%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818075244+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818075244+01'00') /Title (Crusading as an Act of Vengeance, 1095-1216) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4314 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Crusading as an Act of Vengeance, 1095-1216)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?I am the Lord thy God, mighty, jealous, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, unto the third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fourth generation of them that hate me: And showing mercy unto thousands to them that love me, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keep my commandments? \(Ex. 20:5?6\). Medieval crusaders, argues Susanna A. Throop in )] TJ ET BT 470.600 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crusading as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Act of Vengeance,)] TJ ET BT 120.992 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( viewed the biblical notion of the Lord?s vengeance with deadly earnestness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreted their own actions through the ?vocabulary of vengeance?. In this book, based on her University )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Cambridge dissertation, Throop seeks to dislodge the widely accepted position among crusade historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(in part, due to the magisterial work of her former advisor, Jonathan Riley-Smith\) that the idea of crusading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an act of vengeance represented a largely secular phenomenon, developing among the ?rude? laity, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that peaked around the time of the First Crusade only to disappear as later generations of clerical authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refined the theology of crusading. Throop, to the contrary, declares that an interpretation of crusading as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vengeance inhabited a vital place in the clerical as well as the lay imaginations, and that far from fading over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the course of the 12th and early 13th centuries, the notion occupied an increasingly prominent place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusade histories, )] TJ ET BT 120.332 116.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(chansons de geste,)] TJ ET BT 209.984 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( letters, poems, and other sources. Along the way, she makes a number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of intriguing observations about the nature of religious violence and the place of crusading within medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian ?mytho-history?, suggesting some of the wider possibilities raised by her close reading of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocabulary of vengeance and related terms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1118)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 August, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susanna Throop)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754665823)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farnham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brett Edward Whalen)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8726 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As noted by Throop, Carl Erdman, in his highly influential 1935 work )] TJ ET BT 374.000 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origin of the Idea of Crusading,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judged the idea of crusading as an act of vengeance to be ?an obvious improvisation suggestive of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immature the idea of crusading still was?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.320 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.320 754.563 m 248.312 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 248.312 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Erdmann, followed by other scholars including Riley-Smith, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Partner, Jean Flori and others, associated this ?immature? idea squarely with the laity, part of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?feudal? notions of honor, shame, and military obligation. Throop takes issue with this interpretation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence. ?The concept of crusading as vengeance?, she declares, ?was no anomaly, and crusading was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceived as an act of vengeance not only through the application of ?secular? values, but also through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values inherent in twelfth-century Christianity? \(p. 9\). Or, as she puts it elsewhere: ?Text after text suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it would be inaccurate to envision a heavy ideological dividing line separating a pro-vengeance laity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from an anti-vengeance Church? \(p. 31\). She seems to feel that by skirting the idea of crusading as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vengeance, or writing it off as a product of ?unlettered? minds, historians have left medieval churchmen off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hook for their articulation of crusading not just as an act of love \(in the famous formulation of Riley-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smith\), but also as an act of hatred ? hatred and a desire for revenge against Jews, Muslims, and heretics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who crucified Christ, seized the place of his self-sacrifice, or denied his divinity.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.276 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.276 597.747 m 463.268 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 463.268 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Crusade studies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she observes, have focused on crusading as an act of ?pilgrimage, penitential warfare, just war, holy war, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defense of the Church, liberation, Christian love, and the imitation of Christ?, approaches that attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconcile modern ?Christian values? with bloody reality of crusading.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 368.960 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 368.960 554.979 m 382.952 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 382.952 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Examining crusading as an act of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vengeance requires us to move a ?step further? down that road, to grasp how medieval Christians could see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their faith as calling for them to take violent revenge against enemies of their community.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The stakes are large in this issue, complicated by modern assumptions about religious belief, violence, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the meaning of vengeance. Throop, to avoid the dangers of anachronism, cautiously limits her approach and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methods by focusing on a set of ?signposts,? terms that she claims as having an equivalency to the modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English word ?vengeance? ? )] TJ ET BT 173.972 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vindicta, ultio, )] TJ ET BT 246.644 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 266.972 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(venjance.)] TJ ET BT 312.620 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( She offers a working definition of what these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words meant, and what ?vengeance? effectively means throughout her monograph: ?violence \(both physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and nonphysical\) driven by a sense of moral authority, and in certain cases divine approbation, against those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who are believed to question that authority and/or approbation? \(p. 12\). Her reading of sources for the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusade and its aftermath, divided into ?eye-witness? and ?non-participant? accounts \(a traditional division )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that some scholars are starting to question in terms of its value for historical analysis\) leads her to conclude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the notion of crusading as vengeance was not nearly as widespread as modern scholars often assume