%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728220232+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728220232+01'00') /Title (John A. Macdonald and Thomas D'Arcy McGee) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4079 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(John A. Macdonald and Thomas D'Arcy McGee)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both of these books are about an important figure in 19th-century Canadian political history. Few books on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purely Canadian topics are reviewed for this website. However, both of these men will be of interest to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians outside of Canada. They were born in the British Isles and had political careers that transcended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the boundaries of the present-day Canadian nation-state. It is therefore appropriate that these works should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ged Martin is well qualified to undertake a revisionist study of Sir John A. Macdonald, the first Prime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minister of the Canadian federation. Martin, who recently retired as director of the Centre for Canadian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studies at the University of Edinburgh, has had a long career publishing on imperial and Commonwealth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. Martin has written on Canadian Confederation, an event in which Macdonald was an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(player, as well as on the histories of Australian, New Zealand, South Africa, and Ireland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ged Martin?s study of John A. Macdonald follows his life from his birth in Scotland in 1815 to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigration with his parents to Canada, his days as a rising lawyer, his political ambitions, and his role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(federation of the British North American colonies in the 1860s. The book goes on to discuss Macdonald?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent long career as the Prime Minister of the federation he had helped to create. As such, this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covers most of the same material as the existing biographies of Macdonald. Donald Creighton?s two-volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life of Macdonald, which was published in the 1950s remains the standard reference work for Canadian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1107)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 June, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ged Martin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780919770140)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(214pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingston Historical Society)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingston, Ontario)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Smith)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7290 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of this period. Martin?s new book will not change this, for although a few passages in it read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much like a standard biography, it differs in that its focus is on Macdonald?s relationship with one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, namely, Kingston, the small garrison town in Ontario that Macdonald represented in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canadian parliament for many years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 20th century, Macdonald became an important part of the social memory created by Kingston?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thriving heritage industry. Today, residents of the city take tremendous pride in the fact that Canada?s first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prime Minister was linked to their city. In addition to visiting Macdonald?s restored home and his grave, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tourists can take walking tours structured around Macdonald?s life. Visitors to Kingston?s other tourist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attractions, such as Queen?s University or the massive fortress built by the British in the 19th century, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also proudly informed of Macdonald?s connections to these institutions, however tenuous they may be. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Typically, the Macdonald walking tours end with a visit to a pub. It is common knowledge among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canadians that the country?s first Prime Minister was a terrible drunk. It has been said that ?Canada, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many a child, was conceived under the influence of alcohol?. This statement normally elicits a laugh from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canadians because it alludes to Macdonald?s drinking habit, which was very much in evidence at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conferences that drafted the Canadian constitution. Indeed, Macdonald many failings as a human being may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be one of the reasons why Canadians do not venerate their ?Founding Fathers? in the same way that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American do the creators of their national constitution. On the other hand, many Canadians take a sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pride in Macdonald?s legendary capacity to consume liquor, which is perhaps why more than one licensed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment in Kingston claims to have been the favourite bar of Macdonald. In the 1990s, the author of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the present review was told by a waitress at a quite modern-looking tapas bar in Kingston that it had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macdonald?s favourite haunt.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In short, Kingston?s heritage industry trades on the belief that Macdonald?s relationship with Kingston was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely close. The prevailing view is that Macdonald was devoted to Kingston?s interests and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingstonians loyally supported Macdonald during this lifetime. Martin?s book dissects this folk memory by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing that Macdonald gradually lost interest in Kingston as his national and international importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grew. Moreover, his loss of interest was reciprocated by Kingstonians, who eventually elected someone else )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as their local MP: Macdonald?s loss of his seat in Kingston forced him to stand in a safe Conservative seat in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a distant part of the country. Prime Minister Macdonald did relatively little to arrest the relative economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline of Kingston, which had begun in the 1840s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin's book is local history at its finest. On one level, it unfair to call this study ?local history? since that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term sometimes evokes images of antiquarians arguing about insignificant details. Martin's book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially the study of the relationship between Macdonald, the creation of the Canadian nation state, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular locality. Martin's book should interest historians seeking to place Canada within the North Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world. The reader learns something here about Canada's relationships with the United States, Britain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland, and even the Vatican here. For instance, Martin tells us how Macdonald used his contacts in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to prevent the promotion of a hostile cleric within the local Catholic hierarchy. In this case, the Duke of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norfolk, a leading English Catholic, relayed a message to Rome stating that another cleric would be a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suitable man for the job. \(p. 123\). Martin also presents us with new information about the role of the Orange )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Order in 19th-century Canadian politics. Historians have long known that the Order, which was strongly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed to the monarchy and ?No Popery?, was a major force in Canadian life, but Martin?s case study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingston has helped to deepen our understanding of how it influenced politics and the constituency level. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canadian author might well have ignored or minimized these international connections, but Martin has an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outsider?s perspective on Macdonald. Martin recognises that Macdonald played a moderately important role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the evolution of the British Empire in the 19th century, particularly in the years surrounding the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision to demilitarise the Canadian frontier. Martin neither exaggerates nor minimises the man?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance in the imperial history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sections of the book devoted to Macdonald's career as a businessman are particularly important. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin?s research on Macdonald?s involvement in the Kingston-based Commercial Bank and the Trust and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Loan Company of Upper Canada will interest many economic and business historians. The Commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bank failed in October 1867, just a few months after Macdonald?s appointment as the Prime Minister of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7656 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infant Canadian federation. This bank failed, in part, because Macdonald's government had refused to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide it with the financial lifeline it needed to deal with a liquidity crisis to which he had contributed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macdonald, who was a notorious spendthrift, had been unable to repay the loans the bank had earlier issued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to him. Macdonald probably would have favoured government aid, but the members of his Cabinet who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hailed from the financial centres of Toronto and Montreal were powerful enough to thwart this idea and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingston's sole independent financial institution was allowed to fail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The case of the Commercial Bank raises the interesting question of what Kingston got from being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented in parliament for so many years by the Prime Minister. It would seem that the city derived very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few actual benefits. Kingston, which had once been the largest city in Upper Canada/Ontario experienced a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prolonged period of relative economic decline that coincided pretty much with Macdonald's political career. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the early 20th century, Kingston had become an economic afterthought halfway between the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic centres of Toronto and Montreal. Today, Kingston is dependent on public-sector spending and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tourism. Given the geography of its hinterland, Kingston probably would have experienced relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic decline regardless of who was the Prime Minister. What is striking, however, is that Macdonald )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did so little to try to help the city's economy aside from a few high visibility projects, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial dry dock built at the end of his career.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin argues that Macdonald's death in 1891 was hastened by stress caused by the knowledge that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corruption scandal was about to become public. The scandal centred on ?Andrew C. Bancroft?, a non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existent person who had been awarded a contract to build a dry dock in Kingston by the federal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government's Department of Public Works, which was then headed by the notoriously corrupt Hector-Louis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Langevin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This reviewer discovered a small problem with this book. Martin does not really explore how Macdonald?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection with Kingston was influenced by the environmental history of the surrounding region. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Environmental history is probably the fastest growing sub-discipline in Canadian history departments and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canadian environmental historians have produced many studies focused on the environmental histories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular localities.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 129.332 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 129.332 402.675 m 143.324 402.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 143.324 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is perhaps unfortunate that Martin did not apply some of the conceptual tools )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed by the environmental historians to his study of Macdonald.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let us turn to the second volume to be reviewed in this piece. From 1863 to 1867, Thomas D?Arcy McGee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served alongside John A. Macdonald in the Canadian cabinet. McGee?s assassination in 1868 is well-known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Canadians because it was one of the few political murders in the country?s history. The execution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McGee?s assassin, Patrick J. Whelan, which was one of the last public hangings in Canada, attracted a vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crowd of spectators. The memory of the assassination has lived on in Canada?s folk memory and even today, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are non-academics who passionately contend that Whelan was innocent and was convicted solely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of his association with Irish Republicanism. The Fenian brotherhood in the 1860s hated McGee for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the same reasons he is popular with Canadians: a republican revolutionary in his native Ireland in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1840s, McGee became a monarchist and an exponent of peaceful and gradual change after his relocation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Canada. McGee therefore fits one of the master narratives of Canadian history, namely, that Canada is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peaceful and evolutionary society rather than a violent and revolutionary one. McGee also repeatedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declared that minorities, including Roman Catholics, were better treated in Canada than in the United States, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements which anticipated the ideology of official multiculturalism that Canada developed in the last third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 20th century. One scholar has even claimed that McGee was an early prophet of the Canadian welfare-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 59.012 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 59.012 162.579 m 73.004 162.