abortion is re-legalized in 1955. Nakachi explains this not just as women?s pursuit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illegal abortions, but also as the ambivalent response of medical professionals to the surveillance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enforcement of the law. Doctors worry that the law and pressure for strict surveillance resulted in fewer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women seeing doctors thus many medical professionals ignored the official line and instead provided care )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to patient need as defined by patients according to their own social, economic, and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts. Even in the face of the demographic crisis after the war, doctors argued against surveillance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for professional secrecy and prophylactic care.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Filtzer?s essay, ?The political economy of water supply under late Stalinism?, teems with tales of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dangers of industrial and environmental pollution. Filtzer uses the files of the State Sanitary Inspectorate on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(water supply to discuss public health and the quality of life in the post-war period. Filtzer focuses on areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside of wartime occupation including the central industrial, Ural, and Western Siberia regions and details )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how water and sewarage supply remained grossly inadequate. Most areas pumped untreated filth from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry and people into water supplies that then served industries and people of that region or downriver. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Water treatment was inadequate to the increasing pollution. Filtzer contextualizes Stalinist water policy by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparing it to the systems of 19th-century Germany and Britain, but he notes that the Soviets had more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advanced technology and knowledge available. Thus, for Filtzer the question becomes not backwardness but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priorities. He argues that poor planning created industrial growth that was self-negating as it endangered the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labor pool. While capitalist systems might similarly endanger their workers, he notes that they had a ready )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pool for replacement while the Soviets did not.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Burton?s ?Destalinization as detoxification? The expert debate on industrial toxins under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Khrushchev? brings together the demographic, environmental, and professionalization issues of the post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era in a discussion of the field of ?communal hygiene?. Rooted in 19th-century public health and rising up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially in the 1930s with the shift away from social hygiene, communal hygiene became very important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Soviet ideas of pollution control. Guided by the concepts of self-cleansing and maximum concentrations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of toxins, the result was near direct release of industrial waste into water and a faith in the dilution of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materials negating the danger. After 1953, challenges to the theory become part of the public debate as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biologists, icthyologists, and inspectors attack the science and regulation of the existing system. While a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massive change does not follow, the debate does show the precedents for the post-Chernobyl environmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement and how professionals responded to the Stalinist industrial push and subsequent thaw.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final essay of the volume brings the patient voice in more strongly than any of the previous pieces. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?White coats and tea with raspberry jam: caring for sick children in late Soviet Russia? Catriona Kelly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continues to mine the extensive collection of oral histories she has gathered with aid from the Leverhulme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trust to detail how Soviet citizens recall their childhoods and relationships to power, the state, and in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case, medical authorities. Kelly documents an overwhelmingly positive attitude towards medical authorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in her records. Even though some subjects remember an occasionally difficult relationship with a specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practitioner, overall those interviewed recalled medical professionals as kind and interested in the care of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children. This was a manifestation, for most, of a state that was nurturing in its use of power, if harsh, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times in its application.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall the essays create a satisfying and cohesive work. Many of the essays serve as superb encapsulations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the issues addressed in the authors? larger works. The editors did an excellent job of bringing the essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together as references are made back and forth throughout the volume. Additionally, they should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commended for exercising strong control over the length of each study. Each essay weighs in at a lean 15 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages or so, making these the perfect size for upper-level undergraduate classes or even nice to pair for a day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of discussion. Of course, such limitations did cut into the contextualization ? both in Russian and world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history ? of several of the pieces, but instructors who choose to adopt these for class use could easily solve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this. Bernstein, Burton, and Healey, along with the fine collection of scholars assembled here, have paid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brilliant tribute to the earlier work of Solomon and Hutchinson. The book should be on the shelves of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialists in Russian and Soviet history as well as those who work in comparative public health.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 1677 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Health and Society in Revolutionary Russia)] TJ ET BT 273.668 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Susan Gross Solomon and John F. Hutchinson )] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Bloomington, IN, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 187.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 187.016 729.555 m 241.004 729.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Davis and Murray Feshbach, )] TJ ET BT 265.316 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ecocide in the USSR: Health and Nature under Siege)] TJ ET BT 521.948 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, NY, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 149.000 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 149.000 701.043 m 202.988 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors are delighted to accept this review and have no further comment.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 647.455 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 629.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 629.675 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1103)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 628.281 m 328.316 628.281 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 603.304 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 588.904 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7742)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 187.0157 729.8695 241.0037 741.7495 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.9997 701.3575 202.9877 713.2375 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 628.5955 328.3157 640.4755 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1103) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000557 00000 n 0000000646 00000 n 0000004899 00000 n 0000005008 00000 n 0000005118 00000 n 0000005227 00000 n 0000008788 00000 n 0000008916 00000 n 0000009000 00000 n 0000009029 00000 n 0000009155 00000 n 0000009191 00000 n 0000009256 00000 n 0000016826 00000 n 0000016910 00000 n 0000024418 00000 n 0000024448 00000 n 0000024572 00000 n 0000024608 00000 n 0000024673 00000 n 0000031861 00000 n 0000031959 00000 n 0000033689 00000 n 0000033817 00000 n 0000033872 00000 n 0000034000 00000 n 0000034055 00000 n 0000034183 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34279 %%EOF