%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818120855+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818120855+01'00') /Title (Doing History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4042 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Doing History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the past few decades we have been invited to rethink history, pursue it, practise it, defend it, refigure it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and generally consider what it is, what it?s for, and whether we really need to bother with it. Now, just as we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think it must all be done and dusted, if not done to death, we are offered more advice on ?doing? it. Jaded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academics may wilt at the prospect of this attempted resuscitation of what to many may have declined into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stale debate between ultimately incompatible contestants, but what we are offered here is an introduction to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still relevant issues for students who, we must remember, are replenished perennially, in all their refreshing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical naivety.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors are well aware that discussions concerning the nature and purpose of the subject are ongoing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their aim is to introduce students to the key historiographical debates that still, they affirm, divide the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profession. The preface makes clear their belief that the practice of history cannot be isolated from its theory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not least because the very concept of ?history? itself is based on philosophical presuppositions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determine who and what are to count as legitimate subjects, worthy of historians? attention. The first part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book, then \(consisting of two chapters\), is concerned with the perennial question ?What is history?? This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes a discussion of whether ?history? is the same as ?the past?, an introduction to two main schools of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography, and a brief look at the function and purpose of the subject. Chapter two goes on to discuss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1134)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 September, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Donnelly)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claire Norton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415565769)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abingdon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beverley Southgate)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7274 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Changing approaches to history?, where students are confronted by a wide-ranging survey of two millennia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of historical practice ? including Chinese, Islamic, and Afro-Asian ? focusing on ?some of the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important people and ideas?. The four chapters of part two then confront the question ?What do historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do?? There are sections on such staples as ?historical knowledge? and ?the [sic] historical method? and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship to science, primary and secondary sources, the role of imagination, and the postmodern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge. In part three the authors turn \(in three chapters\) to the question ?Whose history??, where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of history \(and of archives\) is discussed, in relation to politics, ideology, and the formation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities; and consideration is given to alternative perspectives, including postcolonial, feminist, and black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories, and to heritage and more ?popular? entertainment. A fourth part concludes with ?History today?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and considers possible futures for the subject. The whole is written in a clear, accessible style; there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judicious use of boxed ?case-studies?; and each chapter is helpfully divided into headed subsections, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concluding with a short list of books recommended for further reading.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Covering such a vast expanse of open territory, the authors no doubt lay themselves open to sniping from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many quarters, and I?ll fire off a few shots here. One is to draw their attention to the mistaken ascription to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thucydides of a history of the Trojan \(rather than Peloponnesian\) War \(p. 22\). Another is to register my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complaint that their feminism has resulted, quite unnecessarily surely, in ungrammatical constructions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(where subjects do not agree with verbs\) ? something that could be easily avoided through the use of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plural. A further suggestion is that cited authors might be introduced with at least the courtesy of a full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name, and preferably with an adjective or two of description \(nationality, century?\). More positively, I note )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but do not criticise the \(inevitably\) heavy reliance on ?secondary? sources; and I can confirm that, so far as I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can judge, that reliance has been meticulously acknowledged with references cited.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the heavier artillery, though, and as a more substantial point, I would raise the question of whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Donnelly and Claire Norton themselves are sure \(or are agreed\) about where they stand in relation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two contrasting historiographical positions introduced at the outset. It seems to me that, in their approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to these, there is a continuing tension between the two, and I shall take that as my focus for a more detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of their work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book, then, introduces readers to what might be called ?traditional? and ?postmodern? approaches to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. The former implies subscription to the conventional belief that an historical work consists in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation, made to the best of its author?s ability, of the past as it actually, or probably, was: any such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work would, as Donnelly and Norton put it, stand ?in relation to a picture of how the past probably looked? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 4\). This position derives from a ?realist? attitude towards the external world, including the past, and it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implies that that reality can be somehow retrieved and re-presented. The second approach, by contrast, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained by those who see their work as being primarily, or even entirely, ?textual? ? as belonging to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary genre, which puts more emphasis on individual and imaginative input, and \(in the authors? own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words here\) as ?standing in relation to nothing more than the way that they have used their research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materials? \(p. 4\). Though well amplified later, where postmodernism is described as being responsible for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?destabilising the idea that the past can be accurately reconstructed? \(p. 176\), and as having ?foregrounded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact [sic] that history is never neutral? \(p. 186\), those introductory descriptions are hardly adequate; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dichotomy between them is admitted to be ?overly stark? \(which it is\). Nevertheless, the fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction drawn there, despite the absence of any authorial commitment to either side, does provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students with some sort of template for what follows.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And such help might well be needed, for students are introduced to so much more in the introductory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters that, having possibly arrived at university innocently thinking that they know what it means to ?do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history?, they may well, by the end, feel thoroughly disorientated. Which may, indeed, be no bad thing, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long as they retain the motivation \(or are subjected to external pressure\) to go on to subsequent chapters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where these matters are handled in greater depth?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter three, then, the authors turn to look in more detail at ?what historians do?, noting how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional belief that the past has an inherent and ascertainable ?shape?, for the study and retrieval of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have reliable tools and procedures, gives the subject its public authority and influence. ?The )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6245 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical method?, they explain, as modelled on the natural sciences, benefits from rules that are ?agreed? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 58\). One may already question the singularity of ?)] TJ ET BT 290.972 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 305.636 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( historical method?; and it seems to be questioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately, within the book itself, when its rules are conceded to be only ?contingent?, flexible, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?subject to change? \(p. 59\). Going on then, more radically, to adopt the second of their historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions, the authors conclude that history should be treated, not like a science after all, but more like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature. As such, it importantly requires analysis of its )] TJ ET BT 306.992 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rhetorical)] TJ ET BT 354.992 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( construction; and with that in mind, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behoves historians to repudiate their long-favoured impersonal air of detachment, with its implication that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what is revealed derives, not so much from individual writers, as from ?mediums? narrating from nowhere; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead there should be authorial transparency, with usage of the first person.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The tension that surfaces here between the pressures of conventional history and its more recent challengers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persists in the treatment of the old distinction between ?primary? and ?secondary? sources ? a distinction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that has of course long been considered by some as fundamental, but that is recognised here as ?potentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic and artificial? \(p. 68\). The ?old? model here begins to crumble, especially as we read that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian?s choice of sources is ultimately a matter of ethics, and that ?imagination? can provide important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inputs in a situation where the concept of ?objectivity? is \(though still widely used\) no longer useful, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where historical ?knowledge? is seen to be constructed by historians from their own particular perspectives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with their own particular agendas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That takes us to a fuller treatment of the central debate between traditionalists and their ?postmodernist? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challengers. The former, it is explained, subscribe to an empiricist epistemology and a correspondence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory of truth ? a belief in ?realism?, or that an external world \(and, for history, a past\) exists independently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of us, and that we can succeed in making verifiable knowledge claims about it. Contrariwise, postmodernists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would substitute a plurality of pasts, of which historians will have different perceptions, taken from a variety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of viewpoints, with multiple agendas. In the latter case, histories are revealed as ?fictive?, in the sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being personal constructions \(rather than reconstructions\); and the whole distinction between history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiction thus becomes blurred.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This chapter concludes with what, for some, must still be a highly contentious definition of history, as ?an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often fascinating genre of literary writing which is ideologically motivated? \(p. 113\). And that seems to put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the authors squarely in the ?postmodernist? camp. But evidently they still want it both ways, for they go on, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more conventionally, to assert that the discipline of history remains defined by certain protocols, and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while )] TJ ET BT 63.680 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(some)] TJ ET BT 88.340 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of these can be changed, not )] TJ ET BT 230.300 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(all)] TJ ET BT 242.972 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of them can.