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 73.004 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Generally speaking, Canadians have seen McGee as a man who was ahead of his time. It is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicator of McGee?s continuing relevance to Canadians that when a former Canadian Prime Minister, Brian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mulroney, gave the eulogy at Ronald Reagan?s funeral in 2004, he compared the deceased American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(President to ?Thomas D?Arcy McGee? and read some of McGee?s poetry. Mulroney?s attempt to honour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reagan in this way doubtless briefly mystified his American audience, who would not have understood the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference, but it also illustrates that the memory of McGee has endured in the Canadian consciousness.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 527.588 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 527.588 91.299 m 541.580 91.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson?s book is the first instalment of a two-volume biography of Thomas D?Arcy McGee. The second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume, which is expected soon, will likely sell well in Canada as the first volume has done. Wilson teaches )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 129.3317 402.9895 143.3237 414.8695 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 59.0117 162.8935 73.0037 174.7735 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 527.5877 91.6135 541.5797 103.4935 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7348 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the University of Toronto and is an accomplished historian of modern Ireland and the Irish diaspora. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has devoted much of his academic career to demolishing historical myths. As such, Wilson is ideally suited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to writing a biography of a figure whose importance in Canadian history has grown to mythical proportions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McGee is today remembered as one of the Fathers of Confederation. Wilson?s book reminds us that McGee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was once an Irish revolutionary republican.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson?s discussion of his subject?s formative years in Ireland includes extensive information about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McGee?s family background. Wilson then discusses McGee?s emigration to the United States in 1842, at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age of 17, and his journalistic career in Boston. By the time he returned to Ireland in 1845, McGee was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important figure in the Irish-American community. Wilson then discusses McGee?s role in the Young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland movement, his response to the Potato Famine, and the events that led up the failed rebellion against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British rule in 1848. Following the rebellion, McGee escaped to the United States, where he edited Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic newspapers in New York, Boston, and Buffalo. Wilson ends this volume in 1857, when McGee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relocated to Montreal. The next volume will explore McGee?s role in the politics of Confederation, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to Fenianism, and his assassination in 1868.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The earliest biographies of McGee emphasized that his Canadian career and contribution to Confederation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The hagiographic works by Isabel Skelton \(1925\) and Josephine Phelan \(1951\) glossed over McGee?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal failings, most notably his alcoholism. More importantly, the earliest biographers de-emphasized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McGee?s life before Canada and glossed over the fact that McGee had once been a revolutionary Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist. As memories of McGee?s tragic death faded, McGee?s biographers adopted a less hagiographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach. In 1972, Timothy Slattery, a Montreal lawyer, published an entertaining biography that presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a wealth of anecdotes about McGee, many of them connected to the man?s drinking. Slattery displayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tremendous ability as a storyteller but this biography was not an academic work. Robin Burns?s 1976 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography of McGee, which took the form of an unpublished PhD thesis, went to the other extreme in that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a very solid work of scholarship with a readership confined to scholars with the patience to read a thesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on microfilm. By synthesizing a vast body of primary and secondary literature into an accessible biography, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson has performed an important service. Wilson?s book demonstrates that McGee was a restless man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose ideas were constantly in flux. In the 1840s, McGee espoused a non-sectarian Irish nationalism that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to unite the island?s Catholics and Protestants against Britain. In the late 1840s, McGee supported the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts of Italian nationalists to liberate Rome from papal rule, a stance condemned by Catholic clergy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York. In the 1850s, McGee embraced ultramontanism, a highly conservative interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism, and began to equate Irishness with Catholicism. McGee?s attitude to the United States also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifted. In the 1840s, he admired the republican institutions of the United States and associated the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution with the Irish struggle against British rule. The rise of anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentiment in the United States in the 1850s forced McGee to re-evaluate the Great Republic. By 1857, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had concluded that the prospects for Irish Catholics were better in British North America than in the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States. Wilson shows that McGee?s thoughts on the great question of Black slavery were inconsistent, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were his attitudes toward Jews.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson provides little information about McGee?s personal life, probably because so few of McGee?s papers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have survived. This book is largely based on newspapers and the correspondence of McGee?s political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associates, documents that naturally say little about the man?s marriage and children. The main flaw with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book is that Wilson assumes a great deal of prior knowledge on the part of the reader. Terms such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Young Ireland and Repeal are introduced without adequate explanation. This is a major problem, since most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book?s readers will be Canadians unfamiliar with the political history of Ireland. Wilson could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done a better job in situating McGee in his various North American contexts. For instance, the discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McGee?s move to Buffalo probably should have included a brief description of that city?s then-booming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy. The city of Buffalo has a fascinating history that should have been connected to McGee?