%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150522015548+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150522015548+01'00') /Title (The History of Parliament: The House of Commons 1604-1629) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4150 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The History of Parliament: The House of Commons 1604-1629)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The story of the Parliaments summoned by King James VI and I and by King Charles I between 1604 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1629 has been of abiding interest to academic historians. Scholars of the highest calibre from the time of S. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Gardiner to the present have been attracted to the subject. Some were English but the great majority have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been American to whom an incalculable debt is owed for their labours over the last century. Now, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication of the History of Parliament?s six volumes on )] TJ ET BT 314.336 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The House of Commons 1604?1629)] TJ ET BT 486.332 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, edited by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Thrush, the transatlantic balance has been redressed. Their publication has been eagerly awaited and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they will rightly find their place as reference works on the shelves of every university library in Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further afield in English-speaking countries. No early modern historian will be able to work in the decades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately ahead without a copy at hand.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This study?s focus is firmly fixed upon the House of Commons as an institution. The first volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrates upon the nature, functions and remit of the lower House, on the expansion of its membership, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conduct of elections and the composition of the Commons: it then goes on to analyse its times of sitting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and topography, meetings and conferences with the King and the House of Lords, the management \(or lack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of it\) by the Crown of the House, and contemporaries? ideas about accountability and representation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volume two contains a comprehensive account of the borough and county constituencies of England and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1129)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 September, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Thrush)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John P. Ferris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781107002258)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(460.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6496pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Thompson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7200 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales returning members in these years while the remaining four volumes cover the lives and careers of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1,782 men \(including quasi members\) chosen for these places with most attention being given to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities in the House. Together, they constitute the most complete examination of a cross-section of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landed, legal and mercantile governing elites to be published for several decades.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The foundations are laid in the biographical volumes. Accounts are offered of the family origins of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members, of their dates of birth or baptism, their marriages and offspring. Their careers before and after they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served in the House, the offices they held, how and why they gained their seats, their committee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appointments and the speeches they made are covered too. This exercise also encompassed their economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fortunes and the inheritances they left.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is impossible to do justice here to the mass of personal information assembled for this purpose. Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographies are almost monographs in their own right. That on Sir Edward Coke is a good example. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique combination of arrogance and legal learning, courage and mendacity is well captured. So, too, is his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career?s Indian summer in the 1620s when he emerged as the champion of the lower House on issues like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monopolies and patents, the revival of impeachment and protection of the subject?s liberties. Sir Edwin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sandys?s passage from being a Cecil client to an opponent of the Union with Scotland, a critic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impositions, purveyance and wardship, an expert on trade and the depression of the 1620s and, eventually, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a discredited cat?s-paw of the Duke of Buckingham is elegantly traced. Other biographies, like that on Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis Russell, later 4th Earl of Bedford, are disappointingly brief. A surprising number of men like Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and William Borlase, Peter Specott, and Richard Synge ? the silent minority, perhaps ? are not recorded as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having spoken at all or as having served on few or no committees. And a handful like Thomas Gibbs, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sat for Stafford in 1614, have not been conclusively identified at all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The biographies are not, however, perfect. The judgements on the careers of John and Nicholas Ferrar, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, and of their involvement in the Virginia Company?s affairs would have been more severe if their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archive at Magdalene College, Cambridge had been fully explored. They had much to repent at Little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gidding. Their most trenchant critic, Sir Nathaniel Rich, was, as his account book shows, not just man-of-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs to the 2nd Earl of Warwick, but also to the latter?s younger brother, Henry, 1st Earl of Holland. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raises important questions about how well-informed he was about royal and conciliar intentions during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliaments in which he sat. John Pym?s correspondence with Degory Wheare does not seem to have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully exploited. It would be possible to raise questions and quibbles of this kind in many places. But some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims are impossible to accept. Sir Peregrine Bertie, who was born in c.1584, can hardly have been 15 when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he allegedly sat in 1624: he actually represented Lincolnshire in 1614 and has been confused with Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montagu Bertie. There was certainly no elderly Francis Pierse sitting in 1614 but rather an equally old John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pierse. Like all works of history, the biographies have to be checked carefully.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exactly who was eligible to sit as a Member of the Commons was clear in principle. Catholics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergymen, convicted felons, foreigners, mayors and sheriffs returning themselves and minors were legally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excluded, as were women by strict convention. Some legal figures like the Judges of the Exchequer and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Attorney General after 1614 were barred too. But some recusants did sit despite the requirement that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take the oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance as did a handful of men in holy orders and a few minors. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Outlaws and non-residents routinely avoided exclusion as did most mayors. Resignation from the House was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost impossible but a small number of members were expelled for offences considered too reprehensible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be tolerated. The anti-Scottish sentiments of the first two Jacobean Parliaments faded by the 1620s when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scots who had been naturalised and holders of Scottish titles were admitted. Once, moreover, the House won )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control over returns after the Goodwin versus Fortescue dispute in 1604, it was able to restore representation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to boroughs that had lost their members over time despite royal reluctance and misgivings over the physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capacity available to accommodate them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Men?s motives for seeking membership inevitably varied. Some like Sir Maurice Berkeley in 1614 or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wynns of Gwydir in Caernarvonshire did so for reasons of local prestige. There were other reasons too ? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounter old friends in London , to stay there with \(or without\) one?s wife, and to please one?s father by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educating oneself in the nation?s assembly. But there were drawbacks as well: service in the Commons was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7414 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time-consuming as its hours of sitting lengthened and expensive as the number of boroughs willing to pay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wages to their representatives fell; and there was the recurrent danger of plague in 1604 and 1625. Careers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be advanced as Henry Yelverton belatedly found after 1610 or retarded as another lawyer, William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hakewill, discovered. There were always those like Sir John Scudamore in 1626 who could not serve even if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they wanted to and others like Sir William Spencer in the same year who did not wish to do so. Even so, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of electoral contests on the day rose from an estimated seven in 1604 to about 35 in 1628.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Getting elected was partly a matter of law, of writs issued from the Court of Chancery reaching the sheriffs? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hands and of precepts from the latter being sent to the mayors or bailiffs of the relevant boroughs: it also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required the conduct of the poll in accordance with the qualifications of forty shilling freeholders in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counties and of those entitled to vote in the boroughs as well as the return of the indentures to the clerk of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Crown in Chancery after duly conducted elections. Given the interplay between county governors and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between corporations? rulers, the interests of patrons and aspiring candidates and the role of the Commons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself in determining disputed elections after 1604, there is a mass of new evidence presented here to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminate how such elections were held in practice. Delays in delivering writs occurred occasionally and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illegal use of blank indentures of return ? for example, at Bossiney in 1609 ? was widespread. Sheriffs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes failed to tell county courts in advance that writs had arrived and changed customary venues for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partisan advantage as happened in Norfolk in 1614. Urban corporations tried with increasing difficulty to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restrict voting rights and to exclude freemen in some cases. Canvassing was common in contested county )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elections and the use of agents to solicit support was commonplace. Early Stuart candidates and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporters even used smear tactics ? accusations of recusancy were an effective ploy. Where a seat was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controlled by a patron, he \(or she\) would need to be consulted by a candidate: most patrons gave their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support on the basis of family or professional ties or friendship or shared political and religious convictions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although some acted in expectation of reciprocal help elsewhere. By 1614, emphasis on ?country? values )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and hostility to the court was becoming more common: by 1628, a record of resistance to the forced loans of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the preceding two years was a positive advantage. With growing county electorates and borough franchises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often widening as a result of the House?s decisions, these manoeuvres brought rewards. Whatever the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failings of the electoral process and the inadequate record of the Privileges Committee in reaching decisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over disputed elections, voter participation apparently grew. The study of the electoral process and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronage has been placed on new foundations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subsequent analysis of the composition of the House, a previously neglected topic, is equally rewarding. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The proportions of veteran members and of novices varied from Parliament to Parliament but the percentage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of newcomers, which was highest in 1614, probably had no bearing on the Crown?s capacity to manage the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commons. A significant number of members did, however, lack discernible offices when elected. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other hand, they were generally well educated with almost half having attended Oxford or Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universities and over half one of the Inns of Court. But the number of lawyer-members fell between 1604 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1628 and Lincoln?s Inn?s numerical lead dwindled. The largest group of office-holders came from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King?s household although there were times when other official interests ? for example, the officers of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Court of Wards in 1614 ? were well represented, presumably to defend their occupational positions if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary. There is also helpful material on the fall in the number of merchants sitting until 1628 and on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contraction in the number of Catholics being returned by that date. Some members were undoubtedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealthy landowners or merchants while others were of humble origins and relatively poor or deeply indebted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Sir John Sammes. Client groups are, however, difficult to detect as the cases of the two Howards, the 1st )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Earls of Nottingham and Suffolk, suggest: the 3rd Earl of Pembroke lacked a sufficient number of members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his network to bring down the Duke of Buckingham, who was an even larger dispenser of electoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronage, in 1626.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(St Stephen?s Chapel in the Palace of Westminster was, however, too small to accommodate the Commons? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full membership or half of it in comfort. On the topography of the House, on the stairs leading up to it, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lobby and the committee chamber, all susceptible to overcrowding, new illumination is provided. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burdens borne by successive Speakers and their servants, the Clerk of the Commons and the Serjeant-at-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arms, are explored in some detail. One of the best chapters in the survey volume covers the rules that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7263 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governed speechmaking and the processes of debate. Sometimes, of course, these conventions were broken. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Examples of heckling and hissing did occur and finger-pointing was not unknown. Members who went too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far in criticising the King or defaming the Commons were likely to be punished. Those who spoke briefly or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly or wittily could expect to be praised. Here one gets the best sense of the House as a debating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution with collective attitudes, better even than in the individual biographies where it is difficult to tell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what the order of speeches was or how they influenced the course of debates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The working arrangements of the Commons changed significantly in this period. Members in 1604 began )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their days at 8 a.m. with the reading of bills, rose at 11 a.m. for their dinners and then met in committees in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the afternoons. Holidays and adjournments were usually free from business. By the 1620s, an increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workload of prospective legislation and petitions meant that some committees met at 7 a.m., the House itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normally at 7.30 a.m., with members sitting in the afternoons as well. Committees of the whole House in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the chair was taken by someone other than the Speaker became a permanent feature of business from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1610. Smaller committees had to meet when and where they could in the law courts in and off Westminster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hall or in the Inns of Court. For willing members it could be a time-consuming process lasting weeks or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months on end. Some predictably found heavier duties less attractive. The demands of local office as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Justices of the Peace were liable to draw a proportion of members away from Westminster. Professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lawyers were bound to be tempted to work in the law courts of Westminster Hall and to the summer and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(winter assizes in the provinces whatever the House or, on occasion, the King demanded. Members do, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, appear to have been more conscientious in attendance by the 1620s: the House itself was more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insistent that they were and the exigencies of the financial, political and religious crises facing the country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforced that imperative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quarrels with the Crown and the development of standing committees led to a sharp decline in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commons? role as a legislating body. No bills were passed in 1614 and only one, the Subsidy Bill, in 1621. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most bills were private ones sponsored by individuals or companies or corporations. How such bills were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commended to the Speaker or the House, the stages of their progress and voting procedures in committees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are carefully explained. Admittedly, there was nothing to stop Commons? committees from drafting bills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves but the House?s capacity to process them was limited as experience in 1621 and 1624 showed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There were distractions too as impeachment cases became more important in the 1620s. Those with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grievances turned increasingly to presenting petitions to the House - two in 1604, 65 in 1628 ? and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commons itself made greater use of petitions to the King to ensure that their explicit concerns were directly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed to James and Charles. This was simpler than trying to pass remedial legislation through the House )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Lords