%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 33 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141020151850+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141020151850+01'00') /Title (The Carolingian World) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4451 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Carolingian World)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Carolingian period has long been seen as one of endings \(of the Roman world; of the world of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrated Mediterranean economy and culture\) and even more, of beginnings \(of the middle ages proper; of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feudalism; of the nations that now make up western Europe; of Europe itself\). The post-Roman notion of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European ?Roman? empire that was brought to an abrupt end by Napoleon in the first decade of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century traced its lineage ? not entirely unreasonably ? to the crowning of Charlemagne as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor in Rome in 800. Indeed, the columnist on European affairs for the )] TJ ET BT 396.284 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economist)] TJ ET BT 446.948 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( writes under the name )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?Charlemagne?. This is a period with many resonances, then, but perhaps precisely for that reason it has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been a little difficult to assess it for what it was rather than for what it meant to later generations \(indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier schools of medieval historians in the twentieth century were not immune to the tendency to interpret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Carolingian world from the perspective of what preceded or followed it\). The past three decades have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen a huge amount of scholarship produced, not least in the English language, on the Carolingians; much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this has been refreshingly free from assumptions regarding the meaning of this period in the long sweep of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, and has illuminated in diverse ways the dynamism of this fascinating era. The most recent surveys )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the period in English, however, by Rosamond McKitterick and Pierre Rich )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.632 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.632 72.345 m 428.624 72.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 428.624 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, are now almost thirty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years old, and the purpose of the book under review is to provide a new synthesis taking into account the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1122)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 September, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marios Costambeys)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Innes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon MacLean)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521564946)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(528pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shami Ghosh)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 414.6317 72.6595 428.6237 84.5395 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7619 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights of the most recent scholarship. Costambeys, Innes and Maclean are to be commended for having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fulfilled their task admirably, surveying and synthesising a vast body of source material and scholarship and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presenting it with elegance and clarity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Carolingian world, for these authors, is primarily that of the core regions under Carolingian rule, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corresponding to modern France \(mainly its northern regions\) and the Low Countries, western and southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany and Switzerland, and northern and central Italy. These were the Carolingian heartlands ruled most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly by the members of the dynasty, and the regions where the changes they instituted or facilitated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguably took root most firmly. The Carolingian world, then, is defined primarily by its link to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolingian family; indeed, this book \(unlike, for example, McKitterick?s survey\) stops in the year 888, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when for the first time we find a king not of the Carolingian dynasty ruling in its heartland. After an initial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter setting out the scope of their book and discussing the nature of the often quite complex and heavily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biased source base ? a discussion that is taken up again repeatedly at appropriate places ? the authors have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chosen not to structure their book following a strict chronology of political events, instead providing three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters \(two, four, and eight\) with political narrative \(which is enlivened by discussions of the nature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectiveness of Carolingian government and the dynamics of aristocratic patronage\); these are separated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters on belief and culture \(chapter three\); villages and structures of rural society \(chapter five\); elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society \(chapter six\); and the economy \(chapter seven\). The volume is rounded off by a brief epilogue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering the impact of the Carolingians for later periods.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While some might find this way of structuring the text less helpful than a chronological section covering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of the whole period followed by thematic chapters each also covering the whole period, I found the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation of the material in itself quite useful in connecting up various themes to the political narrative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kings, aristocrats, plots, and revolts. Thus we begin with the creation of the Carolingian world in the eighth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, learning of the ways in which the family descending from Charles Martel replaced the ruling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Merovingian dynasty. Since their efforts to justify this usurpation were based to a very large extent on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appealing to religious and moral arguments in their favour, and were strengthened by the support of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papacy, a