%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 54 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417145307+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417145307+01'00') /Title (Radical Religion in Cromwell?s England: A Concise History from the English Civil War to the End of the Commonwealth) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4762 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Radical Religion in Cromwell?s England: A Concise History from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the English Civil War to the End of the Commonwealth)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the term ?radical? is an effective hook for his readers, its use in Andrew Bradstock?s )] TJ ET BT 476.240 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical Religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Cromwell?s England)] TJ ET BT 148.028 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is in some ways problematic. In the introduction the author sets out his awareness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this fact, and the pressing need to identify criteria by which ?radical? may be determined, but sidesteps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely defining the term himself. Instead he opts for ?the general framework used by previous studies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without seeking to debate its merits or weaknesses? \(p. xxiv\). This leads to a dilemma, because Bradstock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopts an undelineated definition of radical before arguing for a new way of understanding what motivated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his subjects. Thus we are left with the question as to whether Bradstock?s thesis applies only to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arbitrarily defined as radicals or whether his thesis actually prompts us to redress the narrow definition that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he accepted with little clarification. Perhaps this incoherence rests on Bradstock?s own personal attachment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the historiographical framework that he has adopted. His greatest debt, by his own admission, is to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of Christopher Hill. Yet Bradstock makes very few vital or critical references to the work of Hill. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why is this? The key rests in the author?s affinity with the work of Hill, whose seminal )] TJ ET BT 457.304 109.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World Turned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Upside Down )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.680 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.680 93.729 m 116.672 93.729 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 116.672 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers the implied backbone for )] TJ ET BT 273.968 95.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical Religion in Cromwell?s England)] TJ ET BT 471.980 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. His attraction to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hill should not be surprising as the two have much in common, especially their well-espoused Socialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backgrounds. This provides them with similar underpinnings to their historical methodology. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where the two differ in their interpretations of 17th-century radicalism is where they locate the root of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1125)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 September, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Bradstock)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781845117658)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. B. Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Scott Spurlock)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.6797 94.0435 116.6717 105.9235 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7821 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change and it is here that Bradstock?s book makes a significant contribution to the historiography of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradstock happily follows Hill?s approach of centring the aim of ?radicalism? in the 17th century on social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political change. However, whereas Hill framed this in a Marxist historiographical tradition that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified the primary role of the socially and economically exploited in instituting hard-fought reform and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the implementation of liberties based on the inherent principles that Marx and Hill would argue underpin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialism, Bradstock subtly but profoundly reorients the inspiration for change. Rather than a proto-Marxist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution, Bradstock identifies Christianity as the radicalizing agent of change. In this interpretation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scriptural references in contemporary sources were not merely rhetorical tools or radical reinterpretations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generated as a result of looking through a new ideological lens. Instead, Bradstock subtly argues throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book that it is in fact scripture itself that provided a radical lens for the subjects? reinterpreting of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world around them \(perhaps with the exception of the Ranters\). This is an important distinction made by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradstock. Although Hill?s )] TJ ET BT 168.680 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Bible and the 17th Century Revolution)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.344 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.344 612.003 m 431.336 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 431.336 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( explores the prominence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Biblical imagery in the thoughts of English people in an age of revolution, he stops short of identifying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that imagery as causal to the revolution. Although it might be argued that Bradstock misses an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to either reappraise and concretely redefine ?radical? as something other than an ambiguous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(umbrella term for marginalized voices calling for change, Bradstock?s book serves to restore the primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of religion to the political landscape of mid 17th-century England in a way that may stretch beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrowly defined radicals. While he maintains much of the paradigm presented by Hill and other Marxist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians he profoundly repositions the source of change for the subjects addressed in the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Structuring a study of this kind is no small challenge and Bradstock adopts a framework that begins with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of Baptist principles. This approach is significant as the formulation and growth of what might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be labelled radicalism ? in the approach Bradstock takes ? is inherently rooted in ecclesiological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructions. While the Baptists did not espouse a unified political front, their awareness of being a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gathered minority provided a seed bed for the development of a religiously motivated political and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissent. After a useful chapter discussing the development of Baptist traditions, Bradstock develops the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct ideological traditions that came to be identified as definable movements, while emphasizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout that these were often fluid and episodic in nature. It is, in essence, an argument reminiscent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Scott?s assertion that the period was typified not by standardized movements, but rather by series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of moments.