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities there. Wilson inserts portraits and short biographies of some of the individuals with whom McGee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interacted \(such as John Timon, Bishop of Buffalo\). Many readers will probably think that a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial discussion of the social and economic histories of the communities in which McGee lived would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been better use of this page space. The reader is also left wondering how McGee supported himself and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 7257 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his family while he was writing poetry and giving political speeches. One of the strengths of Martin?s study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Macdonald is that he explains how the man?s political career and personal finances were related. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little in Wilson?s book about his subject?s personal finances. This lacuna in Wilson?s work may, in part, be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a function of a dearth of the necessary archival materials, but perhaps the author could have used other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, such as the credit reports prepared by the Mercantile Agency, to reconstruct McGee?s finances. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers of McGee?s creditors and political supporters might also have provided some clues as to his finances. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite these failings, this is an important work that will be read by many specialists in the history of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The publication of these two books is a sign of a possible revival in 19th-century Canadian political history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canada has a large and well-funded historical profession and there are many scholars who work on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canadian past, particularly periods after 1914 and, especially, 1945. The gender, aboriginal, military, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental histories of 20th-century Canada are the subject of intensive research. Very few historians of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canada, however, now work on 19th-century topics or in political history. There are approximately ten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialists in 19th-century Canadian history and only one or two of them can really be described as political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. Even allowing for Canada?s smallish population, which is now half that of the United Kingdom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a tenth that of the United States, the volume of current research on 19th-century Canada is shockingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(low. There are many scholars who study the political, social, and economic history of Victorian Britain. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fair number of these scholars work at Canadian universities: Queen?s University in Kingston is the home of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Disraeli Project. In the last five years, now fewer than six books about Gladstone have been published in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English. There are so many historians of the 19th-century United States that they have had to organise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves into sub-fields with their own journals \(e.g., the )] TJ ET BT 321.992 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of the Early Republic)] TJ ET BT 464.648 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or the )] TJ ET BT 498.308 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era)] TJ ET BT 220.664 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Political historians of the United States continue to gravitate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the Civil War era, which is widely regarded as having had a transformative impact on the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(federation. In contrast, very little has been published in the last two generations on the creation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canadian nation state in 1867 or other topics in 19th-century Canadian political history. These two books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may help to inspire other historians to explore this critical period of the Canadian past. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.171 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example see, Christopher Armstrong, )] TJ ET BT 266.324 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The River Returns: an Environmental History of the Bow)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Montreal, 2009\); William J. Turkel, )] TJ ET BT 243.332 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Archive of Place: Unearthing the Pasts of the Chilcotin )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Plateau)] TJ ET BT 101.348 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Vancouver, 2008\); Ken Cruikshank, 'Blighted areas and obnoxious industries: constructing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental inequality on an industrial waterfront, Hamilton, Ontario, 1890?1960', )] TJ ET BT 476.468 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Environmental )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 100.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 9, 3 \(2004\), 464?96.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 203.336 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 203.336 304.131 m 257.324 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bill Kirwin, )] TJ ET BT 125.024 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thomas D'Arcy McGee: Visionary of the Welfare State in Canada)] TJ ET BT 442.556 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Calgary, 1981\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.540 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.540 289.875 m 552.200 289.875 l S BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 275.619 m 90.344 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Text of Former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney Eulogy of Former President Reagan?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Washington Post)] TJ ET BT 145.688 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 11 June 2004 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 225.452 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A34365-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 225.452 247.107 m 506.108 247.107 l S BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004Jun11.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 232.851 m 141.692 232.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 144.692 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 158.684 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 15 June 2011].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 288.416 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 288.416 232.851 m 342.404 232.851 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 217.519 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 199.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 199.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1107)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 198.345 m 328.316 198.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 173.368 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7746)] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.568 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A34365-2004Jun11.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 203.3357 304.4455 257.3237 316.3255 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj 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