%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 36 0 R 41 0 R 63 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417141811+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417141811+01'00') /Title (The Philosophy, Politics and Religion of British Democracy: Maurice Cowling and Conservatism) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3890 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Philosophy, Politics and Religion of British Democracy: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Maurice Cowling and Conservatism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poker was Maurice Cowling?s game. Late-night gambling amidst the smoke and whisky fumes probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appealed to him as one of the many means by which he rebelled against the respectability of the South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London petit bourgeoisie in which he had been raised; Peter Ghosh once referred to the ?Chandleresque? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(style that he affected. Poker was also a good game for Cowling because he was famously hard to read. If he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been a left-wing sociologist, this would have been no surprise, but Cowling was a right-wing historian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and spent much of his life amongst journalists who valued literary abilities above almost any other quality. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers were left with the disconcerting impression that there was something willful about his opacity; that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was a card-player?s bluff. Matters were made more awkward because, alongside his long impenetrable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books, sometimes in the introductions and sometimes in the spats that followed publication, Cowling issued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quotable, if inscrutable, statements that seemed to hint at the possibility of understanding his general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical approach. It was hard to know whether these remarks were to be taken seriously or whether they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were feints designed to throw his opponents off balance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Earnest undergraduates, who thought that the great man might clear things up if they could only see him in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1130)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 September, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Crowcroft)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. J. D. Green)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Whiting)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781845119768)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(59.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. B. Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Vinen)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8477 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the flesh, found themselves sitting among a tiny audience in a room that had been chosen for its distance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the history faculty \(I seem to recall that some lectures were, in what may have been a private joke, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delivered in Mill Lane\) where they were treated to a lecture that was read out in a monotone. The experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was rather like attending a concert by the one of the more forbidding post-punk bands,and I suspect that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowling?s appeal for a certain kind of young man \(like that of, say, The Fall\) lay partly in the expectation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that no one else would like him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reviewers had a hard time with Cowling. He often insisted that the most ferocious critics were the only ones )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had really understood him. Reviewing a book about Cowling by a group of his admirers is even harder. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of them claim that Cowling himself would disapprove of the interpretation that they put on his work. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Grenfell points out an obvious contradiction in Cowling?s writing about liberalism but then insists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Cowling himself must have recognized this apparent flaw in his argument \(?one can safely dismiss any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea that Cowling was missing the point? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 235.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 235.016 626.259 m 249.008 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 249.008 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and must, therefore, have been making some deliberate point. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much talk about how Cowling?s enemies ?sneered? at his work, but there is also a kind of pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emptive sneering: the authors here imply that a certain kind of reader is unlikely to grasp their arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that such people just need to read Cowling?s work more carefully.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.620 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.620 583.491 m 386.612 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowling?s career got off to jerky start. Brilliance in examinations took him through Cambridge and into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession of prestigious posts \(as a diplomat or leader-writer on the )] TJ ET BT 366.296 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Manchester Guardian)] TJ ET BT 472.616 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) for which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was absurdly unsuited. Cambridge was his real love and he worked hard to establish himself in an academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post there. His Cambridge was, however, a strange place. He first came up in 1943 when most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergraduates, and large proportion of the more dynamic dons, were away driving tanks or breaking codes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His undergraduate study was interrupted by military service in Indiaand Egypt. This meant absorption into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rituals and hierarchies of the officer?s mess; unlike that of his comrades who were called up a year or so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier and sent to Italy or Normandy, his view of the army was not disrupted by the messy business of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting. However, unlike Michael Wharton or Enoch Powell, Cowling does not seem to have been excited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the power of tradition and inequality in India itself. Cowling went back to India to do research but his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contacts appear to have been mostly with secularized, educated Indians \(the kind that Powell most disliked\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his most significant finds concerned the light that reports to the Viceroys might throw on )] TJ ET BT 463.652 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English)] TJ ET BT 500.324 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowling?s