%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 43 0 R 51 0 R 71 0 R 85 0 R 116 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140917064304+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140917064304+01'00') /Title (The Life and Thought of Herbert Butterfield) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4829 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Life and Thought of Herbert Butterfield)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The former Master of Peterhouse, Herbert Butterfield, has become something of a cottage industry over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past ten years or so, with a number of monographs resurrecting a career that had previously fallen into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglect. Indeed, the writer of this book, Michael Bentley, has himself contributed to the rehabilitation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butterfield academically ? his Wiles lectures, published as )] TJ ET BT 317.636 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernizing England?s Past)] TJ ET BT 457.640 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, centred around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasting approaches to history taken by Butterfield and his bte noire, Lewis Namier.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 457.280 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 457.280 229.161 m 471.272 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 471.272 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Now he returns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the fray with the first biography of Butterfield to have been written. Although two substantial works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoted to Butterfield have appeared in recent years ? Keith Sewell?s )] TJ ET BT 370.928 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Herbert Butterfield and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Interpretation of History)] TJ ET BT 152.684 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and C. T. McIntire?s )] TJ ET BT 258.332 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Herbert Butterfield, Historian as Dissenter)] TJ ET BT 465.332 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? both of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works concentrated solely upon his writings as opposed to the man himself.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 397.316 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 397.316 172.137 m 411.308 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 411.308 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As E. H. Carr might say, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely this is an attempt to study the part without reference to the whole. This book then, attempts to do both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? ?this biography is intended as an analysis of the thought as well as the man?. It is an official biography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written in close co-operation with Butterfield?s wife and sons, and thus Bentley has had access to much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously unseen material.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Bentley points out in his introduction, one of the main reasons that Butterfield has not fared too well over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the years is that unlike, say, Namier or Elton, he ?never built himself around a ?school? of pupils who could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together help raise the fallen flag? \(p. 2\). In his biography of G. M. Trevelyan, David Cannadine referred to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1133)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 September, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Bentley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781107003972)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(398pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malin Dahlstrom)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 457.2797 229.4755 471.2717 241.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 397.3157 172.4515 411.3077 184.3315 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 9621 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butterfield as a ?giggling, chain-smoking iconoclast, who seemed to be permanently about thirty-five years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old?, and a figure who ?never really matured into a seriously productive scholar or a major historian?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.244 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.244 780.819 m 537.236 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 537.236 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Noel Annan, Butterfield was ?a Methodist with a twinkling eye, a fascinator whose chief pastime was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic intrigue?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 127.988 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 127.988 752.307 m 141.980 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 141.980 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Much like his contemporary Hugh Trevor-Roper \(also the subject of a recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography\), he ultimately did not write the ?big book? that his talents suggested him to be capable of. As J. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Kenyon put it, Butterfield was ?a man with a reputation rather like an inverted cone, his wide-ranging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prestige balanced on a tiny platform of achievement?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 291.956 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 291.956 709.539 m 305.948 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 305.948 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet Bentley argues that to say Butterfield never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote anything is ridiculous: ?historians who do not write anything do not bequeath bibliographies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published material running to some 180 items...? \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Born in 1900, Butterfield went up to Cambridge in 1919. After a false start, he eventually came under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tutelage of Harold Temperley, about whom Bentley is scathing. Far from Butterfield owing everything to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching of Temperley, Bentley argues that this legend ignores ?two elemental observations: that Butterfield )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was very clever indeed and that Temperley was not ... Temperley?s teaching hardly deserves the name? \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(41?2\). Nevertheless, Butterfield achieved a vaunted double first, and won the Le Bas prize, the winner of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which saw their essay published by the Cambridge University Press. The work, )] TJ ET BT 417.968 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historical Novel)] TJ ET BT 518.636 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not aged well. At the time however, its merits were enough to convince the Master of Peterhouse to elect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butterfield to a History Fellowship alongside Temperley and Paul Vellacott. In 1944 he was elected to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chair of Modern History, and from 1955?1968 he was master of Peterhouse, as well as holding the vice-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chancellorship of the university between 1959 and 1961. He was knighted in 1968. His inveterate smoking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and unhealthy lifestyle saw the last 20 years of his life plagued by health problems. Upon his death doctors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found that he possessed only one functioning kidney; the other having been shrivelled since birth. In 1967 he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was hospitalised with pneumonia, and suffered a mild stroke in 1971. A further stroke in 1976 made him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtually housebound, and he died on 20 July 20 1979.