%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221165120+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221165120+00'00') /Title (A Concise Companion to History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4247 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Concise Companion to History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The somewhat conventional choice of jacket imagery ? detail of Clio, the muse of history from Vermeer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Art of Painting)] TJ ET BT 127.028 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? belies the ambitious aims of Dr Ulinka Rublack?s )] TJ ET BT 380.336 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Concise Companion to History)] TJ ET BT 529.340 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets out to be a ?guide to be inspired by and rethink history? \(p. viii\) in a context where the old certainties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice within the discipline ? as well as the clarity of its boundaries ? have broken down.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 16 chapters are divided into two parts. The first four cover issues around the writing of history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including R. Bin Wong on ?Causation? and Rublack?s own piece on the ?Status of historical knowledge?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part two is headed 'Themes and structures' and the titles provide an indication of the breadth of the editor?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprise: from Kenneth Pomeranz on ?Commerce? and Pat Thane on ?Population? to Elizabeth Buettner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on ?Ethnicity?, Peter Burke on ?Communication? and Miri Rubin on ?Religion?. Rublack?s thoughtful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sequencing of the chapters works well, and particularly on reflection, as some rich, creative and unexpected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resonances between chapters come to the surface.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rublack?s strongest commitments as editor are to global interconnections and to a multi-centric, creative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and collaborative conversation. She therefore declares in the Preface ?one unified aim. This is to mark a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant departure in a genre still shaped by stories about history which are predominantly Western?. All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the contributors take on this challenge and the reader is invited to range widely within the free and creative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thematic structure. Rather than attempt to map the field of academic history, Rublack has given her authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1104)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 July, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ulinka Rublack)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199291212)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(368pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alix Green)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7624 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(licence to define their own space, writing ?incisive, stimulating essays on their theme while engaging with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historiographies they judged particularly relevant? \(p. viii\). This freedom has been largely rewarded, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with many rich and challenging \(in the best sense of the word\) pieces on ideas and concepts that we ?handle? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all the time as historians but rarely explore, such as power, culture, ethnicity and emotion. While the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure and some of the headings will seem familiar from other companions to history, such as John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tosh?s ?Historians on history? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 185.336 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 185.336 723.795 m 199.328 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 199.328 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Rublack?s innovative editorial approach has given rise to a rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different product, one that encourages us to revisit the categories in which we think.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the ambitions of the collection to break down some of the established frameworks within which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history is practised, however, it is interesting to note the range of institutions from which the contributors are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn. While working in diverse fields, all 16 are based in English or US institutions, with four of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former group affiliated to the University of Cambridge. This is striking in the context of the )] TJ ET BT 476.972 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Companion)] TJ ET BT 532.976 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to pluralism, though perhaps also symptomatic of a wider problem within the discipline: that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history tends to be presented as a far narrower entity than it really is. Christopher Bayly is critical of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(media for their persistent demands for traditional, nationalist history \(in his chapter on History and world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history\); can we extrapolate that such an environment tends to select for public profile historians from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional elite among institutions? Or are there within the discipline itself factors that, in combination, push )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such historians to the forefront? These are questions that call for further exploration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a book with a diversity of perspectives and preoccupations, reflecting that of the modern discipline, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting themes emerge. But there is one that seemed both striking and significant: practices. Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributors placed an emphasis on the concept of practice, whether that of the people we study or our own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as historians. Eiko Ikegami, for example, in her stimulating chapter on the topic of emotion, stresses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived practice of emotional culture. People are not passive recipients of prescribed norms, she argues; rather, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they have and exercise agency, by means of which these cultures are revised and recreated. In the following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, Anthony Grafton grounds the history of ideas in institutions and cultural practices.