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such fence-straddling becomes yet more uncomfortable with the authors? consideration of ?Whose history?? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in part three; and here they finally take their gloves off. Declining to accept the possibility of any ?impartial? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history 'written for its own sake?, they unashamedly proclaim that, ?History is and always has been used for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and ideological purposes? \(p. 134\); and that ?all history writing relates to questions of power? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(135\). With that acknowledgement of the )] TJ ET BT 230.984 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inevitability)] TJ ET BT 288.320 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of political/ideological input, the question for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians and for their readers is ?not, then, whether a particular narrative is ideologically motivated, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather whether it consciously acknowledges the viewpoint from which it is written and the functions it hopes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have? \(p. 117\). \(For the sake of transparency here and now in this review, I do personally agree with that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion, however heretical it may still seem to some.\))] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7291 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of history?s political functions is to manufacture, legitimise, and control communal and national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities. That role is indicated here in a range of examples, from India to Italy and South Africa, and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clarified by reference to academic curricula from countries such as Greece and the USA. In that latter case, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history has been described as ?designed to make Americans feel good about themselves and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government?, and more generally ?to reinforce the status quo? \(p. 127\). Further, the power of nationalistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives is shown to be complemented by that of archives ? so often taken as neutral repositories ? which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(help to determine what can \(or cannot\) be written, through selective processes of acquiring, collating, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintaining, classifying, categorising, naming, and so on. And in this context, the authors draw attention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lack of any national archive in the case of Palestinians ? leaving no other option for historians than to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rely on problematic oral reports and heavily censored Israeli documents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These matters of power and ideology lead conveniently to the subject of chapter eight, ?Histories from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another perspective?, where we have discussion of histories that are explicitly political/ideologically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positioned ? that is, making no pretence of being properly ?neutral, objective, and disinterested? \(p. 142\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These seek to give voice to the previously silenced, excluded, and marginalised ? and with an avowedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical political purpose for the future. For example, postcolonial historians have sought to counterbalance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional histories that served to legitimise colonialism and oppression of subject peoples; and feminist, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender, and black histories have likewise engaged with contemporary societal issues. All such sectional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests are ?explicitly political and ideologically motivated? \(p. 151\), and it is, we are reminded again, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disingenuous to think that any histories are not; all practitioners choose their subjects and perspective on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis of a \(consciously or unconsciously adopted\) ethical and political position.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With that reminder ringing in our ears, we are ready to confront ?popular history?, and the realisation that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most people have access to ?history?, not through academic books, but via films and television, and maybe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical fiction and other hybrids. Such media are often relegated to mere ?amateur? status by ?proper? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. But ?academic? and ?popular? histories are not necessarily or usefully to be seen as mutually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusive opposites; and here the authors helpfully illustrate their topic with a case-study of the film )] TJ ET BT 517.292 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Battle of Algiers)] TJ ET BT 112.688 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1966\), and indicate useful ways for students \(and others\) )] TJ ET BT 394.964 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(qua)] TJ ET BT 412.964 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( historians to approach such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters: that is, rather than quibbling about the details of a film?s relationship with ?proper? history, to raise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions about the maker?s intentions, about meaning-generation, and about the possibility and adoption of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varied interpretations and readings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This penultimate chapter concludes by looking at a number of other contentious issues of great importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and contemporary interest. ?Memory studies? is rightly introduced as a burgeoning field, and \(in my view\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sound advice is given to treat history and memory as neither identical nor mutually incompatible, but rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as interactive and interdependent. Another growth area ? heritage ? is often snubbed by historians, but again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides another popular route to ?the past?; and once more good advice is offered concerning recognition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the important political implications of choosing what is to be preserved, what is to be funded ? what, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short, is to count as ?heritage?. And that prepares readers for a brief but important discussion of recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critiques by theorists of our ?historicised culture? ? a culture in which history is commonly identified as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemingly ?natural? entity, while it should really be seen as an oppressive force that justifies \(naturalises\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current injustices and inequalities as being apparent inevitabilities, and that promotes only ever more of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By this time, and with such awareness of \(and evidence for\) contemporary trends, readers will probably be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared for a comparatively radical conclusion concerning ?The future of history?. And that \(fortunately in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(my view\) is what \(for the most part\) they get.