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 94.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 94.016 357.651 m 108.008 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 108.008 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Moving from separated community, Bradstock addresses concepts of personal liberty, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the Putney Debates in 1647, have become inextricably linked in the popular mind with the Levellers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taking care not to overly normalize the likes of Robert Lilburne, Richard Overton, William Walwyn, John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wildman, the author manages to draw out the shared influence of biblical scripture in the formation of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas. Here Bradstock identifies the source of Leveller ideology to be theological. Lilburne, for instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined liberty in a rich linguistic tapestry woven from a combination of the Book of Genesis and the letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of St Paul. Similarly, Overton and Walwyn understood the rights of men to stem from God?s created order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the justification wrought by Christ?s sacrifice. Yet despite similar ideas, Bradstock refrains from calling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Levellers a unified movement. Nor were they, in his estimation, akin to a political party. Instead, perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more significantly, they were individuals motivated through distinct yet analogous theological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Bradstock rightly raises the question proposed by Brian Manning as to whether the Levellers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven by the pursuit of religious liberties for which political liberties were the means to that end or vice-a-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versa, it is probably a question that cannot be uniformly answered for all that carried the Leveller banner. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The crucial point is that for these individuals the two issues could not be neatly disentangled from one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another. Even the most radical Levellers tended to couch their arguments in theological terms. John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wildman, for instance, claimed that, although the Bible fails to offer an ideal model for the secular state, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelled his fellow Englishmen to accept that there is a social model and ?its the command of God that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every man should seek the good of his neighbour? \(p. 45\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the Leveller pursuit of liberty, Bradstock turns to the Diggers \(to whom this review will return\) and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ranters. Of all the movements studied in this book, the Ranters are to a certain extent the odd ones out. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 417.3437 612.3175 431.3357 624.1975 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 94.0157 357.9655 108.0077 369.8455 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7768 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Bradstock can identify that some individuals did advocate Ranter perspectives it remains unclear to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what extent they existed as a networked movement. Much more likely, they represented the bogeymen of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid 17th-century. Like witches, they were a constructed reality that represented the antithesis of what settled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian society espoused. Thus disentangling myth from fact is difficult. Those that did espouse the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal moral libertarianism of the Ranters, such as Lawrence Clarkson and Abiezer Coppe, did so based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on either a denial of the existence of sin or a claim to personal divinity. They represented an inversion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical and political orders and for that reason they had little chance of any widespread success and at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best prospered for two or three years beginning in 1649. They primarily represented a sacrilegious antithesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to orthodoxy and lacked a systematic ideology. Interestingly it is this group, with the least rooted religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity, that had the smallest impact on the political and social life of England. In his balanced approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ranters, Bradstock provides very good guidance for discerning facts from fiction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contrast to the Ranters? short lived and limited influence, the Quakers represent one of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant movements of early modern England, not to mention Scotland, Ireland and the colonies. Besides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their phenomenal growth from a small handful of gatherings in 1652 to an estimated 60,000 spread across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Atlantic world by 1660, the vibrancy of the Quaker movement wrought significant change and facilitated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a strong social influence. Conviction of the presence of the Inner Light transformed the Quaker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of scripture. The belief that the Word spoken of in John 1, that created the world and inspired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the biblical authors, was the same light the convinced Quaker recognized to be indwelling within themself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed for considerable reinterpretations of scripture and new authoritative revelations. Women and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children were allowed to preach, the need for a paid clergy was rejected ? and so too the paying of tithes ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and many traditional social norms and hierarchies were rejected. Yet such tumultuous changes brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasional heavy and widespread persecution that was not helped by the Quaker propensity to interrupt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church services, or re-enact Old Testament-style prophets? eccentricities such as going naked. However, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friends were prepared for such tribulations, partly because the movement faced persecution almost from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outset and partly because their doctrine of the Inner Light provided an immediacy of spiritual support and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficient flexibility to respond to changing circumstances. Such a great emphasis on the personal encounter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with God could have become highly individualistic as it had with the Ranters and thus equally as short lived. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For that reason, Bradstock follows H. Larry Ingle in asserting that perhaps George Fox?s greatest influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not in his development of the doctrine of the Inner Light, but rather the unity, discipline and structure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that allowed Friends to have a lasting, cohesive identity and influential voice, something many other sects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to achieve. Quaker unity was demonstrated in their ability to produce numerous petitions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplications to the state, organized at local, regional and national levels. Bradstock is unequivocal that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quakers are the greatest success story of the radical religious movements discussed in this study. To some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree this success must rest in their strong rooting not simply in historical texts, but in their belief that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spirit that inspired the Christian scriptures continued to inspire them directly and guide their actions in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world. This vitality and the continued existence of the Quakers 350 years later represent the strongest case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Brandstock?s thesis that religious belief is socially and politically transformative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final two chapters address the Fifth Monarchists and Muggletonians. The Fifth Monarchists represented, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Bernard Capp put it, a ?pressure group? rather than a denomination or sect. Their adherents spanned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious movements, although many came from Baptist or Independent communities. They were individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had succumbed to apocalyptic expectations and expected Christ?s eminent reign to come in the wake of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world?s four great monarchies \(Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek and Roman\) falling as prophesied in Daniel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2. This expectation did much to encourage the course of events pursued by parliamentarians and the army, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly up to the end of 1653, but also proved to be one of the most divisive factors in the failure of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interregnum experiment. Cromwell benefitted in his meteoric rise from obscurity to becoming the leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure in England by being lauded as a second Moses. However, when he took on the title of Lord Protector )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he fell foul of many who had participated in the Civil Wars on the grounds that there should be ?no King but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jesus?. The question debated among many with Fifth Monarchist leanings was how much human agency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was required for bringing about the reign of Christ. Some felt little action was necessary, others went as far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as advocating that to kill Cromwell was not murder, while still others attempted full scale rebellions; the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of which occurred under the leadership of Thomas Venner in 1661. Although some idealists continued to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7520 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(espouse an imminent return of Christ even after Venner?s failure, by the 1680s the solidification of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Restoration politics prior to the reign of James II made the possibility of establishing the Fifth Monarchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardly conceivable and the momentum for apocalyptic expectation waned. As a product of an age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncertainty and expectation, the Fifth Monarchists ultimately failed because they pursued a singular political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aim \(although not all agreed upon how this should be fulfilled\) based on a narrow eschatological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation that left little room for redefining themselves once the Stuart political establishment had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restored. Bradstock?s assessment provides a solid introduction to the complex ways in which Fifth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monarchists interpreted the signs of the times. It is particularly good in its discussion of the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Cromwell and the Barebones Parliament, as well as the changing perception of the Dutch among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apocalyptically minded Englishmen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly the most unusual movement dealt with in Bradstock?s study are the Muggletonians. Heralding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves as the Last Two Witnesses of Revelation 11, Lodowicke Muggleton and John Reeve claimed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be able to determine, and authoritatively declare, an individual's state of election. The two men also claimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the highest authority for interpreting the scriptures. The followers of Muggleton and Reeves were never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous and they did not seek to win proselytes. They remained a largely informal movement that met on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasion in taverns and ale-houses rather than for formal programmed services. With the death of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muggleton, the last of the Two Witnesses, in 1698 the movement may have been expected to disintegrate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but remarkably it quietly persisted. By the 19th century the Muggletonians were believed to have become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extinct. However, in 1974 an adherent was discovered as was the surviving Muggletonian library. The last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known Muggletonian died in 1979. This perseverance probably owed greatly to the limited nature of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political claims and expectations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradstock?s book provides a window into an important aspect of English history that, by his own admission, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has sometimes been given too much emphasis by later appropriations of these legacies. Yet despite this, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of the movements discussed in this book persists in being deeply relevant to the story of England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the continuing development of the nation. Part of Bradstock?s motivation for writing the book must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly resonate with his wider personal and research interests. He has been a highly productive author on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subjects of Liberation theology and social justice. Moreover, he is the former director of the Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Socialist Movement. Without grandstanding, )] TJ ET BT 252.680 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical Religion in Cromwell?s England)] TJ ET BT 450.692 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( highlights the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socially transformative influences of Christian groups in an era in which much historiography has identified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion as having been socially destructive, stifling or merely a tool for state building. Bradstock reminds us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the danger of homogenizing the outworkings of religious belief or, perhaps even more importantly in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age of increasing Western secularization, marginalizing religion as something that is merely subject to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(external influences and lacking transformative power. He reminds us that to try to understand the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th-century England without giving due credence to the arguments