%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 26 0 R 31 0 R 39 0 R 43 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721075107+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721075107+01'00') /Title (Democracy and the Vote in British politics, 1848-1867: The Making of the Second Reform Act) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5052 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Democracy and the Vote in British politics, 1848-1867: The Making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(of the Second Reform Act)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If British governments in the later 20th century have often been ambivalent or hostile towards electoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform, the same could not be said of their 19th?century predecessors. As Robert Saunders shows in this new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, which builds on a series of important articles, the 1867 Representation of the People Act \(also known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the Second Reform Act\) was the culmination of a 20-year debate during which Liberal and Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments proposed various measures to extend the franchise and reform the representative system.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.240 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.240 207.777 m 538.232 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Second Reform Act essentially enacted household male suffrage for parliamentary elections in urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas in England and Wales, and is an important landmark in British political and constitutional development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Acts for Ireland and Scotland were passed in 1868\). It has, however, received less attention than the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(or Great\) Reform Act of 1832, which disenfranchised rotten boroughs, enfranchised new industrial towns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and altered the franchise.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 154.640 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 154.640 124.497 m 168.632 124.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 168.632 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The two classic studies of the passing of the Second Reform Act, by Barry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smith and Maurice Cowling, were published over 40 years ago.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 340.304 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 340.304 110.241 m 354.296 110.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 354.296 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Since then, although the issue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary reform has loomed large in studies of popular liberalism by Eugenio Biagini and Patrick Joyce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among others, the only further book-length study has been )] TJ ET BT 317.312 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defining the Victorian Nation )] TJ ET BT 463.988 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Catherine Hall, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith McClelland and Jane Rendell.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 208.328 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 208.328 67.473 m 222.320 67.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 222.320 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hall )] TJ ET BT 248.984 68.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 269.984 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( argued that the debates surrounding the question of reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the mid-1860s were heavily shaped by class, race and gender. The respectable working man was admitted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1131)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 September, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Saunders)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781409417941)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry Miller)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 524.2397 208.0915 538.2317 219.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 154.6397 124.8115 168.6317 136.6915 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 340.3037 110.5555 354.2957 122.4355 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 208.3277 67.7875 222.3197 79.6675 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7491 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the political nation, but this was set against the exclusion of ?the Other?, whether women, the Irish and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial peoples or other working men deemed unfit to possess the franchise. In his critique, Saunders notes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Hall )] TJ ET BT 78.680 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al )] TJ ET BT 102.680 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do not link these cultural and social ideas to the parliamentary debates, and tend to assume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the former shaped the latter \(pp. 19?21\). Furthermore, although the moral character of working men was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a persistent theme of the reform debates, both inside and outside Parliament, it was far from being the only, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or even predominant, element of a complex debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Second Reform Act is therefore a topic ripe for historical reappraisal. Saunders offers a new narrative, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is essentially organised chronologically. He focuses mainly on the parliamentary arena and gives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular weight to the actions and ideas of the leading politicians on the question of reform and democracy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is punctuated by short, valuable and incisive discussions of the ideas of Lord John Russell \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(38?48\), Benjamin Disraeli \(pp. 68?73\) and William Gladstone \(pp. 173?84\), among others. The research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws on parliamentary debates and the private correspondence of these politicians, as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan press, periodical and pamphlet literature and contemporary books. The value of this narrative, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological approach is that it places the debates of 1867 in a much longer context, and shows the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of reform in politics throughout the period. It also helps to provide an accessible account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue for non-specialists and students baffled by the spate of reform bills in the period and the often very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technical discussions surrounding the franchise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saunders?s central argument is, to this reviewer?s mind, a convincing one. Throughout the period covered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by this book there were numerous attempts to extend the franchise for parliamentary elections and alter the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative system through redistribution \(disenfranchising and enfranchising constituencies\). Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments introduced bills in 1852, 1854, 1860 and 1866, and the Conservatives in 1859 and 1867. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Radical MPs, including John Bright, regularly proposed their own schemes of reform, and in articles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pamphlets and books numerous other ideas were floated. Why then was no measure passed until 1867? The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answer, Saunders argues, is that MPs and party leaders could not agree on the nature and extent of reform \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9\). Unlike in 1831?2 there was no significant body of opinion entirely opposed to political change. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulty was that different schemes of reform could produce very different electorates and representative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems, and, consequently, very different political outcomes. In part, these differences of opinion were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivated by party considerations. For example, Liberal MPs opposed the Conservative reform bill of 1859, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly because it would have disenfranchised urban freeholders from the county electorate. It was generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed that this would have strengthened the Conservatives in the counties at the expense of the Liberals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, as Saunders makes clear, just as important in holding up the passage of reform were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophical objections of MPs. Although there was no great opposition to extending the franchise, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians did not see reform as the first instalment of democracy. The question was how to ?popularise? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution \(p. 13\) without producing a democratic system, which would destroy the representative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character of English parliamentary government, which was generally thought to be the envy of the world. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This sense was only reinforced by contemporary comparisons with democratic political systems such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(USA and France, as an intriguing discussion in chapter six shows \(pp. 131?59\). As one Liberal MP breezily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(put it in 1866 ?all, then, that was proposed was to admit a few of the best of the working men, and thereby to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place our representative system on a broader basis and surer foundation?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 385.592 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 385.592 217.347 m 399.584 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Any extension of the franchise needed to be accompanied by safeguards to reassure MPs. Liberals, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, were keen to preserve a balance in the representation. They feared that too great and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indiscriminate addition of working men to the electorate would swamp other interests and classes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produce a political system dominated by a single class \(pp. 168?9, 198?200\). This explains the contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in various schemes, such as plural voting and proportional representation, to secure minority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation, which were proposed at the time by the Liberal intellectual John Stuart Mill \(who was also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MP for Westminster 1865?8\) and others \(pp. 170?3\). A second major concern was to secure a ?resting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place? for the franchise. That is, MPs wanted any extension to be based upon a justifiable principle which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be defended against calls for further extensions in the future. Reform was therefore envisaged as a way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of preventing, rather than a first step to, democracy.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 385.5917 217.6615 399.5837 229.5415 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 5765 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russell and Gladstone?s bill of 1866 paid insufficient attention to these concerns, which accounted for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure. Gladstone saw extending the franchise and bringing working men within the ?pale of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution? as a way of dissolving class, and so was largely deaf to the anxieties of those Liberals who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to maintain a balance of classes in the representation \(pp. 182, 208?9\). The result was that a faction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of dissident Liberals \(the Adullamites\), helped to defeat the bill of their own government, which resigned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and was replaced by the Conservatives. The Conservative bill of 1867 sought to provide a resting place by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making the borough franchise dependent upon the personal payment of local rates. Compounders, those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paid rates through their landlords, were to be excluded. As Gladstone showed in debate, such a distinction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was unworkable, arbitrary and in many cases illusory, but to MPs and contemporary opinion the difference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was between the moral character of personal ratepayers and compounders \(pp. 244?7\). The former were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deemed to be independent, frugal and financially responsible and so deserving of the franchise, while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter were not \(p. 249\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although compounders were eventually included, Saunders still sees the Second Reform Act as something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a triumph for Disraeli, who piloted it through the Commons. Although he denies that Disraeli was simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivated by opportunism, Saunders recognises that the Conservative leader?s flexibility was an asset \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(273\). Disraeli seized the chance to reposition the Conservatives as the national and popular party after a long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period during which they had either been in opposition or \(briefly\) in office as minority governments \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(271?8\). In doing so, Saunders follows other historians such as Angus Hawkins and Geoff Hicks who have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to rehabilitate the leadership of the mid-Victorian Conservative party and rescue them from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relative neglect they have suffered in comparison with their counterparts in the early and late Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods and their Liberal rivals.