and onwards for royal assent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The two Houses and successive kings did, nonetheless, have matters to discuss with one another through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanisms of audiences and conferences. James had considerable confidence in his own powers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasion but his efforts were often unavailing as his attempts to intervene in the Goodwin versus Fortescue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case and over discussions with convocation, both in 1604, showed. Private meetings with members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitably aroused fears of impropriety in the latter?s conduct. Conferences with the Lords were more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequent but were often constrained by the Commons? unwillingness to allow their representatives to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than listen as the 1st Earl of Salisbury found in negotiations over the Great Contract. The degree to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which what was to be said on behalf of the lower House was planned varied but members who exceeded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their remit were open to censure after reporting back. Longer meetings, the problems of overcrowding and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing do not seem to have deterred members even though peers sometimes criticised individual members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the lower House. Whether they were really successful from the point of view of the Lords and Commons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is another matter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naturally enough, the relationship between successive Kings and their lower Houses features prominently in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this work. A very traditional portrait is offered of King James as a ruler who believed that monarchs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preceded Parliaments, made laws and could do without them if necessary. He was evidently poorly equipped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by temperament and training to deal with the House of Commons and often willing to lecture MPs at length )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on his rights and their obligations to him. James expected compliance with his wishes, especially on projects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as dear to him as Union with Scotland and supply, and was offended by legalistic quibbling and oratorical )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7335 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populism. After 1614, moreover, he was anxious to be rid of Parliaments and to sustain his authority by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other means. There is nothing surprising in this analysis. Charles I?s attitudes towards his Parliaments are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed more summarily. His brevity won contemporaries? initial praise but his disenchantment with these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assemblies became increasingly apparent after 1625. The domestic policies he followed in Church and State )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulated criticisms openly expressed in the Parliaments of 1626 and 1628?9. After 1629, fears that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliaments were threatened with extinction seemed all too real. None of this would have been surprising or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unacceptable to 19th-century Whigs like Hallam or Macaulay.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The account of the early Stuarts? legislative aims is equally familiar. James had little business of his own to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promote save in 1604, 1610 and 1614. A light touch and weak conciliar management would, so he hoped, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promote the Union in 1604. He was wrong. Even with greater support garnered by the Earl of Salisbury?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral efforts in the House of Commons in 1610, negotiations over the Great Contract failed. The offer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bills of Grace in 1614 was submerged by quarrels over undertaking and impositions. Preparations for 1621 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were laid aside before Parliament even met. By the 1620s, the concept of a Crown Bill had lost all meaning.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The actual management of the House of Commons is analysed in some detail. It was the largest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative assembly in Europe. James, however, proved incapable like his son of securing its co-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operation. Jacobean Privy Councillors proved unable, sometimes unwilling as the debates on the Union with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland suggested, to control their allies and clients, friends and kinsmen from the House of Lords and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Council chamber. They were inadequately represented in the Commons in 1604 and 1614 and, despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence of a larger number in 1621, ill-prepared to manage the House. There had been men of business like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sir Robert Wroth in 1604 ready to work on the Council?s behalf but their roles came to be taken with partial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success by unofficial intermediaries like Sir Edward Coke and Sir Edwin Sandys in 1624: their successors in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1625 were undone by the Duke of Buckingham?s incompetence. In 1626 and again in 1628, defenders of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King?s interest were few and far between in the Commons and far more likely to be found in the House of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lords. Those Parliaments had been called to secure supply for wars against France and Spain. The first had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given nothing when it was dissolved and Charles then resorted to forced loans, martial law, billeting and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisonment of loan resisters. His actions were defended by Arminian clergymen whose arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exacerbated existing fears that the subject?s liberties and Protestantism itself were about to be subverted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tyrannical rule and Catholicism. By the spring of 1629 when the King dissolved the last Parliament of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade, his regime was viewed with deep hostility in the Commons and further afield: its political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious character, its personnel and policies had become unacceptable to a large part of the ?political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is little enough here about fiscal ignorance, institutional impotence and obstructive localism. That part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the agenda of the 1970s has silently disappeared. But its influence can be detected elsewhere in