%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826201617+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826201617+01'00') /Title (The Making of Indian Secularism: Empire, Law and Christianity) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4210 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Making of Indian Secularism: Empire, Law and Christianity)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since the 1980s, secularism in India has been a topic of heated contestation. Advocates for a Hindu nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deride what they call ?pseudo-secularism?, claiming that it privileges Muslim and Christian minorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the interests of India?s Hindu majority. Religious minorities, however, consistently appeal to India?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secular constitution to secure their rights. But how exactly is secularism defined in a region as religiously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse as India? Scholars often point to India?s distinctive interpretation of secularism. Instead of connoting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the removal of religion from public life or the ?strict wall of separation? of religion and state, Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secularism, they say, ensures the state?s equal support for or equidistance from all religions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This distinction, widely noted as it is, does little to explain the history that produced Indian secularism. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume seeks to provide such a history. Nandini Chatterjee brings a new set of players into the story, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(namely, Christians. She contends that Christians in India, as small in number as they are, ?played a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disproportionately significant role in shaping Indian secularism, under the specific conditions created by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British imperial rule ?? \(p. 2\). Focusing chiefly on the role of Protestant missionaries and their converts, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book crosses a vast terrain in which Christians made their mark on the meaning of Indian secularism. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes the realms of education, personal laws, endowments and politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These venues clearly generated debates about the state?s role in religious matters. In some instances, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christians advocated state withdrawal from religious affairs \(for instance, from the state?s management of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1128)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 September, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nandini Chatterjee)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230220058)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chandra Mallampalli)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7420 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hindu charitable endowments, pp. 59?61\), while in others they advocated greater involvement \(as with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious education\). But were such episodes an essential aspect of an ?Indian history of secularism? \(p. 5\)? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following important trends in Indian historiography, Chatterjee attempts to trace local routes to secularism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without imbibing into the idea that secularism is derived from Europe?s history. But this is a tall order, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering the book?s heavy focus on Protestant Christianity. In the author?s view, what exactly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutes a )] TJ ET BT 96.680 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(local )] TJ ET BT 123.680 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of secularism in India, and how does she build the case that Protestantism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profoundly shaped it?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is, of course, a history of secularism in India that predates British rule. Patterns of state building that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved eclectic, cross-confessional alliances were a central aspect of Indo-Islamic state building and bear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements of the secularism championed by the modern Indian state. Chatterjee touches on Mughal practices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in her treatment of Christian personal laws \(pp. 85?8\). The book?s opening discussion of secularism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, could have done a better job of referencing pre-colonial practices that may also be termed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?secular?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An important contribution of the book concerns policies surrounding mission colleges in India, in particular, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the prestigious St. Stephen?s College in New Delhi. In recent years, St. Stephen?s has been in the news )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of attempts by its current principal, Valson Thampu, to re-assert the college?s Christian roots. As a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minority Educational Institution \(MEI\), St. Stephen?s can claim a degree of regulatory authority over its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own affairs and its admission policies; but as an institution that receives state funds, it cannot impart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious instruction to its students and is entitled to reserve up to half of its admissions for Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatterjee first describes the origins of the college in the Anglican Cambridge Brotherhood and how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(college later emerged as ?the leading public school of India? \(p. 113\), albeit, one having little to do with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian instruction and having relatively few Christian students. Her book locates the story of St. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen?s within a longer history of educational controversy in British India tracing back to the early 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. At issue were the relationship between mission colleges and the colonial state, and whether these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleges should be able to impart religious instruction to non-Christian students seeking a secular education. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter of the book describes these controversies in some detail. It pays special attention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educational entrepreneurs, their religious agendas, and how, under the sway of utilitarianism, the colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state employed their services to promote the public good.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The trajectory of St. Stephen?s from its original Christian vision to a college with elite status, but having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little to do with Christianity is not unique to India. George Marsden has explored a similar path taken by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America?s Ivy League schools in )] TJ ET BT 196.976 306.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Soul of the American University)] TJ ET BT 371.960 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 374.960 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 374.960 305.139 m 388.952 305.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 388.952 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book describes a steady )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline of religious influence among universities that once called themselves ?Christian?. Chatterjee does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bring a comparative dimension to her study, but it is focused, understandably, on concurrent educational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies of Britain and India.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on St. Stephen?s College \(chapter four\) and the scaffolding provided by her earlier treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educational controversies \(chapter one\) could have provided a tangible and innovative launching point for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration of Christians and secularism in India. In fact, had the author merely offered an institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of St. Stephen?s, she would have made a most timely and original contribution to the field. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author, however, was far more ambitious than this. Her book covers a wide range of topics, some of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been treated extensively in previous work. Instead of bringing her main argument into sharper focus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the breadth of the study has had the effect of diluting its core ideas and diminishing the book?s coherence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is no easy task for an historian to present a new argument based on sources as heavily consulted as those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from which Chatterjee draws. To avoid redundancy, an author must draw new insights from already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consulted material or make fresh claims about old topics. She may judiciously distinguish her work from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous contributions with reasoned arguments. Another path, though, is to dismiss the work of others with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a sentence or two or simply relegate them to endnotes without engaging them in any depth. Regrettably, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatterjee?s book tilts toward the latter. Chatterjee, for instance, states ?it is )] TJ ET BT 405.296 54.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(my argument)] TJ ET BT 468.284 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in [italics added] )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 374.9597 305.4535 388.9517 317.3335 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7500 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that to understand British response to Indian religions, it is important to remain aware of the evolving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between the Church of England with the British nation-state, a process, we might say, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created ?Anglicans? as a religious community comparable to Methodists, Baptists, Catholics and so on? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16\). She adopts this comparative lens for her discussion of both education and personal law.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was Gauri Viswanathan, however, who had long before Chatterjee stressed the importance of reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Indian and British histories together, especially when discussing religious minorities and secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationhood. Employing Edward Said?s notion of a ?cross-current? and adopting his suggestion that we read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories ?contrapuntally?, Viswanathan explored laws in England that endowed religious minorities with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizenship and educational policies in India that helped incorporate Indian subjects into the imperial regime. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both, according to Viswanathan, belonged to the single, colonizing project of secular nationhood.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 503.288 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 503.288 654.771 m 517.280 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 517.280 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In light )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the striking parity to her own aims, one might expect Chatterjee to have engaged with Viswanathan more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensively, but instead she dismisses Viswanathan?s work in a sentence \(p. 76\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her discussion of personal laws, Chatterjee highlights the tension between a universal law \(anchored in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs about natural law\) and religious laws. She ties the story of Christians in India to a quest for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal, which ultimately retreated into claims of a particular community. ?The historical role of the Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christians?, she writes, ?was not just to expose the hollowness of the unsubstantiated universal but also to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incite a quest for making it more substantive? \(p. 94\). The novelty of Chatterjee?s contributions to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion lies in her careful treatment of 18th- century developments and the transition from Mughal to East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India Company legal frameworks. Her chapter begins by discussing how European belief in a universal law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grew increasingly unstable as commercial empires confronted peoples of other races and creeds in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies. Should colonial regimes allow ?natives? to observe their own customs and laws? If so, how would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information be gathered to discern the content of those laws? Race and religion interacted in ways that vexed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial officials, especially when members of a race did not adhere to their presumed religion or law.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The question of which law to apply to ?native Christians? was particularly troublesome. Because of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radically diverse practices and because their doctrine taught no personal law, formulating laws of marriage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or inheritance was no simple task. Whereas colonial officials had been envisioning laws for marriage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divorce and inheritance for decades, they did not consolidate Christian personal laws until after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rebellion of 1857 and the establishment of the High Courts in 1862 \(whereby Company and Crown courts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were integrated\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In my own work, I have explained the establishment of a Christian body of personal laws in terms of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial state?s quest for legal uniformity and stability. An official knowledge about conversion and about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an Indian Christian community sought to address the legal ambiguity of India?s Christian population \(unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hindus and Muslims, they had no personal law\). This official knowledge was tied not only to laws of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage, inheritance, etc., but also to understandings derived from case law.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 402.932 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 402.932 276.627 m 416.924 276.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 416.924 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ultimately, Christian laws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of marriage, divorce and inheritance came to be modeled after English law on account of the belief that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity was a European religion. I did not conclude, as Chatterjee claims, that the creation of Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal laws was ?arbitrary? \(76\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian Christians in the Madras Presidency often objected to the heavy-handed enforcement of laws of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inheritance \(1865\) and marriage \(1872\). The ?fiction? invented by the British was that of a monolithic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian community in India that was intrinsically tied to European civilization. While colonial courts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applied Hindu laws more flexibly because of the plurality of castes, they applied Christian laws more rigidly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with rare concessions to local custom. The British allowed certain Muslim communities \(e.g., Khojas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Memons, and Bohras\) to continue to practice the Hindu law of inheritance, often to the detriment of women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in those communities. Contrary to what Chatterjee suggests \(p. 76\), they could have made similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concessions to certain groups of Christians who continued to observe local inheritance practices.