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.988 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.988 485.955 m 198.980 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Saunders offers an authoritative narrative and analysis of high politics, the book could have perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made more connections between parliamentary and popular and electoral politics. Given that the 1860s was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the golden age of the provincial press, the opinions of the leading newspapers outside of London also might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have received more consideration. To be fair, Saunders anticipates such criticisms in the introduction \(pp. 22-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3\), and argues that as this issue was essentially determined in the parliamentary arena, he understandably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses his attention there. Such a view has much to commend it, but he might have made more of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast with the 1832 Reform Act, which, Philip Salmon has recently suggested, was the product of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiated and consultative process between centre and locality, Parliament and the public.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.936 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.936 359.907 m 484.928 359.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 484.928 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Why was this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the case in the 1860s? What was different? Having said all this, Saunders provides a useful survey of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary candidates? views on reform at the 1859 and 1865 general elections \(pp. 117?8, 184?7\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also touches upon the extra-parliamentary agitation for reform \(pp. 226?9\). He argues that the campaign of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the working-class Reform League and others helped to keep reform on the agenda in 1867 and meant that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not be delayed any longer. However, it did not determine the nature and extent of the measure, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was ultimately decided by Parliament \(p. 229\). The book therefore offers a valuable starting point, but not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last word, upon the popular and electoral dimensions of reform in this period, which other historians will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no doubt pursue.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.9877 486.2695 198.9797 498.1495 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.9357 360.2215 484.9277 372.1015 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 7810 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of the analysis of parliamentary politics is seen through the prism of party and the positioning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party leaders. However, MPs not only represented their party, but also their constituencies, electors and non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electors, as well as other interests. Saunders is extremely good on the views of the leading protagonists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the Adullamites, but it would have added another layer of sophistication to the analysis to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjected some backbench and middle-ranking MPs to a similar treatment. Without going too far down the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(route of the quantitative analysis of parliamentary divisions \(pioneered by American political scientists like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Aydelotte and Cheryl Schonhardt-Bailey\) it would have been illuminating to have some sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other factors which shaped MPs attitudes on the issue. How far was party the main determinant of one?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position? To what extent did other factors, such as social, economic and family background, religion, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(type of constituency, region and nation they represented, influence MPs, if at all? Why did members of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whig dynasties become Adullamites but not others? To give another example, during the debates on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English reform bills, Scottish and Irish MPs did, at times, pursue a distinctive agenda, pressing for increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation for their nations at the expense of English small boroughs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Conservatives? adoption of reform for essentially tactical reasons in the late 1850s, and their successful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passing of the 1867 bill are the subject of considerable reflection throughout the book, particularly in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concluding chapter. Derby and Disraeli are given credit for being able to seize their opportunity to pass a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measure of reform by keeping their party united and their opponents divided. As a minority government they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had no choice but to compromise on many points, but they were willing to do so to keep overall control of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the process and claim credit for the reform \(pp. 272?3\). Disraeli may have been motivated by a desire to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively rebrand the party as a national and popular party, as Saunders argues in the conclusion, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether he succeeded, in the short term at least, is debatable. In the first parliamentary elections under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new system in 1868 the Liberals won a decisive majority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like other recent work which seeks to rehabilitate the mid-Victorian Conservative party, Saunders focuses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on its parliamentary leadership. It is worth pointing out that a different perspective would be opened up by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studying the issue from the constituency level. It is notable that from the late 1850s many Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidates, often styling themselves as ?Liberal Conservatives?, sought to impress electors with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderation and progressive credentials. In part this was a cynical attempt to blur party labels and appeal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disgruntled Liberals. However, these Conservatives were also attempting to detoxify their party?s brand and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shake off its protectionist image which had proved to be such an electoral millstone in urban areas. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Declaring support for parliamentary reform and denying the Liberals exclusive ownership of the issue, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an essential factor in establishing a new urban, forward-looking Conservatism in the 1860s. To some extent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, the Conservatives? gradual shift from hostility to reform in the early 1850s to passing the 1867 bill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected changes within the party?s grassroots as well as the tactics and strategy of its leadership.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saunders?s well-written and accessible book will be essential reading for scholars and students of mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian politics. Given its coverage of the Liberal and Conservative parties, leading politicians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament, it will surely find a place on many undergraduate and postgraduate reading lists. Saunders?