in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?early years? of crusading. This position, one should note, leaves her at odds with historiography on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-Jewish pogroms in the Rhineland during the First Crusade, often understood as the most clear-cut )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of crusading as revenge, in this case against the Jews for killing Christ \(pp. 64?70\). Rather, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, through the writings of both crusaders and those who never went on crusade \(monastic authors, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular\), the idea of crusading as an act of vengeance developed over time, increasing rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decreasing as the 12th century progressed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her understanding of crusading as vengeance does not lead her to discount the idea of crusading as an act of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(love: to the contrary, Christian love \()] TJ ET BT 211.664 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(caritas)] TJ ET BT 245.000 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) for one?s neighbor could fuel the desire for revenge against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muslims and others \(p. 62\). Indeed, these sort of uncomfortable pairings \(uncomfortable, that is, for modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensibilities\) form an important component of her research. Later in the book, she examines the related term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of )] TJ ET BT 47.012 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(zelus,)] TJ ET BT 74.012 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?zeal? for Christianity, for God, or for justice, as a ?catalyst? for the idea of crusading as an act of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vengeance, tying together ?love of God, anger at sin, a passion for justice, and the vocabulary of vengeance? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 170\). Through her careful exploration of that vocabulary, Throop concludes that there were wide-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging, pre-existing ?patterns of thought linking religion, emotion, and violence? that offered ?powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivating tools at the disposal of those who encouraged the crusading movement and sought a united )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christendom, internally reformed and externally expanding? \(p. 169\). Simply put, crusading as an act of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vengeance made powerful sense for 12th- and 13th-century Christians, both lay and clerical, accounting for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its appeal and increasing prominence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throop?s handling of her terms ? primarily )] TJ ET BT 244.316 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vindicta, ultio, venjance,)] TJ ET BT 362.636 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 385.964 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(zelus)] TJ ET BT 409.964 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? is convincing, although at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points, her trawling of the sources that include those terms casts a rather indiscriminate net to yield her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular catch: In a few short pages, analyzing links of justice and vengeance, she quickly ranges from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 234.3197 754.8775 248.3117 766.7575 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 449.2757 598.0615 463.2677 609.9415 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 368.9597 555.2935 382.9517 567.1735 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 5443 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas of Chobham to William of Tyre, to Robert of Clari and James of Vitry, and then to Gratian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard of Clairvaux \(pp. 16?19\); or, in a single paragraph on zeal and anger, she jump centuries from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hincmar of Rheims to Thomas of Chobham without really alerting the reader to the differences in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical context \(p. 158\). The repeated marshalling of anecdotes and pastiche of references for her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocabulary of vengeance makes for some odd moments, such as when the exact same passage from the 12th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century crusader account of the siege of Lisbon, )] TJ ET BT 267.620 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De expugnatione Lyxbonensi, )] TJ ET BT 412.928 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is used on consecutive pages, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to make similar points, apparently without cognizance of each other \(pp. 106?7\). Some readers might wish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that she spent more time situating her various texts and authors, locating their notions of vengeance within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the broader frame of their particular time and place. That said, Throop is quite explicit that her ?deliberate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goal has been to identify broad cultural themes, rather than individual proclivities? \(p. 8\). Her search for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vengeance through her terms also anchors her attempt to avoid anachronistic interpretations of vengeance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colored by modern emotions and value-judgments. As she notes in her introduction: ?It is worth repeating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that I have not myself interpreted events as being ?vengeful? or ?acts of vengeance? \(p. 6\). The sources, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implies, speak for themselves. Of course, as Throop no doubt realizes, sources never speak for themselves, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even when the modern historian conscientiously tries to avoid warping his or her evidence through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anachronism. On the positive side, her caution avoids projecting modern notions of vengeance back into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past. The price paid for this approach, however, is a sometimes limited scope of historical analysis, heavy on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the parsing of terms, without the rewarding pay-off that pushes beyond the parts to grasp a greater whole. At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points, one wishes that Throop )] TJ ET BT 184.676 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(had )] TJ ET BT 205.676 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken a little more interpretative risk, making scholarly calls about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of vengeance, even when the precise terminology she highlights is not present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, at some tantalizing points, Throop?s analysis of vengeance leads to some insightful claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the relationship between crusading, vengeance, and memory, with a specific eye toward the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between Christianity and Islam. Divine vengeance, she rightly observes, struck sinners, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including Christians themselves when they violated God?s laws. Both Christians and Muslims, by this logic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operated within the same redemptive and retributive economy of salvation, suggesting that ?Muslims were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not )] TJ ET BT 52.352 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the others)] TJ ET BT 100.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but rather )] TJ ET BT 155.336 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(those of us who are doing wrong)] TJ ET BT 312.680 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 56; emphasis is her own\). This is a striking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim that deserves more consideration. In the Book of Exodus, for example, God punishes the Egyptians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without any suggestion that they were also his ?Chosen People,? only doing wrong. At the same time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly, Throop captures something important about medieval Christian theology of history, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense that its inclusive universalism always sits paradoxically alongside self-definition through exclusion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ambivalent relationship between Judaism and Christian offered a particularly fraught example of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tension, but a similar problem inhabited the Christian sense of Muslims as providential actors in salvation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history: were Muslims to be killed or converted? Damned or saved? Were they pagans or a derivative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian heresy?)