%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826050151+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826050151+01'00') /Title (A Malleable Map: Geographies of Restoration in Central Japan, 1600-1912) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1866 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Malleable Map: Geographies of Restoration in Central Japan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1600-1912)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1113)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 August, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kren Wigen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780520259188)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(340pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of California Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkeley, CA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Kornicki)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7759 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since the late 19th century Japan has been in a constant state of geographical flux that shows no sign of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abating even today. This process started shortly after the Meiji Restoration of 1868 but was given greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impetus when, in 1888?9, a massive reorganization of geographical names and nomenclature was undertaken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which reduced the number of cities, towns and villages in Japan from over 71,000 to just under 16,000. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1961 they had been reduced still further to just over 3,400, and now in 2011 there are fewer than 2,000, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small communities are perpetually seeking to amalgamate with neighbours to move up the hierarchical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ladder of administrative units. Of late the government has been encouraging mergers between neighbouring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities in the name of administrative efficiency, and there are undeniable advantages in terms of fiscal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence that accrue from moving up that hierarchy of place from ?village? to ?town? and from ?town? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ?city?. This process has had some curious results. For example, the entire mountainous island of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tsushima, which is 60 kilometres long and lies between Korea and Japan, became in 2004 a ?city? when six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns, which themselves were the product of previous mergers, amalgamated; it is, however, a city with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(falling population, now fewer than 34,000 and a city scattered in the form mostly of small settlements over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an area of some 700 square kilometres. This process that has produced such odd results has much to tell us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about hierarchies of place and local attachment in Japanese history and it is this process in its earlier phases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Kren Wigen explores in this book, and in particular its articulation in maps, statistics and journalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Local history in Japan is a thriving field of enquiry, supported by well-equipped and abundant archives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested local citizenry, and it produces prodigious amounts of print, including local historical journals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prestige publications: most villages, towns and cities have seen fit to commission elaborate histories, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naturally imposing current boundaries on an uncomplaining past, however anachronistic this may seem to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purists. As a result Wigen has a wealth of material to draw upon, but this brings with it its own problems, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which she is by no means unaware of. One of the problems is that local narratives predominate and larger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes, particularly those that affect the whole of Japan or large swathes of it, are obscured, and another is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that local pride and loyalties wax strong. The area that Wigen focuses her book upon is that covered today )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by what is known as Nagano Prefecture \(Nagano-ken\) in central Japan: since the 8th century most of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area had been known as Shinano Province \(Shinano no kuni\) and, like all provinces, it had enjoyed an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative name, Shinsh?, which combined the first character of the provincial name \(here Shin\) with a term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Chinese geographical nomenclature, )] TJ ET BT 238.304 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(zhou)] TJ ET BT 260.972 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or in Japanese pronunciation )] TJ ET BT 404.612 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sh?)] TJ ET BT 421.280 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In 1871, however, the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kuni)] TJ ET BT 54.680 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or provinces were abolished, and Shinano was replaced by two prefectures names Nagano and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chikuma, but many of the changes made in 1871 were unstable and in 1876 Nagano and Chikuma )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prefectures were amalgamated under the name of Nagano.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is striking, however, is that the old term Shinsh? is still in widespread use \(for example in domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tourism\), unlike the variant forms for any of the old provincial names. This of course raises the obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of just how typical or representative Shinsh?, or rather Nagano Prefecture, can be said to be. Wigen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addresses this problem here and there \(pp. 54, 69, 139, 230, etc\), admitting that Shinsh? was ?peculiar? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lying mid-way between Kyoto and Edo, ?anomalous? in that it was ?a patchwork of separate valleys?, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Meiji period unusual both in that the new prefectural boundaries coincided closely with those of the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(province and in that it was economically successful as a result of its silk-reeling industry. It is reassuring that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she identifies for us the factors that distinguish Shinsh? from other provinces rather than leaving the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to wonder how representative it might be. The nagging question remains, however, and the reader has to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aware that, rather than trying to replicate her geographical research in various regions of Japan, Wigen has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chosen instead to question how geographical consciousness was articulated not only in maps but also in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistics, textbooks and journalism and thus to furnish a much deeper perspective while keeping an eye on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the national picture. Others, through careful examination of different parts of Japan, will have to have the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last word on this question, but Wigen provides enough to reassure the reader that most of the phenomena she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes were by no means limited to Shinsh?