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butterfield?s oeuvre covered many fields, including 18th-century political history, historiography and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of science. His most widely known work is still )] TJ ET BT 301.676 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Whig Interpretation of History)] TJ ET BT 469.676 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 1931 saw the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication of the book Butterfield is most associated with. Less a book than a lengthy essay, )] TJ ET BT 483.980 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Whig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Interpretation of History)] TJ ET BT 152.684 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a curious affair. As Carr put it, ?it was a remarkable book in many ways ? not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least because, though it denounced the Whig Interpretation over some 130 pages, it did not ... name a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whig except Fox, who was no historian, or a single historian except Acton, who was no Whig?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 493.952 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 493.952 371.907 m 507.944 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 507.944 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unclear what motivated Butterfield to write the piece. Clearly one of the targets was Acton; to him Bentley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feels we must add R. H. Tawney and Harold Temperley. Butterfield had read Tawney's )] TJ ET BT 455.744 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rise of Capitalism)] TJ ET BT 122.696 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and thought it ?a silly book on the grounds of historical logic rather than faulty research? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 100\). It took a ?series of complex transitions and turned them into a simple ?cause? and high-road )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards future capitalism? \(p. 100\). With regards to Temperley, much ?of the )] TJ ET BT 409.604 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Whig Interpretation)] TJ ET BT 505.268 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read as a mild joke against the man across the landing, and it would have been entirely characteristic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butterfield to have enjoyed the mischief of making it? \(p. 100\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Whig Interpretation)] TJ ET BT 151.340 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( did not refer to Whig politicians, but to the 19th-century interpretation of history as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one long triumphant march of progress.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 223.988 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 223.988 231.603 m 237.980 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 237.980 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In English history this took the form of drawing a straight line )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Protestant triumph in the Reformation through the Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the present day. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, in constructing this interpretation historians usually committed anachronisms by seeing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past entirely in terms of the present. 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Hexter once put it, ?[w]e are unhappy when we watch Bishop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stubbs adding Victorian liberalism to the cargo that the Anglo-Saxons brought with them to England from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their North German forests?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 171.980 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 171.980 160.323 m 185.972 160.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 185.972 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Butterfield warned that real ?historical understanding is not achieved by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subordination of the past to the present, but rather by our making the past our present and attempting to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life with the eyes of another century rather than our own?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 312.944 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 312.944 131.811 m 326.936 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 326.936 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The same might be said of )] TJ ET BT 459.920 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Whig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Interpretation)] TJ ET BT 101.348 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; given the developments in historiography and historical theory, it is tempting to view it now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a somewhat primitive piece. One ?has to see his act of criticism in the light of its own day, responding to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a climate of historiographical opinion that no longer exists? \(p. 104\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Any account of the )] TJ ET BT 128.660 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Whig Interpretation)] TJ ET BT 224.324 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( must invariably mention a book that has come to be seen as its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sequel ? )] TJ ET BT 76.004 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Englishman and his History)] TJ ET BT 231.344 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The origins of this book were hardly disinterested academic ones ? )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 523.2437 781.1335 537.2357 793.0135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 127.9877 752.6215 141.9797 764.5015 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 291.9557 709.8535 305.9477 721.7335 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 493.9517 372.2215 507.9437 384.1015 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 223.9877 231.9175 237.9797 243.7975 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 171.9797 160.6375 185.9717 172.5175 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 312.9437 132.1255 326.9357 144.0055 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Length 6353 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the academic session of 1943?4 an unfreezing of positions presented an opportunity for Butterfield to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupy the Chair of Modern History and become Professor Butterfield. But Butterfield?s most recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published book had been a short effort on Napoleon published three years earlier. He needed a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication, and quickly. Recycling some of the material from his notorious trip to Bonn \(see below\), the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result was ?an unsatisfactory and rushed volume? called )] TJ ET BT 306.620 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Englishman and his History)] TJ ET BT 461.960 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a book that gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise to what became known as the ?Herbert Butterfield problem?. Having dished the Whig interpretation less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than 15 years earlier, Butterfield now seemed to have performed a )] TJ ET BT 354.596 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(volte-face)] TJ ET BT 401.912 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Whig history was now ?part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the landscape of English life ... part of the inescapable inheritance of the Englishman?