%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 26 0 R 58 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827012537+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827012537+01'00') /Title (Map of a Nation: a Biography of the Ordnance Survey) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4218 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Map of a Nation: a Biography of the Ordnance Survey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A biography conventionally covers a whole life and the term is now popular with publishers as a substitute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the word history. We see it applied in recent titles to a city, a river, a building and now an organisation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This biography of the OS, in fact, covers the conception, difficult birth and growth to early maturity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ordnance Survey from the 18th-century Enlightenment and subduing of Scotland to the mid 1870s. In OS )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(map terms, it ends when the Old or First Series one inch maps were superseded by the New or Second Series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(there were eventually seven series of one inch maps before metrication in 1974\). It entirely omits the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century apart from map cover art.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although less than a full biography, )] TJ ET BT 209.672 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Map of a Nation)] TJ ET BT 288.680 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a well told and stirring story of the various and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse individuals and the convergence of Enlightenment ideals, military needs and improving survey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology to create the vital organisation that became the mid-Victorian Ordnance Survey. Rachel Hewitt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has written the history in terms of the colourful and influential personalities associated with the Survey up to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late 19th century, by which time the organisation was well established, secure in its future but becoming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps too large and grey for a popular history. Rachel Hewitt is a born story-teller and her book is a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of the 12 chapters, the first three are concerned with individuals, events and the )] TJ ET BT 420.596 63.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(zeitgeist )] TJ ET BT 462.932 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading to the birth of the Ordnance Survey. In Scotland, the difficult terrain and the absence of useful maps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1109)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 August, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel Hewitt)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781847080981)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(436pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Granta)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Henry)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7332 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Highlands made the suppression of the clans by the Hanoverian monarchs of England prolonged and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ineffective. The need for accurate maps was paramount for effective military action and the construction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military roads into the trackless Highlands. In parallel, landowners began to appreciate the value of good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maps to manage their properties, design their parks, quantify their resources and extend their estates by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reclamation of unused wastelands. The appreciation of the uses of accurate maps was one aspect of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish Enlightenment. Ms Hewitt introduces David Watson, Robert Dundas, and William Roy, all forceful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characters. Watson was quartermaster of the Duke of \(Butcher\) Cumberland?s invading forces and typified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the quantifying spirit of the age. Dundas was a major landowner in Lowland Scotland, influential Edinburgh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politician, brother-in-law to Watson and advocate of good mapping for conquest, administration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic development. William Roy was one of generations of factors of the Gordon estates \(Dundas was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(married to Ann Gordon\) and was recognised from a young age for his drafting capability. Dundas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recommended Roy to Watson?s staff and he was commissioned in 1747, aged 21, to carry out ?the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proper survey of the country? \(p. 17\) for the routes of the Military Roads into the Highlands and ?to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly attentive to the produce of each part of a Country, and how Inhabited? \(p. 26\). The web of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family connections and overlapping interests of these and numerous other individuals of the Lowland Scots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Establishment is well described and documented as events lead towards the institution of a state mapping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roy?s promotion to the Board of Ordnance, his consequent move in middle age to London and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developing connections there are related sympathetically. He was nominated to the Royal Society and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a friend of its president, Sir Joseph Banks. Roy continued to advocate an accurate national map for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(security reasons and commenced a personal project to measure very accurately a baseline on Hounslow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heath as the basis for the triangulation of Great Britain. Roy?s advocacy and projects led to his involvement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Cassini de Thury, of the French cartographic dynasty, who proposed to establish the true relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions of the Paris and Greenwich Observatories by triangulation ? very important for the reconciliation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of existing sea charts. As in Scotland, the interests of the landowner- military caste \(particularly Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lennox, Duke of Richmond\) and men of science in accurate mapping provided the seed bed for the eventual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ordnance Survey. Hewitt sets out the scenes and the characters well. She describes the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(techniques ? triangulation, levelling ? and instruments ? alidade, theodolite, circumferometer, survey chains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? briefly, although more diagrams would have helped.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters four to six treat the events at the birth of the Trigonometrical Survey of the Board of Ordnance. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1791, Lennox directed that the Trigonometrical Survey, the triangulation begun by Roy, be continued by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artillery officers of the Board of Ordnance. Clearly, Roy had intended that topographic detail would infill the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accurately established triangles; however, in 1791 it was not clear whether this ?interior? mapping detail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be carried out by civilian or military surveyors. Events in France and anxiety at the possibility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasion by revolutionary forces or, later, Napoleon spurred the progress of mapping the detail. In 1795, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drafting office \(civilian\) at the Tower was charged with the surveying and recording of detail. It became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known as the ?Topographical? or ?Interior? Survey and was formally linked to the ?Trigonometrical? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Survey. The interior survey was drawn in manuscript at six inches to the mile. The published maps were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced to one- inch-to-the-mile and engraved in the Tower by a team led by William Faden, civilian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Geographer in Ordinary to his Majesty?. The first completed map was of the county of Kent in 1801. \(An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extract forms the front end paper\). The first use of the term ?Ordnance Survey? in manuscript was in 1801, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but it did not appear on an engraved map until 1810, on the ?Ordnance Survey of the Isle of Wight and part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Hampshire?. William Mudge was the effective head from the start and actual head of the Survey from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1804 to 1820. Hewitt spends time on Mudge and his circle of family, friends and colleagues to flesh out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background of his technical aptitude, enquiring mind, work ethic and to, what we would refer to today as, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people skills.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the survey established as a vigorous but small institution, the third quarter of the book charts aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mudge?s progress in England and Wales, the public impact of the OS maps, and the extension of the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arc of triangles through Scotland and up to the Shetlands. Military priorities directed the completion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trigonometrical Survey in coastal areas beginning with the Essex shore. The smog of London?s coal fires )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6865 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscured Mudge?s sight-lines from his station on the dome of St.Paul?s to trig points on church towers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Essex.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After the defeat of Napoleon, Mudge, with his new assistant Thomas Colby, proceeded to the survey of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales. The rain and natural haze obscured or distorted sight lines between trig points, but the rugged relief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also challenged the cartographic skills of the Survey. ?Hill drawing was the most taxing element of map )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draughtsmanship? \(p. 189\). At this point Hewitt introduces Robert Dawson and his son, Robert Kearsley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dawson, who were masters at depicting relief clearly and accurately by means of hill shading. She re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduces Paul Sandby, who had assisted Roy as a young draughtsman and topographic artist for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Military Survey of Scotland decades earlier and in the interval was a founder member of the Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Academy. Sandby taught art to trainee map-makers at the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich. In Wales, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the problems of toponymy came to the fore. The accurate recording and the correct and consistent spelling of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place names was a particular problem in Wales. Current and historic, English and Welsh usages were often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at odds. The surveyors consulted widely; local vicars and gentry were frequent sources of advice. Colby and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mudge opted for the version recommended by the greatest number of sources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter eight ?Mapping the imagination?, Hewitt cites responses of Wordsworth, Coleridge and Blake to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maps. Wordsworth visualised Colby and Mudge?s ascent of Black Combe in the southwest corner of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lake District in )] TJ ET BT 112.340 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inscription: Written with a Slate Pencil on a Stone, on the Side of the Mountain of Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Combe)] TJ ET BT 68.012 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 91.340 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(View from the Top of Black Combe)] TJ ET BT 260.000 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Blake raged against the rationality of maps. Coleridge left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own sketch maps of his Lakeland walks, all prior to the publication of OS maps. There are several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to minor poets describing landscapes ?spread like a map? and to contemporary plays and novels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which characters are reading maps as soldiers, or scaling the distance to a loved one. Many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references are anachronistic referring to maps before the Ordnance Survey?s; or, in the case of 1930s map )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cover art, beyond the historic frame of the rest of the biography. Hewitt is passionate about and familiar with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the landscape about which Coleridge and Wordsworth wrote, but this is the thinnest and most tangential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter. Wordsworth is evidently a great love of the author; he appears in 11 references outside this chapter. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the major impacts of OS maps on transportation and infrastructure, planning and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development and nascent tourism are largely overlooked.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter nine, back at the Survey, describes early setbacks and challenges. There was an early and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disconcerting 1811 encounter between Mudge and the bean counters of his Age, demonstrating their failure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to appreciate the value and necessity of the trigonometric survey underpinning the accuracy of the finished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maps. In the same year his new superior directed that maps be withheld from the public; although Mudge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had advocated from the outset the public issue of Ordnance maps; they would not be available for five years, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until after the Battle of Waterloo. Further, in 1811, there was criticism by the Hydrographic Survey of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accuracy of the OS?s published maps where they did not match the Admiralty charts. Finally in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(annus horribilus)] TJ ET BT 113.696 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Mudge?s calculations for a measured base line in Lincolnshire ten years earlier were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questioned in the Royal Society. The outcomes of these last two challenges are omitted in the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1816, after the hostilities, the French proposed a joint survey to extend the measured arc of triangulation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It had been established from the south of Spain and through France during Napoleon?s reign and across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Channel by Roy and Cassini. The concept was to extend the arc, from its Lincolnshire terminus reached by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mudge, through Scotland to the Shetlands. The overworked Mudge relinquished the task to Colby, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evident Francophobe. The project, while a technical success, soured diplomatic relations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With Mudge?s death in 1820, Colby succeeded to the superintendence of the Ordnance Trigonometrical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Survey. He introduced rigorous checking to overcome the discrepancies found earlier and initiated the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisions where maps had already become outdated. But Colby?s major contribution was in Ireland. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters ten and 11 capture this period.