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is surely a connection between the two forms of practice ? our own and that of the people we study ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though one not explicitly made in the )] TJ ET BT 216.344 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Companion)] TJ ET BT 272.348 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. If we now recognise as of great significance what people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did ? how they acted, reacted, thought, interpreted, planned or prayed ? situated in the rich context in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were doing it, then we also should be concerned to investigate what we do when we conduct ourselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rublack brings out this self-consciousness in her chapter on the status of historical knowledge when she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests we ?need to examine what historians regard as their tools and skills and how these relate to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life-experiences, intellectual traditions, institutions and ideals if we want to understand how they go about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business of interpretation? \(p. 58\). She goes on to explore historians? own accounts of what these tools and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skills should be, from Ginzburg?s intuition for the incidental to Bloch?s understanding of historical enquiry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as craft to Jordanova?s emphasis on self-awareness in the use of evidence and the ability to write \(via a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disassembly of Evans? ideal of an ascetic objectivity\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloch?s placement at the core of the chapter is helpful. Bloch takes Herodotus? understanding that enquiry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lies at the heart of the historical endeavour and aligns it with the process of experiment and critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluation that goes on in a laboratory. This manoeuvre prepares the ground for an understanding of history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as practice. His vision was that historians, working with a commitment to continuing enquiry, would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaborate to clarify the dominant problems and to put historical evidence through the metaphorical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laboratory. Outlining Bloch?s thinking allows Rublack to open up a discussion of what ?historians involve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves in )] TJ ET BT 102.680 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(doing)] TJ ET BT 130.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( when they create knowledge about the past? \(p. 74\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The emphasis on practices in the historical endeavour is a particularly helpful one as it focuses our attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and critical awareness on processes: not only those by which we conduct our own enquiries as historians, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also those that guide the discipline within which we operate. If we think about these processes, we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps less concerned with defining and controlling our content \(the ?what?\) and therefore become more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open to a conscious intellectual engagement with our task \(the ?how?\). Practices may be reinforced over )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 185.3357 724.1095 199.3277 735.9895 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7292 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, but they can also be challenged and reimagined, a concept which is energising and productive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stands in contrast to the traditional model of transmission: ?a patriarchal clientele-based model of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipleship? as Rublack describes it \(p. 70\). A focus on ?how we think? rather than ?what we think? also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to offer a way to approach the dilemma of the discipline: ?specialisation, the fragmentation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge, and the plurality of approaches? that disperses trust among professionals \(p. 65\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rublack concludes her chapter in a broadly optimistic tone, recognising ?the dynamism that the subject has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displayed, as its importance across the world has extended? and the ?extraordinary transformation? that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history writing has undergone. She also issues a call to action: for ?more team-work, cross-fertilisation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through diverse people with different skills in experiment? \(p. 78\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In terms of the principal aim of marking a departure from a Western-dominated genre, the )] TJ ET BT 469.244 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Companion)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes some significant contributions. While the effort is not sustained throughout ? with some chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving the impression of ?bolting on? the global dimension to a resolutely US/European structure ? there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many genuine and successful attempts to integrate fully perspectives from outside the author?s geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambit and to generate thought-provoking analogies across time and space.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An idea that seems helpful in the task of rethinking the reach of our work as historians and our recognition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a wider world of human experience and action is scale, and one that many contributors, including Bayly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rublack and Wong explore. Dualistic models combining the local and the global seem attractive as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stand in evident distinction from the national as a unit of historical analysis, the dominance of which is now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject to critique.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the disruptive effect of the breakdown of old certainties is a creative force ? and the clear commitment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to plurality shown throughout the book is to be welcomed ? problematising or myth-busting is not an end in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself. In the concern to challenge and break down the domination of the West and of national paradigms in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical thinking and writing, there is a potential loss of the capacity to recognise \(both in the sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?see? and ?acknowledge?\) resonances that global perspectives can have )] TJ ET BT 381.560 420.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(with )] TJ ET BT 405.236 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the West. We may rightly be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with avoiding the distortions of a Western-dominated mind-set and therefore commit ourselves to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the study of people and practices outside the West. But we take that commitment too far if we then impair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our ability to set those new global perspectives against or alongside our own contexts, or, indeed, to move )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creatively between the two. Indeed, we risk of replacing one partiality with another.