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.600 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.600 695.283 m 469.592 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 469.592 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scholars have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gone to lengths to reconcile the contents of the two books, most notably Keith Sewell.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 447.320 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 447.320 681.027 m 467.312 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 467.312 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As Bentley puts it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though, ultimately it was ?a botched book? \(p. 168\). It achieved what it needed to however, in that it secured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him the post vacated by Temperley?s death at the outbreak of the war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butterfield?s other major works concerned the 18th century, which was the subject of two of his most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial works. His first, )] TJ ET BT 168.680 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Peace Tactics of Napoleon)] TJ ET BT 318.668 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, was published in 1929, at the end of a fairly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turbulent period for Butterfield. Diplomatic history was traditionally a fairly dry subject, often consisting of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what one clerk said to another. Butterfield wanted his history to be evocative, the story of how people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrestled with moral dilemmas in order to reach and carry their decisions. He made a convincing effort at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this in )] TJ ET BT 66.692 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peace Tactics)] TJ ET BT 133.676 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but the book is not without its flaws. It weighs in at 400 pages, however, Butterfield )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed that this constituted less than half of his original manuscript. Lord Acton exhorted historians to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study problems, not periods; but Butterfield seemed to have done the reverse, and the book lacked a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic. Nonetheless, it has its moments, ?not least because it may be the best written of all Butterfield's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books, with its sense of pointedness, artistry and without the staleness of some of his later style when he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote too much? \( p. 60\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butterfield?s second lengthy monograph came out in his hugely productive post-war period. )] TJ ET BT 479.624 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(George III, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lord North and the People)] TJ ET BT 163.352 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was a strange book with a complicated genesis. It partly had its roots in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography of Charles Fox which Butterfield ultimately never wrote \(more on this shortly\), but also sprang )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a maelstrom of other topics which were in Butterfield?s mind at the time; Lord Acton, the defeat of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany and the beginning of the Cold War, and also Butterfield?s bte noire Lewis Namier. To ?say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something important about English politics in the reign of George III had become an urgent objective in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind ever since the brilliant early volumes of Lewis Namier had changed the historical landscape? \(p. 245\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a 400-page work based on archival research ? ?a thought worth stressing when enemies always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complained that Butterfield never visited archives? ? Butterfield argued for the eyebrow-raising proposition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that 1780 constituted the closest England ever came to a French-style revolution \(p. 248\). The book took a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battering from the reviewers, with the )] TJ ET BT 218.312 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times Literary Supplement)] TJ ET BT 348.308 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Richard Pares in the )] TJ ET BT 471.620 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 120.344 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( exposing some of the empirical and logical problems with Butterfield?s contention. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bentley puts it with a neat turn of phrase, ?He [Butterfield] had over-egged the pudding. Perhaps it was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of a pudding in the first place? \(p. 250\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 45 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 449.5997 695.5975 469.5917 707.4775 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 447.3197 681.3415 467.3117 693.2215 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 54 0 R 57 0 R 60 0 R 63 0 R 66 0 R 69 0 R ] /Contents 52 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Length 9323 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butterfield?s relationship with Namier became more complicated after )] TJ ET BT 375.944 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(George III)] TJ ET BT 426.920 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. He admired the man, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hated his minions ? ?the squadrons? as he referred to Namier?s followers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.932 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.932 768.819 m 407.924 768.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 407.924 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Having failed to make much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a dent in the Namier interpretation of history, he instead wrote crushing reviews of the works of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Namierites, in particular John Brooke. The infamous 1953 )] TJ ET BT 317.312 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(TLS)] TJ ET BT 336.656 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( article which accused Namier of ?taking the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind out of history? was initially attributed to Butterfield, although it later turned out to have been written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by A. J. P. Taylor.