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The Ordnance Survey?s sojourn in Ireland would be a colourful saga of imperialism, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7648 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation, cultural nationalism and local attempts to sabotage the map-makers? measurements. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was also the context in Colby developed far greater ambitions for the Ordnance Survey of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain? \(p. 240\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Originally the Irish survey was requested to record townland boundaries accurately in order to rationalise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taxation. Colby and his assistant in Ireland, Thomas Larcom, conceived of a ?fully rounded national survey? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that fleshed out the paper landscape? \(p. 270\) with a memoir for each map that included agriculture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufactures, resources and population statistics. Although doomed to failure due to budget overruns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the difficulty for surveyors of combining measurement with interviews and questionnaires, the idea was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular and raised expectations. The large six- inch-to-one-mile scale, adopted for the original brief as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main survey scale, proved useful for recording more information. Technical advances under Colby included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the heliostat and limelight which greatly facilitated the sighting of trig points over long distances in the hazy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cloudy climate, particularly when triangulating between Ireland, Great Britain and the Isle of Man. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colby, with Thomas Drummond, invented the compensation bar which eliminated the affects of thermal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion and contraction of the measuring bars used to improve the accuracy of measurement of the Loch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foyle base line for the triangulation of Ireland. The toponymic issues encountered in Wales were as nothing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared to the nationalism-fuelled debates over the naming of places in Ireland. For a brief time a separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Topographical Branch was set apart to sift through the conflicting versions and translations of place names, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the surveyors got on with the job.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the last chapter, the delayed conclusion of the First Series one-inch map is described. Set back by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priority of mapping Ireland, it was further delayed by: the demand for large scale plans of towns and cities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required to build sewers following the Public Health Act, 1848; the diversion by the Survey?s new masters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the War Office, to Jerusalem to produce a large scale plan of for its sewers; and the poaching of staff by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new railway companies anxious to complete detailed maps of proposed routes. The Old Series of England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Wales was completed in 1870, 79 years from its commencement. The Isle of Man and Scotland were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provisionally completed later, in 1873 and 1887 respectively.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 328.316 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 328.316 416.931 m 342.308 416.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 342.308 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Fully hachured mapping for Scotland and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland was not completed until 1895.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The epilogue briefly enters the 21st century to contrast the world of digital mapping, global positioning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems, geographic information systems and satnavs with the world of paper maps. The ?Free our Data? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement was active as she wrote and has subsequently affected the release of much digital information that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been costly. Ironically, 2010, the year )] TJ ET BT 238.640 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Map of a Nation)] TJ ET BT 317.648 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published, also marked the end of map )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printing at the Ordnance Survey. Printed map production is now entirely out-sourced. The Ordnance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Survey?s main role now appears to be to maintain its database and to sell data to commercial map producers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and providers of processed and interpreted map and other data.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Map of a Nation)] TJ ET BT 113.024 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is well written and reads well. Particularly, the descriptions of the main protagonists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their interrelationships, from Roy to Colby, bring the book alive. The vision, perseverance and loyalty of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first leaders are impressive. The text is well documented; ending on p. 312, it is followed by 66 pages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnotes, 31 pages of references, with recommended reading in bold, and an index of 14 pages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book has good illustrations, but the colour plates would have been improved by enlargement and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placement by the related text. The line drawings are located relevantly and are clear and attractive; they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful where words are inadequate. More illustration would have been helpful. The explanation of levelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the alidade would have benefitted from a simple figure. The slow progress of the mapping was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constant issue between the Survey and its political masters; it would have been possible to chart the slow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress of the survey with an index map for each of the national surveys. The urgency of the military threat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the inception of the Survey is well revealed by the )] TJ ET BT 289.640 111.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ad hoc)] TJ ET BT 321.968 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( numbering system and layout of the index map )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the Old Series in England and Wales.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.648 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.648 95.811 m 244.640 95.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 244.640 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Sheet one is London and the numbering continues east to Kent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then along the south coast to Cornwall before jumping to Central England to zig-zag up the Scottish border. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sheet size, in the most vulnerable areas, is larger than for the rest of the country. The battle of the scales )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 300?1\), could have been made clearer by the use of map extracts, of a selected area. Likewise, the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 328.3157 417.2455 342.3077 429.1255 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 230.6477 96.1255 244.6397 108.0055 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 8319 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure to revise could have been illustrated by the use of a revision sequence of OS maps. Given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject matter, our national mapping organisation, more maps could and should have been used.