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatterjee indicates that from the 18th century, Christians of colonial India claimed distinct inheritance laws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as their religious right. It is somewhat odd that this observation would become an occasion for Chatterjee to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguish her work from mine \(p. 77\). My work begins in 1863 as stated on the front cover. What can be )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 503.2877 655.0855 517.2797 666.9655 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 402.9317 276.9415 416.9237 288.8215 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7329 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gathered from both studies is that there were some Christians who wanted personal laws of their own and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others who did not like the ones that were eventually applied to them. What we both seem to agree on is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most Christians were in legal limbo until the latter part of the 19th century \(p. 94\). Whereas Chatterjee, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interest of a local history, may wish to portray these laws as a response to demands from below, I stress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the top-down aspect of marriage and inheritance laws and objections to their enforcement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the last section of her book, Chatterjee develops the concept of Christian citizenship. This section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses theological and political ideas that framed Christian relations to the colonial state and to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist movement. It features the roles of leaders such as K. T. Paul, S. K. Datta, A.T . Pannirselvam, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a cluster of theologians who comprised what was known as the ?Rethinking Group?. Chatterjee should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be credited for taking theological ideas seriously in explaining the political posture of Christians. Had this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been a study of Indian Muslims, it would be fitting to explore how Muslims were interpreting )] TJ ET BT 486.320 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(millat)] TJ ET BT 514.328 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community\), )] TJ ET BT 98.684 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(quam)] TJ ET BT 125.348 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(nation\), and )] TJ ET BT 192.668 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mazhab)] TJ ET BT 230.000 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(faith\) in the context of Indian nationalism. It only makes sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Christian notions of the church, political authority, and salvation would be explored in chapters seven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and eight.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This material draws heavily from reports of the Indian Statutory Commission, the All India Conference of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian Christians \(AICC\), the Indian Roundtable Conferences \(1930?2\), and Christian newspapers. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprise a heavily picked over archive resulting in no small number of theses stacked on the shelves of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union Theological College in Bangalore and articles published in the )] TJ ET BT 369.980 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Indian Church History Review)] TJ ET BT 516.968 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatterjee has done well to redirect this material to secular audiences \(that word again\). Still, the material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been amply discussed elsewhere and dilutes the book?s core themes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In sum, )] TJ ET BT 73.016 475.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of Indian Secularism )] TJ ET BT 236.672 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes some important contributions to the study of secularism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that of embattled mission schools such as St. Stephen?s. The book needed a better job of editing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correct typos and the occasional awkward or paragraph length sentence \(pp. 8, 14, 218\). The book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moreover, moves back and forth between the theme of Indian secularism and multiple venues of Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement and reflection, some seeming more relevant than others to the book?s main premise. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship of fulfillment theology, for instance, to the shaping of Indian secularism is less than evident. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatterjee does well to point out that Christians did plead for a universal principle of governance under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they could thrive as a community. The connections to secularism in each chapter, however, needed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be drawn out more clearly and explicitly. The author, after all, claims that Christians )] TJ ET BT 442.952 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(shaped )] TJ ET BT 479.948 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secularism, and did not merely appeal to or reflect it. Greater focus on a single venue of Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention, such as the mission college, would have served readers better than the comprehensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaking of this book. Still, enough flashes of insight emerge from the chapters to enrich ongoing debates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.635 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 253.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Marsden, )] TJ ET BT 150.320 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Soul of the American University: From Protestant Establishment to Established )] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nonbelief )] TJ ET BT 116.684 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 231.320 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 231.320 237.363 m 285.308 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 224.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gauri Viswanathan, )] TJ ET BT 162.992 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Outside the Fold: Conversion, Modernity and Belief )] TJ ET BT 416.972 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.292 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.292 223.107 m 550.952 223.107 l S BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 208.851 m 90.344 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 195.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chandra Mallampalli, )] TJ ET BT 172.340 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Christians and Public Life in Colonial India: Contending with Marginality )] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 180.339 m 196.328 180.339 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 165.007 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 147.227 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 147.227 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1128)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 145.833 m 328.316 145.833 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 120.856 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.456 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7768)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 231.3197 237.6775 285.3077 249.5575 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 523.2917 223.4215 550.9517 235.3015 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 209.1655 90.3437 221.0455 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 180.6535 196.3277 192.5335 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 146.1475 328.3157 158.0275 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1128) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000564 00000 n 0000000646 00000 n 0000004908 00000 n 0000005017 00000 n 0000005127 00000 n 0000005236 00000 n 0000008797 00000 n 0000008925 00000 n 0000009009 00000 n 0000009093 00000 n 0000016566 00000 n 0000016596 00000 n 0000016724 00000 n 0000016760 00000 n 0000016851 00000 n 0000024404 00000 n 0000024434 00000 n 0000024562 00000 n 0000024598 00000 n 0000024628 00000 n 0000024756 00000 n 0000024792 00000 n 0000024904 00000 n 0000032286 00000 n 0000032414 00000 n 0000032469 00000 n 0000032597 00000 n 0000032652 00000 n 0000032778 00000 n 0000032833 00000 n 0000032961 00000 n 0000033016 00000 n 0000033144 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33240 %%EOF