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.012 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.012 711.795 m 142.004 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 142.004 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( During 1954?5 Butterfield ?would obsess about the Namierites and the damage he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw in their hacking into his favourite century as though it were a plank of wood? \(p. 306\). A 1957 article in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encounter)] TJ ET BT 84.008 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Butterfield ? ?George III and the Namier School? ? was the prelude for another book-length )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bite at the Namier cherry, )] TJ ET BT 159.980 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(George III and the Historians)] TJ ET BT 303.296 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published later that year. It was a rushed work, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained at least one error of fact that Butterfield had to publicly apologise for. Yet no ?proliferation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surface errors could be adduced to conceal the stark fact that Butterfield was right about the deficiencies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Namierism? \(p. 255\). After Butterfield?s death, Elton remarked that ?though he [Butterfield] cannot be said )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have triumphed in that battle [with Namier], he emerged from it with honour and the satisfaction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having been able to crack the crystalline self-regard of the opposing party in several places?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.232 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.232 597.747 m 498.224 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As mentioned above, the post-war period was a productive period for Butterfield. 1948?s )] TJ ET BT 464.936 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Science)] TJ ET BT 111.656 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has largely been neglected by historians, yet the work is worthy of note not least for the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that to an extent it foreshadows the work of Thomas Kuhn on the history and philosophy of science ? a point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Bentley neglects. Kuhn remarked in )] TJ ET BT 242.312 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Copernican Revolution)] TJ ET BT 374.972 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that ?only Herbert Butterfield ... has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had particular influence on the structure of this book?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.296 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.296 514.467 m 314.288 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 314.288 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Butterfield argued that the history of science had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been subject to a Whig interpretation; whenever scientists talked about the history of science, ?they saw the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past as a platform for the present and painted the history of their subject as a series of breakthroughs as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though the remorseless logic of their subject matter determined the direction of its history? \(p. 187\). But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of science was not one triumphant march towards greater knowledge of nature, a fact both Butterfield )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Kuhn recognised. Moreover, Kuhn?s idea of paradigms was in part inspired by Butterfield?s argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the main conceptual revolutions in science were ?brought about, not by new observations or additional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence in the first instance, but by transpositions that were taking place inside the minds of scientists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves ... [by their] putting on a different kind of thinking cap?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 360.308 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 360.308 400.419 m 380.300 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time Butterfield was writing on science, he was addressing the subject of religion. Bentley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that the Second World War is key to understanding Butterfield?s life ? ?without it, we might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussing a very different trajectory in his mature life? \(p. 173\). The idea of providence had played a role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butterfield?s pre-war writings, but comes to forefront of his writings afterwards.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.608 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.608 331.395 m 440.600 331.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 440.600 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Butterfield?s idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providence did not simply function as a kind of comfort blanket, but rather, posited the idea that history \(as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline\) ultimately had a moral base. A series of lectures given at the behest of the religious faculty at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge was published in 1949 as )] TJ ET BT 214.004 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Christianity and History)] TJ ET BT 331.352 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a book which went on to sell 30,000 copies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four years. Like most of Butterfield?s work, it is brilliant in places while holding many contradictions. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famous words of the last lecture ? ?Hold to Christ, and for the rest be totally uncommitted? ? come at the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a book ?that has very little to say about Him or indeed the New Testament as a whole? \(p. 222\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After 1950 Butterfield increasingly turned to the study of historiography. Two articles ? one on the origins of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Seven Years War and one on Lord Acton and the Massacre of Bartholomew ? acted as a prelude to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1954 Wiles lectures, published in 1955 as )] TJ ET BT 237.332 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Man on his Past)] TJ ET BT 315.668 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In some sense the choice of topic was a surprise; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many had expected something on Fox; or perhaps the Whig interpretation of history. But other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical issues were moving to the centre of Butterfield?s thought. Prior to the war he had worried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the ?Geneva generation? had ?tried to turn modern history into a teleology with anarchic wars at one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end and the League of Nations at the other? \(p. 