major publications can be divided in three. First came )] TJ ET BT 349.652 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mill and Liberalism)] TJ ET BT 445.664 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 468.992 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Limits of Political Science)] TJ ET BT 160.352 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(both published in 1963\). These are polemical works. The first argued that Mill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a ?moral totalitarian? rather than a believer infreedom and the second that political science could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hope to understand the complex motives behind human behaviour. Next came a trilogy of works on British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics between 1867 and 1940, which were themselves published between 1967 and 1975. These, at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until recently, have been regarded as Cowling?s most important achievement. They involved detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival research into ?high politics? over short periods. They ran against fashions for ?history from below? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and study of the )] TJ ET BT 114.008 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(longue dure)] TJ ET BT 176.996 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(fashions that were, in fairness, less well established in the late 1960s than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they appear, in retrospect, to have been\). Many of his critics believed that these books also reflected a lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in ideas, though this was one of the few criticisms that provoked Cowing to indignation. Finally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowling spent the last fifteen years of his life producing three volumes on )] TJ ET BT 392.972 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion and Public Doctrine)] TJ ET BT 534.632 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was regarded by Cowling himself as his most important work and Cowlingites have come, in large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measure, to share this view. During the 1980s, however, )] TJ ET BT 306.968 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion and Public Doctrine)] TJ ET BT 448.628 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( confused everyone, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was probably one of its intentions. Its emphasis on the history of ideas studied over a long period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed to break with the techniques of Cowling?s political history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowling?s admirers often present him as a heroic outsider who was thwarted by an academic establishment. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not true. From 1963, he had a secure job at a powerful university. The antler-locking confrontation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergraduate supervision provided him with the ideal means to influence young men; apart from Lady )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gwendolen Cecil and Sheila Lawlor, there were no women in Cowling?s intellectual firmament. Cowling?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career, unlike those of John Vincent or Roger Scruton, was not damaged by his political views. He benefited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from close relations with the history editors at Cambridge University Press, who published all his books. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They once pulped an entire run of one volume in order to suppress a potentially libelous word in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction: an episode that puts one in mind of Waugh?s crack about surgeons having removed ?the only )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 235.0157 626.5735 249.0077 638.4535 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 372.6197 583.8055 386.6117 595.6855 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8075 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-malignant part of Randolph Churchill?. Though Cowling opposed the expansion of British universities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it provided jobs for his disciples and protgs. Though he sometimes denounced the ?professionalization? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, his extensive use of private archives during the middle part of his career was seen as highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?professional?. The academic climate of the 1960s and 1970s suited Cowling. He was not a Marxist, though, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristically, he sometimes expressed himself in terms that sounded Marxist, but was emphatically not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an anti-Marxist and, indeed, welcomed the rise of English academic Marxism as a means of escaping from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the intellectual ?flatness? of the 1950s. Most of his colleagues disagreed with him, which is what he wanted, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but they were still sufficiently close to his pre-occupations to regard him as worth attacking. Cowling thrived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a university that valued the capacity to write books and coach undergraduates. Lack of interest in doctoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supervision, conferences or research grants was no great handicap in his day. ?Impact? was one of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favourite words but he did not mean it in any sense that would be comprehensible to the Research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Assessment Framework.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowling was much given to apparently confident statements and also sometimes presented successive books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as being part of a single consistent oeuvre. However, Jon Parry, the Peterhouse historian who flew closest to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Cowlingite flame without actually burning his wings, writes: ?it is possible, in retrospect, that his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinions on many issues were less fully developed than his forthright criticism of other writers suggested?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 554.979 m 48.008 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Philip Williamson shows that the three books on ?high politics? reflected an evolution in Cowling?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought. His definition of the political elite expanded and, most significantly, he gave increasing attention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the possibility that politicians might become stuck in rhetorical webs that they had initially spun for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instrumental purposes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowling wrote that ?It is from religion that modern English history should begin? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 429.668 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 429.668 485.955 m 443.660 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 443.660 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and he finished his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career with books that were explicitly about religion. His view of religion and history did not simply mean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that historians should take religion seriously or that they should recognize the continued echoes of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief in apparently secular thinkers. He seemed to think that history could be written from a distinctively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian point of view. What this point of view was, however, is hard to pin down. He wrote of Edward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman: ?he is in danger of abandoning ? perhaps wishes deliberately to abandon ? the only claims that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make it possible to believe that the Church of England is a Church?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 360.980 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 360.980 400.419 m 374.972 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 374.972 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Did Cowling himself think that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church of England?s claims to authority were important? If so, his own apparent attraction to Catholicism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems odd. Did Cowling simply adopt Christianity because it provided the most effective vantage point from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which to pour contempt on liberalism? He himself seems to have recognized that the Christianity of his latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years had evolved from hostility to certain kinds of secularism \(perhaps an example of how a political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polemicist could get caught in the web of his own rhetoric\) but insisted that it was not reducible to that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostility: ?there has been a determination to avoid the enthusiasms of the past, including the confusing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity with the enmities through which it had been approached in the first place?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 451.964 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 451.964 300.627 m 465.956 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One sometimes feels that the most important character in Cowling?s Bible was the serpent, a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowlingesque figure in his challenge to ?innocence? and determination to make people ?rethink their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions?, and the part of Christianity that had most impact on his historical writing was the notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man?s imperfectability. This notion partly underlay his approach to political history, which stressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal and factional struggles. Cowling?s approach in this respect was emphatically not Namierite. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowling had little interest in money \(unlike Namier, he never had a real job\) and did not try to explain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions of his historical subjects in terms of material interest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike Namier, Cowling?s interests were exclusively English. He spoke no foreign language and was only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happy in parts of the world \(southern Ireland in the early 1960s, Wales in the 1990s or certain departments in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American universities\) that seemed more English than England. His interest in the culture of continental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe began and ended with the habit of putting a circumflex on ?role?. The European anti-fascist crusade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1936 to 1945, a matter of obsessive interest to both an older generation who had come of age in the 1930s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a younger generation who came of age in the 1960s, meant nothing to him. To Cowling, Hitler only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mattered for the effect that he had had on British politics. As for Communism, it only mattered if the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union impinged on British interests. Cowling?s dislike of Noel Annan and Isaiah Berlin sprang partly from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his sense that there was something distastefully European about their fear of totalitarianism. Cowling was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 555.2935 48.0077 567.1735 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 429.6677 486.2695 443.6597 498.1495 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 360.9797 400.7335 374.9717 412.6135 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 451.9637 300.9415 465.9557 312.8215 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 7411 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not even interested in European intellectuals who might have thought about some of the problems that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself wrestled with. He mentioned Charles Maurras only as an influence on Eliot and, unlike many of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associates, he showed no interest in that greatest of all Maurassians: Charles de Gaulle.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was a contradiction at the heart of Cowling?s approach to politics. Though his own political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interventions were inept \(he once tried to derail the Robbins report by getting Edward Boyle invited to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peterhouse Master?s Lodge\) he celebrated ?tough-mindedness? and ?realism?. However, his admiration for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political skill was mixed with his romantic attachment to the impossible cause. He helped make the Third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marquess of Salisbury into a cult figure for the right, but his admiration was mainly for the exuberant and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extreme young journalist rather than the wily old prime minister. In terms of contemporary politicians, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two heroes were Enoch Powell, the Conservative of impossible principle, and Harold Wilson, the socialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who seemed utterly devoid of principle. He once urged Powell not to raise immigration as an issue because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he believed that Wilson would prove more adept at fighting in the gutter; it did not seem to have occurred to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowling that Powell was more concerned with damaging the interests of Edward Heath than advancing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of the Conservative Party.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowling?s admirers sometimes talk about his estrangement from the ?post-war consensus? of 1945 \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1940\) to the mid 1970s. This seems to me to miss the point. Cowlings view of politics actually worked best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for periods when there were no real disagreements of principle between major politicians and when politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really could be explained in terms of personal rivalries amongst the elite. It is no accident that Cowling?