discussion of belief and culture in the following chapter is a logical progression, as we find here an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overview of the kind of mentality that nurtured and was in turn nourished by Carolingian rule. This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather difficult subject, and the authors do a good job of balancing on the one hand a purely political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective, that would view the various religious justifications for rulers? actions that we find in the sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply as cynical manipulation of belief, and on the other hand the evidence for genuine piety and a desire to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(define and uphold a correct form of Christianity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the key aspects of Carolingian government was in fact a self-aware sense of reform, primarily of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church and its institutions, but leading therefrom into the realms of education, the economy, and secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration. Certainly, the Church was used as a political tool, but the authors of this book stress correctly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this does not by any means indicate a lack of genuine belief: the modern separation of secular and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious goals and justifications was quite alien to this age. Moving on from defining belief and culture in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the third chapter, the theme of reform is taken up next in chapter four, in which we return to the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative, but are also introduced to Carolingian government at work: the world of )] TJ ET BT 431.948 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(missi)] TJ ET BT 456.620 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and counts, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitularies and itinerant rulers, all harnessed to improve the functioning of the Church, to ensure that local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lawgiving was just, and above all, perhaps, to make manifest the presence of the Christian king through his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missives and messengers who laboured to ensure a correct form of Christianity was practised ? and equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to maintain the stability of the ruling sovereign?s grip on power. The first half of the ninth century was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of structural consolidation: the last decade and a half of Charlemagne?s rule, when expansion ceased, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and when his relatively stable and very long reign was succeeded by the initially secure and later turbulent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era of his son, Louis the Pious. The politics of this, as of the previous period when Charlemagne himself rose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to power, were dominated above all by jockeying for power within the family: one of the insights of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume is to show how various events, from Pippin?s coronation to Louis?s penance, and perhaps even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlemagne?s assumption of the imperial title, might have been motivated at least as much by a desire to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secure a position vis--vis other members of the ruling family as by a wish to impress other non-related )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notables within and without the Carolingian domains. The two were, of course, linked: aristocratic families )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7928 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operated within a system of patronage in which the presence of powerful members of the dynasty, who could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially threaten the incumbent on the throne, allowed for the build-up of alternative power bases. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success of the Carolingians was based on a system of integrating a wide range of aristocratic families within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the network of power and patronage emanating from the royal \(and later imperial\) court. It was precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their success that ultimately provided a source of instability to Louis the Pious, because, for the first time in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over half a century, in his surviving sons there were multiple potential, legitimate contenders for power, all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backed by their own networks of nobles in the regions where they represented royal and dynastic patronage. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, as the authors show, the success of the system was such that there were no attempts at revolt \(as yet\) in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which a non-Carolingian tried to seize the throne: the power-struggles from the 830s onwards were played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out between various legitimate members of the ruling family, and were caused not least by the fact that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were so many of them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other factor behind strife was simply that ? as Timothy Reuter elegantly argued over two decades ago ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Carolingian political system had been based on expansion, leading to plunder of and tribute from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquered; this loot was used to reward the nobles fighting on behalf of the ruler.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 424.952 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 424.952 597.747 m 438.944 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 438.944 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Once the empire had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reached a certain size, further expansion became, if not impossible, certainly difficult; keeping everyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happy now depended increasingly on spreading the wealth that was available within the empire. One aspect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this world that I feel could have been addressed somewhat more closely is the effect of this pressure from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above on the dynamic of economic change at lower levels. The authors provide insightful discussions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rural production, manorial organisation, and regional and long-distance exchange, but perhaps slightly more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space might have been given to the relative effects of, on the one hand, peasant production and the changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rural economies conditioned by demographic change, and on the other hand, aristocratic demand \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promotion of markets and trade as a means of raising cash\), as a motors of growth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This period saw the spread of what is known as the bipartite manor, the development of fairly sophisticated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methods of keeping tabs on production and distribution of agrarian produce, and, by the end of the ninth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, an increasingly market-oriented rural economy. There was certainly no coherent ?economic policy? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a modern \(or even late-medieval\) sense, and for the most part estate managers seem to have been focused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on self-sufficiency, with markets used to supplement the income \(in cash or kind\) from estates rather than as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a means of creating wealth. Yet at the lowest levels of society, by the end of the ninth century, market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchange seems ubiquitous in the Carolingian heartlands, and as the authors show, some level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialisation in the agrarian and craft production sectors can also be found. Crucially, although some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians are seduced by the glamour of hoards of glittering gold accumulated not least through long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distance trade in high-value goods ? including glass, silk, spices, and perhaps most controversially, slaves ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Costambeys, Innes, and MacLean soberly and correctly point out that this was simply the icing on the cake: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surpluses were certainly exported, and high-value imports are definitely to be found, but the economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functioned on a pattern of local trade and local and regional demand that fuelled growth, without any sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orientation towards long-distance trade.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 224.648 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 224.648 272.115 m 238.640 272.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 238.640 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( I would have welcomed some more engagement with the issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relating to demographic growth \(controversial for this period\) and rising demand not just from above, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even from within the peasant sector, as well as more on the social status of agrarian cultivators, craftsmen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and women\), and petty traders \(the few paragraphs on freedom and unfreedom do not quite do justice to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicated topic\); but the discussion of economic issues is nevertheless well-balanced and sound \(and, my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caveats notwithstanding, more thorough and nuanced than that of their predecessors\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, the Carolingian world faded away because of a surfeit of Carolingians ? and also, paradoxically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of a lack of them. At any rate, this is the quite convincing picture presented in this book. The years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following the revolt of Louis the Pious?s sons were poisoned by the possibility of alternative bases of power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among multiple legitimate claimants to imperial title; while the discourse was couched in terms of fraternal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(love and cooperation, for an aristocrat of the time it would have been quite clear that, unlike in the time of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlemagne himself, no one ruler could necessarily be seen as most powerful. Of course, the dynamic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internecine strife had been a factor all through the Carolingian period and even before; Charlemagne, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, was fortunate \(as was Louis\) in that his other sons died early, and his brother had been able to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuaded ? without, it seems, very much violence ? to lead a religious life. From the 830s onwards, there )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 424.9517 598.0615 438.9437 609.9415 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 224.6477 272.4295 238.6397 284.3095 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7797 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were always many contenders for imperial title, leading to a splitting up of patronage networks in the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingdoms as the legitimate kings jockeyed for relative superiority over their brothers, nephews and uncles. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the first effort by a non-Carolingian to claim the throne for himself is found only at the end of the ninth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, after a series of deaths that left the empire, rather suddenly, with a lack of legitimate, mature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolingians who could claim the throne, leaving the way open for members of other noble families to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their place. Nevertheless, all the shifts in the power networks continued for some time to take place within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the frameworks cultivated with care by the Carolingian family over the past century and a half; the legacy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Carolingian world to the tenth century was not least a notion that it would be helpful, and perhaps even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential, for those wishing to rule a kingdom to be able to convince their peers of some link with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlemagne.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much to praise in this book. Perhaps one of its the most valuable qualities ? given the intended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience and its appearance in the ?Cambridge Medieval Textbooks? series ? is its clarity. Little is taken for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(granted; while it is perhaps a depressing commentary on the state of knowledge of modern undergraduates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the authors feel it necessary to explain what syncretism means, it will certainly be helpful to students to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find a number of terms clearly and briefly glossed, and the exposition as a whole is not just well-structured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also expressed in a manner that ought to be easily accessible to readers of all stripes ? without, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplifying what are often quite complex arguments about confusing processes and events. Thus the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolingian world is presented on its own terms as complicated, without a clear narrative of