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the ideas of politicians and to the wider intellectual debate, and the comparisons with America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and France, will ensure this book is highly relevant to scholars of political and constitutional thought in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long 19th century. Historians of popular and electoral politics will also find much to build on.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.843 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 141.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Saunders, ?Lord John Russell and parliamentary reform, 1848-67?, )] TJ ET BT 403.628 141.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 529.628 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 120 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2005\), 1289-1315; idem, ?The politics of reform and the making of the Second Reform Act, 1848-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1867?, )] TJ ET BT 99.344 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 188.348 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 50 \(2007\), 571-91; idem, ?Chartism from above: British elites and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of Chartism?, )] TJ ET BT 200.000 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Research)] TJ ET BT 296.324 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 81 \(2008\), 463-84.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 392.312 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 392.312 97.059 m 446.300 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 84.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Brock, )] TJ ET BT 116.012 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Reform Act )] TJ ET BT 225.332 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1973\); N. LoPatin, )] TJ ET BT 365.660 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Unions, Popular Politics and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Great Reform Act of 1832)] TJ ET BT 206.336 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 1999\); E. Pearce, )] TJ ET BT 363.644 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reform! The Fight for the 1832 Reform )] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Act)] TJ ET BT 80.012 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2003\); P. Salmon, ?The English Reform Legislation, 1831-1832?, in D.R. Fisher \(ed.\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 41.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1820-1832 )] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 392.3117 97.3735 446.2997 109.2535 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R ] /Contents 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Length 3827 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7 vols., Cambridge, 2009\), i, pp. 374-)] TJ ET BT 248.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(412.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 269.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 269.672 795.075 m 323.660 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F.B. Smith, )] TJ ET BT 122.372 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the Second Reform Bill )] TJ ET BT 309.356 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1966\); M. Cowling, )] TJ ET BT 471.020 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1867: Disraeli, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone and Revolution: The Passing of the Second Reform Bill )] TJ ET BT 384.668 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1967\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.988 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.988 766.563 m 532.976 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E.F. Biagini, )] TJ ET BT 128.360 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liberty, Retrenchment and Reform: Popular Liberalism in the Age of Gladstone, 1860-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1880 )] TJ ET BT 91.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1992\), pp. 257-77; P. Joyce, )] TJ ET BT 292.664 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visions of the People: Industrial England and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Question of Class, 1848-1914 )] TJ ET BT 210.356 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1991\), pp. 47-55; C. Hall, K. McClelland and J. Rendell, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defining the Victorian Nation: Class, Race and Gender and the British Reform Act of 1867 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.336 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.336 695.283 m 212.324 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hansard)] TJ ET BT 106.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 26 Apr. 1866, vol. 182, c. 2135.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 265.340 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 265.340 681.027 m 319.328 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Hawkins, )] TJ ET BT 127.340 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Forgotten Prime Minister: the 14th Earl of Derby)] TJ ET BT 387.992 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(2 vols., Oxford, 2007-8\); G. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hicks, )] TJ ET BT 98.012 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peace, War and Party Politics: The Conservatives and Europe, 1846-59 )] TJ ET BT 448.640 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 638.259 m 118.004 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salmon, ?English Reform Legislation?, p. 411.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 289.676 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 289.676 624.003 m 343.664 624.003 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 608.671 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 590.891 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 590.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1131)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 589.497 m 328.316 589.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 564.520 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 550.120 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7771)] TJ ET endstream endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 269.6717 795.3895 323.6597 807.2695 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 478.9877 766.8775 532.9757 778.7575 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 158.3357 695.5975 212.3237 707.4775 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 265.3397 681.3415 319.3277 693.2215 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 638.5735 118.0037 650.4535 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 289.6757 624.3175 343.6637 636.1975 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 589.8115 328.3157 601.6915 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1131) >> endobj xref 0 59 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000600 00000 n 0000000710 00000 n 0000005814 00000 n 0000005923 00000 n 0000006033 00000 n 0000006142 00000 n 0000009703 00000 n 0000009831 00000 n 0000009915 00000 n 0000009944 00000 n 0000010072 00000 n 0000010108 00000 n 0000010137 00000 n 0000010265 00000 n 0000010301 00000 n 0000010330 00000 n 0000010458 00000 n 0000010494 00000 n 0000010523 00000 n 0000010649 00000 n 0000010685 00000 n 0000010769 00000 n 0000018313 00000 n 0000018343 00000 n 0000018471 00000 n 0000018507 00000 n 0000018598 00000 n 0000024416 00000 n 0000024446 00000 n 0000024574 00000 n 0000024610 00000 n 0000024640 00000 n 0000024768 00000 n 0000024804 00000 n 0000024888 00000 n 0000032751 00000 n 0000032878 00000 n 0000032933 00000 n 0000033059 00000 n 0000036939 00000 n 0000037067 00000 n 0000037122 00000 n 0000037250 00000 n 0000037305 00000 n 0000037433 00000 n 0000037488 00000 n 0000037616 00000 n 0000037671 00000 n 0000037798 00000 n 0000037853 00000 n 0000037981 00000 n 0000038036 00000 n 0000038164 00000 n trailer << /Size 59 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38260 %%EOF