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most significant works of political history were produced during the great age of the political diarists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Castle, Crossman, Donoughue\) who recorded machinations of individuals on a day-by-day basis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Cowling himself, the key date in post-war history was 1963.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 343.328 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 343.328 473.955 m 357.320 473.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.320 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This was the year of Macmillan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resignation and also, significantly, the year in which Cowling began his career as a serious academic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowling?s hero, Harold Wilson, was, of course, the great winner from 1963 and, in some ways, this suited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowling. The conflict between admiration for impossibilist principle and admiration for political skill need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cause no problems if the Conservative cause was irredeemably lost. Cowling could now sit back and admire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson?s manoeuvres without feeling that anything serious was at stake. The self-indulgent melancholy with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Cowling surveyed the British political scene between 1963 and 1975 reminds one of how left-wing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, often installed at rich American universities, regarded Thatcherism during the 1980s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be interesting to know more about Cowling?s feelings during the period immediately before he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returned to academic life. He apparently wrote a pamphlet, now lost, defending the Suez expedition. He was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostile to the retreat from empire and to ?Butskellism? \(though he wrote, in a characteristically gnomic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aside, that this had been invented by Samuel Hoare in 1934\). However, the years 1956 to 1963 also saw the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apogee of Conservative politics as ?the art of the possible?. They saw Macmillan and Douglas-Home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confound their rivals with a skill that was every bit as impressive as Harold Wilson?s. They also saw the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tory election victory of 1959; Cowling was an unsuccessful candidate. There was something oddly grudging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Cowling?s view of all this. He does not seem to have allowed for the possibility that Conservatives had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played a good game with the hand that they had been dealt. He said nothing about Iain Macleod: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politician who was clever enough to understand the ideas of the right \(he invented the word ?Powellite?\), but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shrewd enough not to apply them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowling published his last work of political history in the year that Margaret Thatcher became leader of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative Party. He knew Thatcher and one of his pupils, Michael Portillo, was, briefly, seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher?s designated successor. Cowling, however, was condescending about Thatcherism ? he issued the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(astonishingly unCowlingite verdict that there was ?room for improvement?. He seems to have believed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1978 that Callaghan, whom he admired, had won the struggle for the moral low ground that would lay the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way for electoral victory. His obsession with liberalism made him overestimate the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Hayekians? in Thatcher?s entourage; the struggle between the ?organic conservatives? of Peterhouse and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ex-left-wingers of the Centre for Policy Studies was, in truth, a squabble in the servants? quarters of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative party, and I suspect that many Tory front-benchers had never heard of either Cowling or Alfred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sherman. Thatcher?s brisk pragmatism was utterly removed from Cowling?s political vision ? indeed the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 343.3277 474.2695 357.3197 486.1495 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R ] /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 7983 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single political figure that Thatcherites most despised was the one that Cowlingites most admired: Stanley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baldwin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How far, one might ask, was Cowling?s turn away from political history a response to Thatcherism? He had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planned to write a volume on ?The impact of inflation?. Was this venture thwarted when it turned out that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Conservative Party was willing to face down inflation? Cowling?s books on )] TJ ET BT 419.984 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion and Public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Doctrine)] TJ ET BT 76.676 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are now sometimes celebrated as his most important work, but, more than anything, they surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent a kind of sulky exile from the real politics of the 1980s. Some think that Cowling disliked the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher government because he saw it as ?liberal?, and Cowling himself seemed to endorse this suggestion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Cowling had always recognized that a diminution of the state \(especially, one suspects, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare state\) would be a good thing and that it would help to restore desirable inequalities. It is hard to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how such a man could have had any honest reason to object to, say, Lawson?s 1988 budget, and Lawson, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incidentally, could not be accused of liberalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowling was not, in fact, a particularly good practitioner of history; his most engaging quality was his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissatisfaction with much of what he wrote. His achievement is to be found, not so much in the finished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product of his history, as in the intentions with which he set out: the introductions to his books are always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the best bits. As Michael Bentley writes, ?Cowling believed in belief?. He held out the possibility that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history could be written by people who founded their approach on Christian faith and Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prejudice. There was, of course, a paradox here. It is not clear that Cowling ever possessed the faith that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded as being so