erroneous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims about acceptance by the Commons of restrictions on free speech in 1621, on a self-denying ordinance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over impositions then and later, and on reluctance to contemplate supply for war in November, 1621. In fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the House of Commons was closer to agreement on the need for war and more willing to contemplate supply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after Christmas than ever again. There are helpful explanations of the reasons for the dissolution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successive Parliaments except in the case of that in 1626 when no hypothesis is ventured at all. It is very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult, moreover, given the format of these volumes to identify the existence of regional groupings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members although they must have existed: the post-1604 hostility of members from Devon to the chartered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(companies of London and the activities of the ?Northern men? in the foreign policy debates of March 1624 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may only be the tip of the iceberg. Just a hint or two can be found that nominations to Commons? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committees have been analysed, presumably using computer technology, but the results, if any, do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear here. It would be useful to know if such an analysis has been made and what it may have revealed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There has certainly been some academic work on this subject dating back to the 1920s and more recently in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canada.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the areas of greatest interest for the future must be over the working relationship between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commons and the House of Lords. Together with the King and his Court, they formed what constituted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single political arena in which a range of forces operated. There is plenty of revealing evidence in the survey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of constituencies about the waxing and waning of the electoral influence of the peerage. In one place, doubts )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 4402 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are expressed about how far men who owed their seats to a patron like the 3rd Earl of Pembroke could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded as a coherent group: later, Pembroke is more clearly associated with the attack on Buckingham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning in March 1626. Describing men as clients of peers risks using the word in more than one sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether as individuals who owed their returns to such a patron or as a spokesman for a peer \(like Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benjamin Rudyerd, perhaps\) or as a follower tied to a peer in the 18th century sense. These distinctions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have been explored at greater length just as more might have been said about the connections between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the passage of business in the two Houses. The Petition of Right would not have been approved by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(House of Lords in 1628 without careful co-ordination between members of the Commons and figures like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Viscount Saye and Sele in the upper House. There is discussion about audiences and conferences between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two Houses and the unofficial meetings the 3rd Earl of Southampton held with members of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commons in the spring and summer of 1621. But this is not enough to determine whether there were bi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cameral groupings in the early Stuart period and, if so, how they operated. Current work suggests that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may prove a productive approach. It is one of those areas that further research by the current team working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the House of Lords from 1604 to 1629 and beyond may be able to illuminate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The publication of )] TJ ET BT 125.672 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The House of Commons 1604?1629 )] TJ ET BT 300.668 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has revealed far more than was previously known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the careers of its members and the overall composition of the House, about its procedures and relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the King and the House of Lords. A flood of light has been thrown on early Stuart Parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elections in the counties and boroughs and on the attitudes of the electorate. This is all to the good. So, too, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the stimulus it will give to further enquiries arising from the issues it has raised. If there is a general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism to be made, it concerns the administrative and financial pressures one suspects the authors were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under to complete this project prematurely. There are too many minor errors for them to be entirely happy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the finished product. They were, moreover, constrained from advancing too far-reaching a set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations for the history of the House of Commons in this period. Others must take up the challenge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploiting their work. These six volumes represent a considerable step forward in scholarship. They have put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to rest some old hypotheses and opened the way for new work. For that achievement early modern historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be grateful indeed.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 411.343 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 393.563 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 393.563 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1129)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 392.169 m 328.316 392.169 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 367.192 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 352.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7769)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 392.4835 328.3157 404.3635 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1129) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000574 00000 n 0000000656 00000 n 0000004858 00000 n 0000004967 00000 n 0000005077 00000 n 0000005186 00000 n 0000008747 00000 n 0000008875 00000 n 0000008959 00000 n 0000009024 00000 n 0000016277 00000 n 0000016342 00000 n 0000023809 00000 n 0000023874 00000 n 0000031190 00000 n 0000031255 00000 n 0000038643 00000 n 0000038727 00000 n 0000043182 00000 n 0000043310 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 43406 %%EOF