295\). After the war the emphasis reversed: the need was felt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?to show the bestiality of the Germans and their special form of evil that had precipitated the destruction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western Europe? \(p. 295\). Furthermore, in 1950 he supervised John Pocock?s thesis on the idea of Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saxon democracy in English historiography that was eventually published in 1957 as the seminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Constitution and Feudal Law)] TJ ET BT 235.712 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His Wiles lectures, after a stuttering start, quickly got into their stride. In the )] TJ ET BT 403.640 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Whig Interpretation)] TJ ET BT 499.304 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Butterfield )] TJ ET endstream endobj 53 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 387.9317 769.1335 407.9237 781.0135 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 122.0117 712.1095 142.0037 723.9895 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 478.2317 598.0615 498.2237 609.9415 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 294.2957 514.7815 314.2877 526.6615 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 65 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 360.3077 400.7335 380.2997 412.6135 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 68 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 420.6077 331.7095 440.5997 343.5895 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 74 0 R 77 0 R 80 0 R 83 0 R ] /Contents 72 0 R >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Length 8712 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had noted with satisfaction that historians had little reflected on the nature of their subject, and in )] TJ ET BT 503.288 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Man on his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past )] TJ ET BT 58.352 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he reassured readers that his enquiry was not about theory. Yet ?every word of his text implied theory ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the nature of historical knowledge, the place of accumulation in sustaining it, about appropriate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodologies, about the history of historiography as its own form of explanation? \(pp. 303?4\). Of course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butterfield would not be the first practising historian to struggle with the world of conceptualising historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practise. One of his most perceptive statements on historiography came in response to some of the jabs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aimed at him by E. H .Carr in )] TJ ET BT 179.336 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 260.672 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A ?person who enters the field of Lutheran studies inherits a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long tradition of scholarship which ... does not merely reflect the view of 1961. It holds some sort of deposit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the views of 1561, 1661, 1761 and 1861?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 261.656 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 261.656 681.027 m 281.648 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 281.648 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If historians ?pay attention to the perspectives of untold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous generations, they cannot be accused of creating a past that simply reflects their own present? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(313\). In 1965 Butterfield delivered the Gifford lectures at Glasgow University on )] TJ ET BT 427.616 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of History)] TJ ET BT 536.624 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The lectures themselves were a disappointment ? audience turnout was small and Butterfield himself was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underprepared. He prevented their publication in his lifetime; in 1981 they were posthumously edited and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published by Butterfield?s friend Adam Watson.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In retrospect, Butterfield, much like Lord Acton, is perhaps best known for the book he didn?t write ? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography of Charles James Fox. After Butterfield had name-checked Fox in )] TJ ET BT 405.284 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Whig Interpretation)] TJ ET BT 521.948 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, G. M. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trevelyan ?decided to make Butterfield put his money where his mouth had been? \(p. 105\). The then-Regius )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professor sent Butterfield the Fox papers which had been in his care suggesting that Butterfield might like to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(write a biography of him ? not the sort of invitation one declined. Butterfield, though, was never one for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival work at the best of times. The ?book on Fox, a call to celebrity, had come to feel like an incubus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he would not dislodge from his shoulders for 20 years? \(p. 118\). He worked at it on and off; the ?box )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his [Fox's] name on it continued to fill with tiny dockets ... Each year brought new resolutions to move )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fox forward and each saw the project languish when so many other tasks seemed to claim priority? \(p. 243\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many reasons have been put forward as to why he did not finish the Fox biography. Denis Brogan, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought Butterfield somewhat of a prig, remarked that ?so upright a man could not being himself to grapple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with rakes and rascals?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 147.980 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 147.980 426.675 m 167.972 426.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 167.972 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Then again, this did not prevent him writing on Napoleon. Ultimately the only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man who can answer this question is the subject of this book; and for the foreseeable future he will remain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(silent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A word or two must also be said about Butterfield?s alleged pro-Nazism. Undoubtedly his decision to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lecture in Bonn in 1938 ? ?by which time all ?decent? people are supposed to have understood all too well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the real character of Hitler?s government? ? was a misjudgement \(p. 118\). Bentley goes to great lengths to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exonerate Butterfield from the charge of being a fellow-traveller ? more than is necessary I suspect. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Undoubtedly Butterfield said some stupid things about the political situation in the 1930s and made some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misjudgements ? but he was hardly alone in this, and, if one wants an example of a card-carrying Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathiser, one need look no further than Arthur Bryant. As Bentley has written in an earlier piece, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butterfield loved to affect humour, ?and his academic colleagues, like their students in the lecture hall, wrote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down his jokes and jibes as formal pronouncements for reproduction?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 371.960 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 371.960 257.859 m 391.952 257.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 391.952 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Therefore, ?many of the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebarbative and unethical statements attributed to Butterfield have their origins in a knockabout conversation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a railway platform, or at a party, or on high table at Peterhouse ...?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.616 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.616 229.347 m 390.608 229.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers of this biography who have had to assimilate all of the theoretical verbiage that postmodernism has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced upon historical theory might perhaps see Butterfield?s contribution to historical theory and method as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fairly tame stuff. However, as Butterfield himself might say, these things have to be looked at in context. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butterfield was part of the bridge between the golden age of historiography of the late 19th and early 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, and the era of postmodernism which decried the historian?s ability to say much about anything. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bentley wrote in his earlier book )] TJ ET BT 194.660 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernizing England?s Past)] TJ ET BT 334.664 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, many history tutors who teach their students )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all about postmodernist historiography tend to struggle when asked to define its modernist pre-cursor. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernizing England?s Past)] TJ ET BT 174.020 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Bentley wrote about English historiography largely in terms of two of its titans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? Butterfield and Namier ? and this biography continues the project of expositing modernist historiography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For those interested in the private lives of dons, Bentley?s biography contains revelations of a previously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unknown affair, with Joy Marc between 1935 and 1939. It is right that knowledge of this relationship should )] TJ ET endstream endobj 73 0 obj [71 0 R /Fit] endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 261.6557 681.3415 281.6477 693.2215 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 76 0 obj [71 0 R /Fit] endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 78 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 147.9797 426.9895 167.9717 438.8695 ] >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 79 0 obj [71 0 R /Fit] endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 371.9597 258.1735 391.9517 270.0535 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 82 0 obj [71 0 R /Fit] endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 84 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 370.6157 229.6615 390.6077 241.5415 ] >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 88 0 R 90 0 R 92 0 R 94 0 R 96 0 R 98 0 R 100 0 R 102 0 R 104 0 R 106 0 R 108 0 R 110 0 R 112 0 R 114 0 R ] /Contents 86 0 R >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Length 11240 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be included in a biography, but aside from telling us the fact that )] TJ ET BT 347.312 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peace Tactics of Napoleon)] TJ ET BT 476.300 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was completed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seven years before it was published, it does not really tell us anything new about Butterfield the historian. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, Bentley?s somewhat prudish stand on the Butterfield/Marc letters ? ?I have suppressed any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexually explicit material in this account, both on the grounds of taste and in consideration of the feelings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joy Marc?s family? ? makes one ask: why include the affair in the first place if the account is ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going to be a censored one? Perhaps one is being too hard on Bentley here; given that this is to all intents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and purposes an official biography, one suspects he is trying to straddle two horses at the same time when he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writes about this relationship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This might also account for the odd fact that is glossed over here and there; for instance, Bentley neglects to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention that in his pursuit of the Namierites Butterfield reviewed one of John Brooke?s books for four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate publications ? a clear breach of academic etiquette.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.584 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.584 640.515 m 341.576 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 341.576 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The book also suffers from the lack of a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concluding remarks at the end. Perhaps Bentley felt that after nearly 400 pages such a tail-end was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unnecessary. But I for one would have liked to have seen something along the lines of an earlier comparison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he made between Butterfield?s commitment to ?narrative exposition with emplotment? and similarities to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butterfield in the styles of modern historians like Simon Schama or Niall Ferguson. Also, those who enjoyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the flair and pace of Bentley?s writing in )] TJ ET BT 233.312 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernizing England?s Past)] TJ ET BT 373.316 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( may be be slightly disappointed here; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 55.