important, nor that he necessarily admired people who did possess such faith. His most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful protgs were those ? such as Noel Malcolm, Harold James or, most of all, the arch-liberal Niall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferguson ? who never became card-carrying Cowlingites. His own mind was restless and the most important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect of his teaching was to encourage more skepticism amongst those who came from different political or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual traditions rather than to encourage stauncher faith on the part of those who shared his professed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 409.683 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Grenfell, ?Cowling and liberalism?, in )] TJ ET BT 293.984 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Philosophy, Politics and Religion of British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Democracy: Maurice Cowling and Conservatism)] TJ ET BT 300.656 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Robert Crowcroft, S. J. D. Green and Richard )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whiting\(London, 2010\), pp. 65-82, p. 70.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 266.672 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 266.672 349.155 m 320.660 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?[T]hose still disinclined to do so [take Cowling?s position seriously] will, on more careful )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration, discover that they need to mount a rather more sophisticated defence of their own )] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position?. ?Introduction?, in ibid, pp. 1-12, p. 3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.008 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.008 306.387 m 347.996 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Parry, ?Maurice Cowling: a brief life?, in ibid, pp. 13?24, p. 19.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.308 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.308 292.131 m 453.296 292.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 279.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maurice Cowling, )] TJ ET BT 154.340 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion and Public Doctrine)] TJ ET BT 296.000 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Vol. 1, Cambridge, 1980\), p. xii.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 459.992 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 459.992 277.875 m 513.980 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, p. 451.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.348 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.348 263.619 m 176.336 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, p. xviii.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 126.356 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 126.356 249.363 m 180.344 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowling, )] TJ ET BT 111.356 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Impact of Hitler)] TJ ET BT 209.684 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1975\), p. 2: ?It [the consensus established in the struggle )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against Hitler] lasted until Macmillan?s retirement, establishing inflation, disestablishing the Empire )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and permitting a receptivity in which the central features of Labour thinking became entrenched as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normal?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 106.340 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 106.340 192.339 m 160.328 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 167.477 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Standpoint)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://standpointmag.co.uk/critique-december-10-the-public-doctrine-of-maurice-cowling-timothy-fuller)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 137.571 m 535.928 137.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 538.928 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cercles)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cercles.com/review/r48/Crowcroft.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 109.059 m 281.648 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 284.648 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 105.727 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 87.947 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 87.947 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1130)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 86.553 m 328.316 86.553 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 61.576 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 266.6717 349.4695 320.6597 361.3495 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 294.0077 306.7015 347.9957 318.5815 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 399.3077 292.4455 453.2957 304.3255 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 459.9917 278.1895 513.9797 290.0695 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 122.3477 263.9335 176.3357 275.8135 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 126.3557 249.6775 180.3437 261.5575 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 106.3397 192.6535 160.3277 204.5335 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 137.8855 535.9277 149.7655 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://standpointmag.co.uk/critique-december-10-the-public-doctrine-of-maurice-cowling-timothy-fuller) >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 109.3735 281.6477 121.2535 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.cercles.com/review/r48/Crowcroft.html) >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 86.8675 328.3157 98.7475 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1130) >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 64 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Length 400 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7770)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://standpointmag.co.uk/critique-december-10-the-public-doctrine-of-maurice-cowling-timothy-fuller)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.cercles.com/review/r48/Crowcroft.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 65 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000609 00000 n 0000000691 00000 n 0000004633 00000 n 0000004742 00000 n 0000004852 00000 n 0000004961 00000 n 0000008522 00000 n 0000008650 00000 n 0000008734 00000 n 0000008825 00000 n 0000017355 00000 n 0000017385 00000 n 0000017513 00000 n 0000017549 00000 n 0000017579 00000 n 0000017707 00000 n 0000017743 00000 n 0000017848 00000 n 0000025976 00000 n 0000026006 00000 n 0000026132 00000 n 0000026168 00000 n 0000026198 00000 n 0000026326 00000 n 0000026362 00000 n 0000026392 00000 n 0000026520 00000 n 0000026556 00000 n 0000026586 00000 n 0000026714 00000 n 0000026750 00000 n 0000026834 00000 n 0000034298 00000 n 0000034328 00000 n 0000034456 00000 n 0000034492 00000 n 0000034639 00000 n 0000042675 00000 n 0000042803 00000 n 0000042858 00000 n 0000042986 00000 n 0000043041 00000 n 0000043169 00000 n 0000043224 00000 n 0000043352 00000 n 0000043407 00000 n 0000043535 00000 n 0000043590 00000 n 0000043718 00000 n 0000043773 00000 n 0000043901 00000 n 0000043956 00000 n 0000044083 00000 n 0000044236 00000 n 0000044363 00000 n 0000044463 00000 n 0000044589 00000 n 0000044685 00000 n 0000044750 00000 n trailer << /Size 65 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45202 %%EOF