rise and fall or a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(telos)] TJ ET BT 56.684 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in sight, and often with multiple causal factors to be discerned behind events ? but this is done without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the obfuscation that sometimes creeps into specialised scholarship. The differences between modern and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early medieval social and mental structures are clearly outlined, and aspects of belief and culture that are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very alien to modern minds are explained and sympathetically presented; there is no attempt to make the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolingians just like us, but they are not needlessly exoticised either. To aid the reader unfamiliar with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geography of the period, there are nineteen maps; an admirable effort has been made to try and provide, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without raising costs prohibitively, some insight into the materiality of the period through seventeen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrations; and there are useful genealogical tables to help diminish readers? inevitable confusion in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welter of royal Pippins, Carlomans, and Louis?s that litter the narrative. Generous footnotes refer to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive bibliography that brings to monoglot readers the results of the very industrious continental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship of the past generation, and also provide numerous cross-references to relevant discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the book. The process of reading the arguments put forth is in all chapters enlivened by many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vivid narrative examples drawn from across the Carolingian empire ? and not just the usual stories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlemagne?s coronation or Louis?s penance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Obviously, a synthesis like this cannot cover everything, and apart from the issues regarding economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change and social status raised above, I would personally have liked a somewhat more nuanced discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literacy, and particularly the use of the vernacular; I was also surprised that women play such a minimal role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this book. Other scholars will doubtless find that aspects of their own specialisms have been neglected. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But these are minor cavils, and should not detract in any way from the value of this volume. It is dedicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Rosamond McKitterick and Jinty Nelson, the two historians who have, more than anyone else in English-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speaking academia, illuminated the Carolingian world for us; and, synthesising so effectively as it does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of their work \(and those of their students, among whom the three authors are to be counted\), it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fitting tribute to these giants and heartily to be recommended as a one-volume introduction for students and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a useful work of reference for seasoned scholars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 153.075 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosamond McKitterick, )] TJ ET BT 183.008 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians, 751?987)] TJ ET BT 462.020 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Longmans, 1983\); Pierre Rich, )] TJ ET BT 220.664 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Carolingians: A Family Who Forged Europe)] TJ ET BT 457.988 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Philadelphia: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993\), originally published in French in 1983.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 450.332 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 450.332 92.547 m 504.320 92.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 79.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Timothy Reuter, ?Plunder and Tribute in the Carolingian Empire? \(1985\); ?The End of Carolingian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Military Expansion? \(1990\); both now reprinted in his )] TJ ET BT 327.332 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Polities and Modern Mentalities)] TJ ET BT 530.648 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Janet L. Nelson \(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006\), pp. 321?50; 251?67.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.976 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.976 49.779 m 532.964 49.779 l S endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 450.3317 92.8615 504.3197 104.7415 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 478.9757 50.0935 532.9637 61.9735 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 1232 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For somewhat different emphases, see Michael McCormick, )] TJ ET BT 356.960 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Origins of the European Economy: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Communications and Commerce AD 300?900)] TJ ET BT 285.332 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.312 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.312 780.819 m 551.972 780.819 l S BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 766.563 m 90.344 766.563 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 751.231 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 733.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 733.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1122)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 732.057 m 328.316 732.057 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 707.080 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 692.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7762)] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 524.3117 781.1335 551.9717 793.0135 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 766.8775 90.3437 778.7575 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 732.3715 328.3157 744.2515 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1122) >> endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000531 00000 n 0000000620 00000 n 0000005123 00000 n 0000005232 00000 n 0000005342 00000 n 0000005451 00000 n 0000009012 00000 n 0000009140 00000 n 0000009224 00000 n 0000009253 00000 n 0000009379 00000 n 0000009415 00000 n 0000009480 00000 n 0000017152 00000 n 0000017243 00000 n 0000025224 00000 n 0000025254 00000 n 0000025382 00000 n 0000025418 00000 n 0000025448 00000 n 0000025576 00000 n 0000025612 00000 n 0000025703 00000 n 0000033553 00000 n 0000033680 00000 n 0000033735 00000 n 0000033861 00000 n 0000033916 00000 n 0000034014 00000 n 0000035299 00000 n 0000035427 00000 n 0000035482 00000 n 0000035608 00000 n 0000035663 00000 n 0000035791 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35887 %%EOF