%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140801004506+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140801004506+01'00') /Title (Artful Dodgers: Youth and Crime in Early Nineteenth-Century London) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4350 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Artful Dodgers: Youth and Crime in Early Nineteenth-Century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the last 25 years or so the social history of crime, and more recently of juvenile delinquency, has taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enormous strides both in Britain and elsewhere. The book under review is a well-crafted example of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outpouring of studies on English nineteenth-century crime. Starting out as a doctoral thesis on the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(juvenile crime in Middlesex \(1790-1850\), the author has successfully converted her research into a readable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph, published by the Royal Historical Society, on the process of becoming delinquent in Dickensian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London. Hence Artful Dodgers offers an approach to its subject matter far more rigorous than that of recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 221.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular histories like Donald Thomas' The Victorian Underworld \(1998\), a retread of familiar sources like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dickens' Oliver Twist, Walter's My Secret Life, Henry Mayhew's London Labour and various parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blue books which helped to create the exaggerated concept, perpetuated by Thomas, of a Victorian 'criminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For an overview of academic research on the history of British juvenile crime, let me recommend a recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special issue, 'Histories of Crime and Modernity', of the The British Journal of Criminology \(Vol. 39, No. 1, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999\), edited by Andrew Davies and Geoffrey Pearson and available from Oxford University Press. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contains, among others, an article by Heather Shore on juvenile crime and the criminal 'underworld' in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early nineteenth century; Shani D'Cruze on how local courts dealt with violence against women in mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century Middleton, Lancashire; and Andrew Davies on young women, gangs and violence in late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Manchester and Salford. Roger Hood and Kate Joyce provide oral testimonies on crime and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in the East End of London and members of the Centre for Social History at the University of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(112)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 March, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heather Shore)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780861932420)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(193pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Springhall)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7360 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lancaster present findings on crime migration and social change in north-west England and the Basque )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country. The aim of this excellent special issue, building on the detailed historical case studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delinquency and policing that first saw the 'take off' in crime history, is one of consolidation, 'both by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bringing together new research on the history of crime, and hopefully by stimulating further interchange )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between historians and criminologists through the pages of the British Journal of Criminology and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere' \(p. 2\). We are also promised the publication of an excellent international conference on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Becoming Delinquent: European Youth, 1650-1950' held in April 1999 at Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University, one of the organizers of which was the author of the book under review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the mid-1980s, when I was researching Coming of Age, a book on the history of adolescence in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since 1860, my chapter on the adolescent and crime suffered considerably from the absence of suitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary sources by historians, apart from a few articles, which could assist me in tracing how and when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(juvenile misbehaviour became recognized as a threat to social order, then was criminalized and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutionalized. To make up for the prevailing paucity of studies of juvenile crime by the new breed of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social historians, I fell back on primary sources such as the evidence collected by the diligent Edwin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chadwick for the 1839 report of the commissioners \(of which he was one\) appointed to inquire into setting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up an efficient county constabulary force in England and Wales \(Chadwick's papers are in University )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(College, London\). Also useful was Mary Carpenter's influential Reformatory Schools for the Children of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perishing and Dangerous Classes and for Juvenile Offenders \(1851\) and the records of Feltham Industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(School held in the Greater London Record Office, plus the late Raphael Samuel's East End Underworld: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters in the Life of Arthur Harding \(1981\). The resulting piecemeal chapter would have benefited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerably from access to a monograph such as the one under review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last named historian also put me on to a unique source in the Home Office papers at the Public Record )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Office in London which Heather Shore has used far more thoroughly: interviews conducted with juvenile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offenders circa 1836 by Mayhew-like investigator William Augustus Miles on board the juvenile hulk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Euryalus at Chatham, sometimes as part of the same constabulary commission mentioned above but also on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own initiative. [In a footnote we learn that during the 1840s Miles became superintendent of the Sydney )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(police in New South Wales but lost his place in 1848 on account of being drunk on duty!] Dr. Shore has also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made good use of the Old Bailey sessions papers, from 1834 the printed proceedings of the Central Criminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Court. Back in 1986, I concluded that the emergence of the stage of life, adolescence, and the legal concept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of juvenile delinquency were mutually reinforcing. Also that changes in police practices, legislation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifts in public perception of crime, made it problematic for the historian to produce a consistent definition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of what actually constitutes 'delinquency' in British society over time \(Coming of Age, p. 189\). I am now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuaded by the book under review that 'whilst there has always been an awareness of youthful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delinquency, it was only in the early nineteenth century that a clearly identifiable label, the "juvenile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offender", emerged and became embedded in the social and political lexicon' \(p. 8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Artful Dodgers moves assuredly from the 'invention' of the juvenile delinquent, via among other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determinants Carpenter's 'perishing' and 'dangerous' juveniles, to the debate on whether or not juvenile crime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was genuinely rising in the early nineteenth century. Several chapters on 'processes' then examine the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(juvenile offender's home and street-life or leisure, not untypical of most working-class children, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pattern of offending and journeying into the justice system. Larceny was the most common juvenile offence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often dealt with by summary conviction from a magistrate. In the years 1797-1847 covered by the dataset of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Middlesex criminal registers which Shore provides, of the children aged 16 and under indicted, never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fewer than 85 per cent were convicted for some sort of larceny. Many of the children cited in the Miles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interviews and other sources for the voice of the delinquent reflect those who had been much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively criminalized, such as boys appearing at the Old Bailey or awaiting transportation on board the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Euryalus hulk, or in Newgate, Tothill Fields and, later, Parkhurst. Subsequent chapters look at debates over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punishment, whether sending offenders to voluntary refuges or for transportation, and acquittals, death or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisonment. Finally, there is a chapter on transportation and potential reformation through colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To clothe with flesh the dry bones of academic discourse, such as statistical analysis of the rapid rise in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7017 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of London juveniles formally indicted in the courts or dealt with summarily during this period, Dr. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shore has attempted to humanise juvenile offenders as people, or as children, and not merely as objects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral or penal policy-making. She points out, perhaps self-evidently, that the subjects of historical research, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether working, middle or upper class, whether children or adults, had an existence, an identity, a name \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(150\) but is also aware that recent work on the history of crime has already begun to rectify the anonymity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistics, viz. Peter Linebaugh, The London Hanged \(1991\), Victor Gatrell, The Hanging Tree \(1994\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much recent postgraduate work. If Shore exaggerates the novelty of giving voice to the juvenile offender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(surely others have tried before, if less systematically?\) this is excusable, given her own tireless research. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She does her best, given the limitations of the sources, to impart a sense of lived experience, and to ask )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental questions about who the children caught up in the London \(or urban Middlesex\) criminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justice system were and where they came from. How did they work and play? How did they view their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capture, trial and the punishments that awaited them?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the historian, as opposed to the novelist, to catch hold of some of the essence of past lives means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reliance on the surviving sources and the ability 'to sit back, to try not to bend them into the desirable shape, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but to let them tell their own story' \(p. 12\). An admirable injunction. None the less, the sources are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves recognized as a problem, presenting a particular construction of criminality, dependent on time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and place, on political or economic rationales and the agendas of their creators. 'Yet within these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructions the voice of the poor can be teased out and captured' \(p. 12\). Investigation of the workplace, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home, play and school, as well as experience of the courts and prisons, also contributes to a more holistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to the juvenile offender which avoids familiar middle-class, parliamentary or journalistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations. Too often accounts of nineteenth-century juvenile crime, particularly in the East End of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, have derived solely from the tribes of journalists, sensation seekers, would-be sociologists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral reformers, who inflicted their often unwelcome attentions upon the poor in the wake of Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mayhew.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Does this book achieve its author's intention to give the poor thief or juvenile offender a voice, rather than to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treat him or her as a mere statistic? The answer is a qualified yes because the book is heavily reliant on W. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Miles and the interviews he conducted on board the Euryalus, plus some other interviews from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan prisons like Tothill Fields and Brixton and the Old Bailey sessions papers. As the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges, the offenders who speak to us from these sources are by no mean s representative being, in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense, 'hardened' juvenile delinquents with several convictions, rather than opportunist or petty thieves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(although, sadly, the two categories were often interchangeable\). The Miles interviews, consisting of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprecise notebooks and rough \(often pencilled\), verbatim transcripts, which veer from the first person to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the second, are subject to the sorts of problems to be expected from selective, handwritten accounts but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possess a remarkable immediacy and a graphic use of demotic 1830s speech patterns.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One boy awaiting transportation, George Hickman, told Miles in relation to police corruption that:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Policemen, especially City Police are so nice -- There is one fellow \(number given\) who behaves very well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to us in the City. He never cares about getting a fellow sent to prison for three months because it does him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no good, but if he can make an Old Bailey case of it, he takes the Boy up, because he gets his expenses, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something, I believe, for his trouble -- He sometimes stops a fellow and takes anything from him which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have about him and lets him go again \(p. 85\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The payment of protection or bribes to police is mentioned so often, and by so many children, that Shore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believes there must be more than a grain of truth in such statements. Many of the boys, like George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hickman, have been identified by a list submitted by J. H. Capper, the head of the hulks' establishment, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1835 Select Committee on Gaols. Showing remarkable assiduity, Shore has tracked down the conduct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(registers kept for Van Diemen's Land which survive in Tasmania's Archives Office for a number of the boys )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interviewed by Miles, most of whom were transported from the Euryalus to Van Diemen's Land between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1835 and 1837 \(20 per cent of all convicts arriving\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book confirms that crime historians can be committed to pushing forward knowledge of their chosen )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 2168 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject matter, here youth and crime in early nineteenth-century London, in a spirit of scrupulous and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructive enquiry, without becoming imprisoned by the often unreadable theoretical constructs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of the American-influenced social sciences. Artful Dodgers also manages to 'humanise' and make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(real the subjects of the author's research without resort to the rhetoric or invention of popular histories of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so-called Victorian underworld. During the early nineteenth century, Shore grimly concludes, a combination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of factors led to more indictment of juveniles, more imprisoned juveniles, and more transported juveniles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('resulting in a situation where more children than previously were incorporated into the criminal justice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system' \(p. 149\), the vast majority for petty and minor crimes. The British institutionalisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troublesome, neglected and vagrant youth from the 'perishing and dangerous classes' in industrial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformatory schools from the 1850s onwards was not far off.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 622.927 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 605.147 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 605.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/112)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 603.753 m 322.316 603.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 578.776 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.376 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/707)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.976 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 604.0675 322.3157 615.9475 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/112) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000651 00000 n 0000005053 00000 n 0000005162 00000 n 0000005272 00000 n 0000005381 00000 n 0000008942 00000 n 0000009070 00000 n 0000009154 00000 n 0000009219 00000 n 0000016632 00000 n 0000016697 00000 n 0000023767 00000 n 0000023851 00000 n 0000026072 00000 n 0000026200 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 26295 %%EOF