and sources used by the people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves leaves us little room but to project our own methods and ideas into the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where Bradstock falls short in his study is in his presentation of source material. He states a key motivation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the work was to make difficult to find texts easily available to the reader. While the passages he provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are useful, his lack of referencing is deeply problematic for the research student who would like to engage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the full texts. Often there is little indication of where Bradstock derives his material. When it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent for primary sources there is little indication of pagination. In this regard the book falls short and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found wanting. Yet despite this limitation, it is an important contribution to the historiography of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution. Bradstock?s emphasis on the scriptural foundations of not simply radical religious ideologies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but political as well, helps to redress decades of Marxist scholarship that both implicitly and explicitly has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minimized the deep rooted theological foundations of early modern grass roots movements. He also shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the middle-class nature of participation, a fact that undercuts some Marxist arguments. Moreover, Bradstock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates the significance of kingdom thinking in prophetic calls for change. While the apocalypticism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Daniel and Revelation is prevalent, particularly among Fifth Monarchists, and certainly set the tone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during an age of expectation, a wide range of other Old Testament and New Testament sources shaped the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worldviews of English dissenters. More importantly, Bradstock clearly demonstrates that the Diggers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes identified as the early modern exemplars of proto-Marxism, were inspired in their occupation of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 7971 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wasteland by the Genesis account of creation. Winstanley viewed the purpose of the created world to serve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as ?a common treasury for all?. Beyond this basic biblical claim for the common use of land, his perspective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also soteriological and Christological. He held that human sinfulness, epitomized in private land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ownership, brought a curse upon the earth evidenced by crop failures and social ills. The end of land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holding, he believed, would lift the curse and bring about the incarnation of Christ in the community of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faithful. Thus for the Diggers, or ?True Levellers? as they preferred to be known, religious language was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mere rhetoric. Instead it was the bedrock of their worldview and the foundation of their expectations for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental change in the social order and the restoration of the earth. In this regard )] TJ ET BT 443.252 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical Religion in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell?s England)] TJ ET BT 135.692 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not only a significant historiographical contribution, but a stark reminder of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socially and politically transformative power of religion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradstock has without doubt offered an important survey. However, the question must be raised as to why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the underlying premise that religious belief fundamentally inspired the action of those Bradstock has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted as ?radicals? was not extended to other groups who acted with equal or even greater political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence. For example, why does he not offer brief chapters on Independents and Congregationalists? Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterians would fit into this model, particularly when the events in England during the period discussed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were heavily influenced by Scottish Presbyterians? \(self-ascribed\) covenanted ambitions for importing their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favoured form of church government into England. Here the answer is likely that Bradstock depends on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hill?s classification of these groups as ?acceptable? and therefore un-radical \(p. xxv\) )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 444.896 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 444.896 540.723 m 458.888 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 458.888 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? despite attempts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to establish something akin to a theocracy in one form or another ? or to ignore them as being ?squierarchy? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that sought only to replace the bourgeois landed elites rather than radically overturn the social order. Yet in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the paradigm offered by Bradstock Presbyterians, Independents and Congregationalists, who shared as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong an ecclesiologically rooted identity as the Baptists and were equally radical in the aims they pursued, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are overlooked. This is interesting, because the ambitions of these groups could be argued to have been the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(root causes of the English Revolution and the inspiration for a decade of governmental trial and error. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely for these reasons that Bradstock?s study would have benefitted from providing a concrete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition of what he means by radical.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.171 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Hill, )] TJ ET BT 148.352 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World Turned Upside Down: Radical Ideas During the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1972\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 346.899 m 196.328 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Hill, )] TJ ET BT 148.352 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Bible and the Seventeenth-Century Revolution)] TJ ET BT 430.988 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.312 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.312 332.643 m 552.308 332.643 l S BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 318.387 m 78.008 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Scott, ?The English Republican Imagination? in John Morrill, ed., )] TJ ET BT 429.992 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolution and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Restoration: England in the 1650s)] TJ ET BT 229.352 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1992\), p. 10.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 340.676 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 340.676 289.875 m 394.664 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 277.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hill, \(1992\), pp. 196?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.008 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 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