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7052 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Throop also observes, vengeance happens because it forms part of a story. As a ?reaction to a prior event )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(real or imagined\),? she observes, ?vengeance was always embedded in a chronological context? \(p. 13\). For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an individual such as a feudal lord, that event might fit into a personal narrative of violation, anger, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revenge \( la Stephen White, Richard Barton, and Daniel Smail\). Within the context of crusading, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chronological context for vengeance reaches the level of what Throop \(following Riley-Smith\) calls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?mytho-history,? the ?narrative framework underlying contemporary culture in the Christian West that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assigned meaning and order to historical events on the basis of religious belief? \(pp. 101?2\). The sweep of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biblical history, including the crucifixion, the sack of Jerusalem by Roman armies under Titus and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vespasian, the Islamic conquest of the holy places thereby intersected with the ideology of crusading as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(act of vengeance. This meta-narrative, including the ?common theme of creating a world united by ?true? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian faith through the means of just war and conversion? \(p. 135\), meant that the medieval Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological imagination could assign the bloodiest of crusaders a moral purpose in God?s plan for history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, considering her claim that vengeance equally involved clerical thinkers, not just the laity, one might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have expected to see even more about the importance of the Bible, exegesis, and Latin historical thinking for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notions of vengeance. As Throop herself notes, much of Philippe Buc?s current work is wrestling with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely this sort of ?exegetical perspective,? yielding considerable insights into the ?relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian sacred texts and the concept of vengeance? \(p. 192\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At moments, therefore, Throop does throw some ?big questions? into the mix about religion, emotion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence, history, and memory, set within the context of the dynamic 12th century. In her conclusion, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looks forward to a wider-ranging synthesis that might situate her own topic of crusading as vengeance within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader parameters. As she observes:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last century of scholarship have {sic} seen the emergence of the twelfth-century ?renaissance,? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?reformation,? ?revolution,? and, most recently, ?crisis.? As it happens, the chronology of the development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the idea of crusading as vengeance coincided with a historical period of great intellectual regeneration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious reformation, increasing Church power, shifting political structures, and increasing violent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecution. No one yet, to my knowledge, has worked to integrate the overall historiography of the twelfth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century with our evolving understanding of twelfth-century crusading \(pp. 184?5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a desirable goal, and whether Throop undertakes this task herself, or leaves it to others, in )] TJ ET BT 502.940 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crusading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(as an Act of Vengeance,)] TJ ET BT 149.660 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( she has done a valuable service to scholars who wish to tackle the crusades and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dilemma of religious violence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 300.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 269.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carl Erdmann, )] TJ ET BT 137.672 269.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origin of the Idea of Crusading,)] TJ ET BT 314.012 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( trans. M. W. Baldwin and W. Goffart \(Princeton, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NJ, 1977\), p. 116. In her notes and bibliography \(the latter of which includes a number of distracting )] TJ ET BT 64.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typos\), Throop cites the English translation of Erdmann?s )] TJ ET BT 344.324 241.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die Enstehung des Kreuzzugsgedanken)] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Stuttgart, 1935\), and never mentions the original publication, which might mislead some readers )] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about his place in crusading scholarship.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 258.656 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 258.656 211.107 m 312.644 211.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 198.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Riley-Smith, ?Crusading as an act of love?, )] TJ ET BT 321.320 198.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 357.320 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 363.320 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65 \(1980\), 177?92.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 454.640 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 454.640 196.851 m 508.628 196.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 183.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throop also includes, as appendixes \(pp. 189?206\), a ?Historiographical overview? and ?Resum of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources?, that graduate students or scholars new to the field of crusading studies will find particularly )] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helpful.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 101.012 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 101.012 154.083 m 155.000 154.083 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 138.751 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 120.971 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 120.971 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1118)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 119.577 m 328.316 119.577 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 94.600 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7758)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 258.6557 211.4215 312.6437 223.3015 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 454.6397 197.1655 508.6277 209.0455 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 101.0117 154.3975 154.9997 166.2775 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 119.8915 328.3157 131.7715 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1118) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000546 00000 n 0000000628 00000 n 0000004994 00000 n 0000005103 00000 n 0000005213 00000 n 0000005322 00000 n 0000008883 00000 n 0000009011 00000 n 0000009095 00000 n 0000009193 00000 n 0000017972 00000 n 0000018002 00000 n 0000018130 00000 n 0000018166 00000 n 0000018196 00000 n 0000018324 00000 n 0000018360 00000 n 0000018390 00000 n 0000018518 00000 n 0000018554 00000 n 0000018619 00000 n 0000024115 00000 n 0000024220 00000 n 0000031325 00000 n 0000031453 00000 n 0000031508 00000 n 0000031636 00000 n 0000031691 00000 n 0000031819 00000 n 0000031874 00000 n 0000032002 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32098 %%EOF