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first part of the book considers maps and the representation of space in Japan between 1600 \(the start of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Edo period\) and 1912 \(the end of the Meiji period\). The important point Wigen makes here is that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a major disjuncture between the boundaries of political space and the representation of geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space in the Edo period. Detailed maps of Japan were compiled on the orders of the shogun in the early 17th )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8798 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century and these later formed the basis for a profusion of commercially published maps, which showed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual cities, provinces, regions or the whole of Japan. However, the complicated political map of Japan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Edo period, when land was under the control either of the shogun or of the several hundred landed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daimyo, no longer bore any relation whatsoever to the ancient provincial boundaries, and no attempt was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made to rectify geography in conformity with the political realities. Thus maps, geographical description and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even personal addresses remained loyal to the ancient provinces, but jurisdiction, administration and taxation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed quite different boundaries. As Wigen rightly points out, this disjuncture has been ignored, as also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has the ?continuing career of the )] TJ ET BT 193.304 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kuni)] TJ ET BT 213.968 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in a modernizing Japan? \(p. 17\). Although the great mapmaker In? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tadataka \(1745?1818\) applied mathematical surveying techniques to his maps and imposed lines of latitute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and longitude on the map of Japan, ignoring the boundaries of the )] TJ ET BT 352.976 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kuni)] TJ ET BT 373.640 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, they were not expunged from maps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so easily. The administrative upheaval of 1871 is known in Japanese as )] TJ ET BT 378.968 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(haihan chiken)] TJ ET BT 446.624 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a term that means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the abolition of the domains and the establishment of prefectures?: this, as Wigen is quite right to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasize, makes no mention of abolishing the provinces but speaks only of abolishing the domains that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had belonged to the daimyo. In fact, the provinces did indeed have a ?continuing career?, being frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown in maps and other forms of geographical representation long after the provinces had officially been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolished in favour of prefectures, and it is to Wigen?s credit that she has recognised this and sought to tease )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out its importance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the second part of the book Wigen turns her attention to the compilation of statistics, geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instruction in schools and the rise of the provincial press. Although ?The poetry of statistics? as a chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title carries metaphor a little far, Wigen?s account of the vicissitudes of the Meiji state?s efforts to develop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistical tools for measuring economic activity throughout Japan is rewarding and revealing. In spite of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative changes of 1871 the old place-names lingered in the statistics, just as they did in the maps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right up to the 1890s. Wigen argues, and she has good evidence for doing so, that although the criteria were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set in Tokyo and the aim was to serve perceived national needs, the presentation of the data continued to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serve local needs and to sustain local identities. Much the same can be said of the teaching of geography in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schools: in 1878 the national government ordered that schools teach not only the geography of the world and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Japan but also that of the local prefecture, presumably in an attempt to inculcate identification with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographical divisions instituted in 1871. This new need was met, in Shinsh? and elsewhere, by textbooks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that increasingly celebrated the geographical particularities of the prefecture in which they were to be used, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including monuments such as castles as well as physical features such as mountains and lakes. Perhaps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though, the richest source for Wigen?s purpose is the press: while national dailies were founded in Tokyo in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1870s local dailies and weeklies were not far behind and so long as railways were slow to penetrate rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas it was local newspapers that had the upper hand. Wigen cites data suggesting that once the railway had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reached the town of Ueda Tokyo newspapers were selling three copies for every copy of a local newspaper, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but that was not until 1895. One of the main newspapers was the )] TJ ET BT 347.312 299.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shinano Daily News)] TJ ET BT 445.316 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the name of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected the attachment to the old provincial name, and under the editorship of Yamaji Aizan \(1865?1917\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Christian writer from Tokyo, it carried a succession of articles and features celebrating famous sons of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shinsh?, local history, and so on, in addition to economic and political news of purely local interest. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength of these local attachments is apparent from the fact that in 1904, when Tokyo newspapers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily available, 18,000 copies of the )] TJ ET BT 214.652 228.