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From this reviewer?s perspective, the treatment of the Geological Survey, as an integral part of the original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ordnance Survey in England and Wales and in Ireland, is slight. In England, Thomas de la Beche, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own pre-OS geological maps were works of cartographic art, appreciated the utility of the new OS maps:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?too much praise cannot be given to the late sheets of ... the Ordnance, remarkable not only for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their general fidelity, but also for the shading of the hills; ... With these maps in his hands the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geologist feels ... he is able to soar, as it were, above the country he has examined; and by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combining his various observations, he may arrive at general conclusions ... to which he might )] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never have been led without an exact document of this nature.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 366.944 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 366.944 630.771 m 380.936 630.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 593.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He was politically adroit and manoeuvred to join the OS as a geologist and eventually to establish a separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geological Surveys of England and Wales and of Ireland. In Ireland, Colby used geology, ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsuccessfully, to spearhead his plea for funds to promote his memoir project with the pilot project of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Londonderry Memoir.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 141.332 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 141.332 549.747 m 155.324 549.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 155.324 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?Ireland gained its one-inch \(map series\) largely because the Geological Survey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted it for publishing its results?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 206.012 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 206.012 535.491 m 220.004 535.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 220.004 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For a more complete, authoritative and lively account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of geologists on the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, Herries Davies is hard to beat, but he is missing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the references.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 130.304 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 130.304 506.979 m 144.296 506.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The survey of Scotland, apart from the ill-tempered establishment of the arc of triangulation to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shetlands, is overlooked. Perhaps, after the description of surveying in Wales and Ireland, it might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed repetitive, although it is a significantly larger and more rugged territory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Map of a Nation)] TJ ET BT 113.024 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is aimed at map-lovers who are interested in the characters and events which shaped the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ordnance Survey. It is well researched and entertaining. Although scholarly in its documentation, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially a popular history of the key protagonists. It is more about people than maps. It covers the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and most colourful period. In a book of this length about such an important organisation, the short-comings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the geological and Scottish perspectives are minor. Given the fundamentally graphic nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ordnance Survey and the readers targeted, there is considerable scope to improve the graphic design and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expand the illustrations in a future edition. This should be possible within the existing substantial price. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would recommend it as an enjoyable complement that brings life and personality to the existing rather dry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but more comprehensive histories of the Ordnance Survey.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 247.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 247.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Hellyer, )] TJ ET BT 120.008 247.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ordnance Survey Small Scale Maps Indexes: 1801?1998)] TJ ET BT 393.284 247.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Kerry, 1999\), p. 43.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 495.260 247.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 495.260 246.387 m 549.248 246.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 233.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 233.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ibid, p. 4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 109.688 233.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 109.688 232.131 m 163.676 232.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 219.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. De la Beche, )] TJ ET BT 143.324 219.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Geological Manual)] TJ ET BT 247.316 219.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2nd ed., London, 1832\), p. 545.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.968 219.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.968 217.875 m 459.956 217.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. H. Andrews, ?The Survey of Ireland to 1847? in )] TJ ET BT 309.632 205.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of the Ordnance Survey)] TJ ET BT 472.604 205.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. W. A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 190.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seymour \(London, 1980\), p. 93.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.672 190.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.672 189.363 m 275.660 189.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 176.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 176.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Hellyer and R. Oliver, )] TJ ET BT 188.000 176.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(One-Inch Engraved Maps of the Ordnance Survey from 1847)] TJ ET BT 481.940 176.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009\), p. 20.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.012 162.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.012 160.851 m 179.000 160.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 147.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 147.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. L. Herries Davies, )] TJ ET BT 169.652 147.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sheets of Many Colours)] TJ ET BT 284.648 147.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1983\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.976 147.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.976 146.595 m 415.964 146.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 121.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.477 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 81.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 66.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2010/oct/16/map-nation-ordnance-survey-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 65.571 m 434.288 65.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 437.288 66.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 38.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/map-of-a-nation-a-biography-of-the-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 37.059 m 522.920 37.059 l S BT 34.016 24.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordnance-survey-by-rachel-hewitt-2155431.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 22.803 m 268.292 22.803 l S endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 366.9437 631.0855 380.9357 642.9655 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 141.3317 550.0615 155.3237 561.9415 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 206.0117 535.8055 220.0037 547.6855 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 130.3037 507.2935 144.2957 519.1735 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H 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