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life and Thought of Herbert Butterfield)] TJ ET BT 245.360 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a much more subdued affair ? perhaps befitting the book's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status as an ?official biography?. However, this is not to say the book isn?t extremely readable ? quite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposite in fact. Together with Adam Sisman?s biography of Trevor-Roper, )] TJ ET BT 401.960 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Herbert Butterfield )] TJ ET BT 497.288 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may be seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as another important brick in the prosopographical record of the great English historians of the mid 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century ? even if this is not an endeavour that Butterfield himself would have approved of. With regards to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(verdict on Butterfield the historian, one inclines towards the same view that one felt after reading the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aforementioned biography of Trevor-Roper ? while Bentley is right to point out that Butterfield?s output was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not as insignificant as some critics have stated, one gets the feeling that a man of his talents ought to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left a greater written legacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.427 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Bentley, )] TJ ET BT 149.672 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernising England?s Past)] TJ ET BT 289.676 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.996 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.996 375.411 m 440.984 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Sewell, )] TJ ET BT 132.344 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Herbert Butterfield and the Interpretation of History)] TJ ET BT 385.004 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2005\); C. T. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntire, )] TJ ET BT 112.004 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Herbert Butterfield, Historian as Dissenter)] TJ ET BT 319.004 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 441.308 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 441.308 346.899 m 495.296 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Cannadine, )] TJ ET BT 153.668 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(G. M. Trevelyan)] TJ ET BT 232.316 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London,1992\), p. 128.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 349.640 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 349.640 332.643 m 403.628 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Noel Annan, )] TJ ET BT 128.336 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Our Age)] TJ ET BT 169.328 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1990\), p. 270.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 286.652 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 286.652 318.387 m 340.640 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. P. Kenyon, )] TJ ET BT 131.348 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History Men)] TJ ET BT 212.672 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2nd ed., London, 1993\), p 276.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 368.324 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 368.324 304.131 m 422.312 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. H. Carr, )] TJ ET BT 119.336 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History)] TJ ET BT 194.672 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1961\), p. 41. Bentley remarks that this is a ?celebrated, but )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weary jibe? \(p. 100\). Perhaps it needs to be replaced with Geoffrey Elton?s remark that the ?range of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples [used in )] TJ ET BT 153.668 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Whig)] TJ ET BT 179.000 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(] is surprisingly narrow ... one gets very tired of Martin Luther popping up on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(page after page?. Elton, ?Herbert Butterfield and the study of history?, )] TJ ET BT 405.272 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 515.276 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 27 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1984\), 734.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 123.008 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 123.008 232.851 m 176.996 232.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 219.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, the arch-Tory Bishop Stubbs is seen as one of the great Whig historians on this interpretation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 204.339 m 118.004 204.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 191.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. H. Hexter, ?The historian and his day?, )] TJ ET BT 265.976 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Science Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 397.292 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 69 \(1954\), 220.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 477.284 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 477.284 190.083 m 531.272 190.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 177.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herbert Butterfield, )] TJ ET BT 161.660 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Whig Interpretation of History)] TJ ET BT 329.660 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1931\), p. 16.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.984 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.984 175.827 m 494.972 175.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 162.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herbert Butterfield, )] TJ ET BT 161.660 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Englishman and his History)] TJ ET BT 317.000 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1944\), p 2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 435.320 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 435.320 161.571 m 495.308 161.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 148.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Keith Sewell, ?The Herbert Butterfield Problem and its Resolution?, )] TJ ET BT 415.976 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal for the History of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideas)] TJ ET BT 90.008 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 64 \(2003\), 599?618.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 193.328 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 193.328 133.059 m 253.316 133.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 120.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to J. H. Plumb, Namier ?hated Butterfield, [with] a hatred that deepened year after year and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a kind of obsessional rage. He spoke of him with sneering bitterness, arranged for his books to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be savaged by anonymous reviewers and wrecked his reputation whenever opportunity offered?. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quoted in McIntire, )] TJ ET BT 162.668 77.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Herbert Butterfield, Historian as Dissenter)] TJ ET BT 369.668 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 277?8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.996 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.996 76.035 m 485.984 76.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 63.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The quote ran, ?Darwin was accused of taking mind out of the universe; and Sir Lewis has been the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin of political history ? in more senses than one?, )] TJ ET BT 328.976 48.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(TLS)] TJ ET BT 348.320 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 28 August 1953.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 433.988 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