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When the discipline undergoes a significant shift in perspective ? such as that from a Western to a global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind-set ? we need to develop as historians a sensitivity to the sometimes subtle implications for the practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history. In his chapter on power, Christopher Clark is alive to this as he explores how, in history writing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it tends to pool around the object of contemplation)] TJ ET BT 276.668 294.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(: ?)] TJ ET BT 289.664 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the more they [historians] know of their protagonists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the more power ? at least over their own destinies and immediate environments ? these appear to wield?. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing against the ?gradient of power? and celebrating ?subaltern actors?, historians can render the powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just as anonymous and faceless as their subjects were once thought \(p. 153\). Is there a similar risk of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rendering the West ?faceless? when set against the newly discovered vibrancy of a global perspective?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There were further opportunities within the )] TJ ET BT 244.640 211.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Companion )] TJ ET BT 303.644 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps not fully realised to explore the complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and often charged issues of working with and between a Western and a global perspective.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First is analogy. Some powerful use of analogy is made, such as Clark?s discussion of the tendency of power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to resist concentration, which embraces 18th-century France and Prussia, Han and Qing China and Japan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the Tokugawa shogunate. It would be productive to engage further in such explorations, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of analogical minority experiences within Western countries to those of people in colonial contexts: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of negotiation, self-definition and cultural engagement. Megan Vaughan?s lucid chapter on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture features an interesting discussion on the appropriation of the language of culture for colonial subjects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking to articulate claims for rights and representation. She explains how leaders of nationalist movements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to employ a ?dual discursive strategy?, demonstrating a ?commitment to a progressive notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernization?, which is universalist in spirit, while at the same time asserting a claim to self-determination )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7174 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on the distinctive character of the people?s traditional culture \(p. 233\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One potential Western counterpoint to this could be the campaigns for Jewish emancipation in pre-1848 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prussia. Leading figures, often drawn from the rabbinate, integrated the Enlightenment understandings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal human dignity and equity, on which previous demands for citizenship had been based, with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romantically-inspired assertion of Jewish religious distinctiveness and integrity. The political \(universal\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the religious \(particular\) were regarded and described as co-extensive spheres. The discursive strategy ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to borrow Vaughan?s neat phrase ? drew on two discernable and in many respects conflicting philosophical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions, but its advocates did not recognise them as being in a dualistic relationship; rather they resolved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and dissolved the tension by appropriating the Romantic Christian State model of the religious polity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transforming it through the encounter with the Enlightenment rights of man.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There may well be much to gain from exercises such as setting the African or Asian experiences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement with and creative transformation of colonial discourse alongside those of European Jews or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other minorities also pressing for their rights. The potential power of the striking and boundary-crossing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analogy is significant, not least in the service of an endeavour such as the )] TJ ET BT 388.952 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Companion)] TJ ET BT 444.956 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s to disrupt an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unreflective historical orthodoxy and generate creative global conversations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second is the nation. It is possible to appreciate the appeal of a dualistic model of local and global in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential it carries for subversion of the national. There is a neat polarity that allows the significance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual or group ?the subjects of our historical accounts ? to be retained or enhanced while situating them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into contexts and flows that are now much wider in scale. But there seems to be a recognition gap in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding how and why concepts of the nation, and people?s investments in those concepts, have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained so resilient in a world where national boundaries seem far less relevant or distinct, either to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(globally-connected citizens or to globally-conscious historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bayly?s chapter on ?History and world history is the most exposed in this regard. He identifies ?the policies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and economics of the media? as partly responsible for ?the persistence, even re-invention, of nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century national and racial historicism?. These have the effect of constraining academic historians to write )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?big books on wars and great statesmen, which can show us ?how we got here? ?\(p. 15\). Bayly?s critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of the influence of politics and the media is apparent in the section on world historical methodologies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which he discusses the historicist distortions that have created and reinforced ?narratives of nation states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolving since antiquity? \(p. 13\) in India, China, the US and Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is some rich material here and Bayly draws together evidence of national illusions and delusions with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skill and vigour. But it seems to me to be not entirely satisfactory to stop at the point of attributing \(partial\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility for the persistence or reinvention of national historicism to the inclinations of politicians or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(media. While the patterns of influence are of course complex, both groups are highly sensitised to public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion and perception. Commentaries on the results of some poll on historical figures or calls for a return to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching ?kings and queens? need to be understood in a wider public context, in which there is an interplay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of conversation, proposition and response.