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shinano Daily News)] TJ ET BT 312.656 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were being sold every day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are a few details to quibble about. Firstly, the )] TJ ET BT 285.308 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(neng?)] TJ ET BT 314.636 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were not ?imperial reign names? \(p. 62\) as their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equivalents were in China, for in Japan they were not coterminous with reigns; this minor error draws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the whole issue of the measurement of time, which also assumed new forms in the Meiji period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the )] TJ ET BT 80.672 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(neng?)] TJ ET BT 110.000 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( very definitely became ?imperial reign names?. Secondly, the cartouches on Japanese maps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not called )] TJ ET BT 110.324 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(murakata)] TJ ET BT 156.320 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( nor is their shape anything but an accidental reminder of the shape of Japan gold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coins \(p. 73\): cartouches of this shape have been the norm in East Asia at least since the Mawangdui maps of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the western Han dynasty in China, and the word )] TJ ET BT 267.980 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(murakata)] TJ ET BT 313.976 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is simply part of the legend and indicates that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cartouches of this shape on this particular map contain the names of villages. Thirdly, I am hesitant to agree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Wigen in her suggestion that the findings of Thongchai Winichakul in his book )] TJ ET BT 441.992 88.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Siam mapped)] TJ ET BT 506.984 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apply to Japan \(p. 124\): this is because Wigen restricts her consideration to the domestic boundaries of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan, between )] TJ ET BT 110.324 59.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kuni)] TJ ET BT 130.988 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 154.316 59.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kuni)] TJ ET BT 174.980 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, while the ?international? boundaries, if that is even the right way of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4153 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describing them, were indeed fuzzy and contested, particularly in the north and the south.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wigen?s narrative brings to light and historicises a feature of modern Japan that many are aware of but few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have explored. Every municipal library in Japan has a section devoted to )] TJ ET BT 385.616 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ky?do shiry?)] TJ ET BT 447.272 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, an expression that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may be rendered ?materials relating to our native place? and is more emotional than exact, and, as mentioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above, most villages, towns and cities now boast their own multivolume histories. Lurking behind this local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pride is a strong awareness of ancient geographies: Shinsh? may be unusually prominent even today, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formal names of other provinces, such as Satsuma, Kii and Kaga, are often encountered in the names of local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shops and enterprises, in advertising copy and in materials for domestic tourists. Among the reasons Wigen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puts forward one is particularly arresting. Her argument is that those committed to building up the Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation state, Yamaji Aizan included, were acutely aware of the question of scale ? in other words, of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need for national identity and loyalty to be built upon foundations of local identities and loyalties. In essence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she is arguing that for all the apparent radicalism implicit in the changes encapsulated in )] TJ ET BT 460.952 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(haihan chiken)] TJ ET BT 528.608 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice it was only the domains that were abolished and, once the new prefectural boundaries in most cases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved closer to the old provincial boundaries, local loyalties were far from discouraged and were instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used as the foundation of a sense of the nation. This is a persuasive argument but it needs to be weighed up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the other measures and systems that tended to obliterate local differences ? a national system of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banknotes, a national conscript army, and a uniform national legal system ? and it would benefit from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison with other societies that sought to create a nation out of a population used to local loyalties, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly German and Italy but perhaps also India.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy with this review and does not wish to respond.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cognitive Resonance)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ahorbinski.dreamwidth.org/tag/book+review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 445.443 m 277.436 445.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 280.436 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 442.111 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 424.331 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 424.331 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1113)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 422.937 m 328.316 422.937 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 397.960 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.560 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7753)] TJ ET BT 34.016 369.160 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ahorbinski.dreamwidth.org/tag/book+review)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 445.7575 277.4357 457.6375 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ahorbinski.dreamwidth.org/tag/book+review) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 423.2515 328.3157 435.1315 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1113) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000574 00000 n 0000000656 00000 n 0000002574 00000 n 0000002683 00000 n 0000002793 00000 n 0000002902 00000 n 0000006463 00000 n 0000006591 00000 n 0000006675 00000 n 0000006740 00000 n 0000014552 00000 n 0000014617 00000 n 0000023468 00000 n 0000023559 00000 n 0000027765 00000 n 0000027892 00000 n 0000027992 00000 n 0000028120 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28216 %%EOF