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even if we were to take an entirely cynical line ? itself a distortion ? it seems unlikely that the imperative for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist historicism among politicians and the media would come entirely from within their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions. There would be no mileage in an aspirant minister or a newspaper editor adopting a line that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would not ?play out? well with their audiences. Are politicians and journalists rather serving as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embodiments for what is actually an endemic problem in \(certain?\) societies, due to their visibility and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public roles? Is there some hesitation to go further with the analysis and ask what it about )] TJ ET BT 466.964 139.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(us)] TJ ET BT 477.632 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beings situated in our societies)] TJ ET BT 184.340 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that makes us cleave to national paradigms?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And is there unrealised potential for recognising greater hybridity? \(Buettner?s chapter on ?Ethnicity? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights hybridity as a theme on the scholarly agenda in the context of the rejection of biological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determinism, but there is scope for exploring this concept further in the political dimension.\) To make the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection back to the central concern with practices, how do people find their own ways of living and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7727 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operating that negotiate between the local, the national and the global? If we claim to be interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices, we should be concerned with the processes of accommodation that happen at the interfaces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between levels of human action, and the national is one such level for many people \(they bear citizenship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and vote, they pay taxes, hear news, join associations and use services and facilities that are national in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character\). Can we mentally extract this level from our consideration if it is embedded in the practices of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people we study?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wong?s consideration of causality is interesting in this respect. He gives a similar account to the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributors of the erosion of historians? confidence in grand narratives and the nation state as the natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unit of analysis from 1960s, but recognises that they have not invested much effort in creating replacements. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?We need to move beyond the binary choice,? he argues with respect to accepting or rejecting grand process-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven narratives \(p. 41\), and the call for greater sophistication, for historians to acknowledge and work with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different levels of causation, resonates throughout his chapter. Both those who ?stress global trends towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homogeneity? and those sensitive to the emergence of ?new and different local practices? are correct, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(says \(49-50\). This is a proposition that would meet with broad acceptance, but with it must go Wong?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further assertion that some cultural and social practices have spatial dimensions )] TJ ET BT 418.952 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(between)] TJ ET BT 458.276 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the local and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global. He highlights the risk of a perception gap: ?if our geographical awareness remains fixed between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternatives of nation states and their rejection by moving to the polar extremes of very local or the global, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we will lose important opportunities to recognize patterns of similarity and difference across our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monographic studies? \(p. 53\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wong makes a refreshing contribution to the )] TJ ET BT 251.648 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Companion)] TJ ET BT 307.652 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It seems to take us beyond ideological impasses, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening up a space in which historians can acknowledge the richness and complexity of the local while still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fruitfully considering questions of causality, and can consider the larger structures ? including national ones )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? that affect people?s lives and shape cultures of identity and emotion. His engagement with trans-national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analogies is also productive, as is his suggestion about including in our evaluation of any period of time ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways in which it was similar to or different from what came before? and asking ?what its features might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portend for subsequent periods? \(p. 54\). Taken together, these factors open up a discussion around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential for a new breed of ?useable pasts?. If our politicians, our media, and, indeed, our societies, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggling to break out of historicist modes of thinking, a discipline that can work with and help shape the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public realm through its understanding of causality and consequence will be of great value.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Engagement with the public realm is, however, a notable silence in a book that does much to challenge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodoxies of historical practice. The inclusion of a chapter on environmental history, by J. R. McNeill, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognises the emergence of a vibrant and strongly interdisciplinary field. Other chapters cover themes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new, thoughtful, energising and often striking ways, such as Dorothy Ko?s on gender. But public history is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather conspicuous by its absence, particularly given the )] TJ ET BT 306.296 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Companion)] TJ ET BT 362.300 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s interest in the practices of history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With historians, as other scholars, increasingly conscious of the funding imperatives that privilege impact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is a ?public? dimension to much, if not all, historical work, if we can embrace a broader understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the public domain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There may be some hesitancy within the discipline to demarcate the boundaries of a distinct sub-discipline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of public history, which would then enclose and identify its practitioners. Demarcation of new sub-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplines )] TJ ET BT 88.352 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(within)] TJ ET BT 118.364 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( academic practice, such as environmental history, may be an important stage in that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brings recognition and opportunities. Is public history a rather different case in that demarcation represents a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(risk due to its association with practical application )] TJ ET BT 283.328 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(outside)] TJ ET BT 317.996 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the academy, primarily in the heritage sector and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the media? Donald R. Kelley and Bonnie G. Smith?s chapter on historians makes passing reference to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new additions to the ranks, the public historians who ?curate for and direct museums, serve as guides in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historic sections of cities, and lead preservation efforts? \(p. 102\). This definition of the work of public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians is perhaps revealing in its narrowness, suggesting there is little overlap or intellectual engagement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between historians working as academics and the historically-trained working in museums and archives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, the debate about the historian and the public realm ? and the role and status of public history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether as a distinct field within the academic discipline or as a more diffuse influence or approach ? is not )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 3755 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picked up in the )] TJ ET BT 114.008 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Companion)] TJ ET BT 170.012 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Such a debate - embracing a broader understanding of public history, perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building on Andrea?s definition of meeting the ?practical and intellectual needs of society at large?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including public policy and corporate strategy alongside community understanding of heritage )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 490.292 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 490.292 766.563 m 504.284 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 504.284 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be a valuable addition to the discussion about historical practice that Rublack initiates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be interesting, for example, to explore Pamela H. Smith?s comments on the status of science in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public policy. ?Investigation by the quantitative and reductionist methods of the natural sciences is accorded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a greater level of trust? than historical understanding, and its ?dominant intellectual authority?, she argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drives the flow of funding from Government and from business \(p. 296\). Given that this apparent privileging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of quantitative approaches now seems to be further entrenched \(despite, as Smith notes, modern theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physics complicating our view of scientific objectivity\), how should historians make their claim to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative and valuable intellectual authority?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such as debate might also play a role in addressing some of the challenges Rublack?s preface suggests the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline is facing. How can history respond to interests of increasingly interconnected people? Can history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be something more than either a comforting companion or an uncanny shadow? \(p. vii\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.243 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 521.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Tosh, ed, Historians on History, Harlow \(Pearson Education Ltd.\), 2000.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 423.644 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 423.644 520.227 m 477.632 520.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 507.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. J. Andrea, ?On public history?, )] TJ ET BT 231.320 507.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historian)] TJ ET BT 277.328 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 53, 2, 381-7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 344.324 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 344.324 505.971 m 398.312 505.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 481.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy with this review and does not wish to comment.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 464.383 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 446.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 446.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1104)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 445.209 m 328.316 445.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 420.232 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 405.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7743)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 490.2917 766.8775 504.2837 778.7575 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 423.6437 520.5415 477.6317 532.4215 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 344.3237 506.2855 398.3117 518.1655 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 445.5235 328.3157 457.4035 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1104) >> endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000547 00000 n 0000000629 00000 n 0000004928 00000 n 0000005037 00000 n 0000005147 00000 n 0000005256 00000 n 0000008817 00000 n 0000008945 00000 n 0000009029 00000 n 0000009113 00000 n 0000016790 00000 n 0000016820 00000 n 0000016948 00000 n 0000016984 00000 n 0000017049 00000 n 0000024394 00000 n 0000024459 00000 n 0000031686 00000 n 0000031751 00000 n 0000039531 00000 n 0000039636 00000 n 0000043444 00000 n 0000043474 00000 n 0000043602 00000 n 0000043638 00000 n 0000043766 00000 n 0000043821 00000 n 0000043949 00000 n 0000044004 00000 n 0000044132 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 44228 %%EOF