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But there does remain some ambivalence. For on the one hand, we have history described as ?a contingent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historicised product of its times ? a way of narrating the ?before now? which was useful for what people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted to do with the past in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but which has since lost some of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applicability? \(p. 173\); while on the other hand, we are informed of the ?considerable congruence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparability between different cultures? understanding and practice of the genre of history? \(p. 192\) ? the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5162 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implication surely being that there is, after all, something ?essential? about it. Similarly, we are urged to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make space for other and new sorts of history, as influenced by postmodernism, recognising the ?arbitrary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and contingent nature? of its form; no one type is ?)] TJ ET BT 278.648 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 293.312 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( proper type? \(p. 174\). So we should refuse ?to remain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constrained by the historically determined and contingent genre protocols of nineteenth- and twentieth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century academic history?, in favour of ?more plural and heterogeneous definitions of what constitutes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?history??. Which is all very radical, but steady on: we are )] TJ ET BT 318.284 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 333.620 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( advocating ?a collective abandonment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these genre protocols entirely? \(p. 192\)!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So hesitancy ? or is it fair to term it commitment-phobia? ? runs through the book, as a persistent relic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps of the authors? own historical training. It is consistent with their practical ? and no doubt pragmatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? advice to students: namely, that they should remember to identify ?which approach? other historians take, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while taking care themselves to avoid ?taking sides? \(p. 6\); that they should remember that they themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to follow the rules and ?play the game? as currently practised. So while, on the one hand, histories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be ?open? and ?heterogeneous?, students should, on the other hand, learn ?the accepted ways of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?doing history?? ? the current ?rules? that collectively constitute ?the historical method? ? so that they can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow those rules, and )] TJ ET BT 146.336 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(conform)] TJ ET BT 186.332 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, learning ?how to think, talk and write like historians do now? \(p. 7\). That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may, we are assured, all change; but in the light of such conservative advocacy, it is difficult to see quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To conclude, though, despite the apparent residue of ambivalence \(or is it difference of opinion?\) that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permeates their thinking, the authors have succeeded in producing a worthwhile introduction to ?doing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history? for the 21st century; and it is to be hoped that their book will replace some of those long outdated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts on historiography that reappear so depressingly in bookshops at the beginning of each academic year, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably at the behest of tutors who are pleased to ignore more recent thinking on their subject. The book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under review may appear to aim to be all things to all people ? refusing to commit one way or the other to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the initial distinction made between the two fundamentally different historiographical approaches ? but as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proceeds, the authors succeed in direct proportion to their failure to achieve that aim. The whole pace and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urgency of the book moves up a gear, as they confess to their approval of much of the ?postmodernist? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agenda. And the message they leave is very positive: that ?history? itself can be changed, enlarged, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(redefined \(at least in part, as they would stress\); and that a newly refigured history can properly serve vital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socio-political purposes. Theory and practice come together here at last, and students reading the book will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be exposed to exciting new possibilities in ?doing history?.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 342.319 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 324.539 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 324.539 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1134)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 323.145 m 328.316 323.145 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 298.168 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7774)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 323.4595 328.3157 335.3395 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1134) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000523 00000 n 0000000605 00000 n 0000004699 00000 n 0000004808 00000 n 0000004918 00000 n 0000005027 00000 n 0000008588 00000 n 0000008716 00000 n 0000008800 00000 n 0000008865 00000 n 0000016192 00000 n 0000016257 00000 n 0000022555 00000 n 0000022620 00000 n 0000029964 00000 n 0000030048 00000 n 0000035263 00000 n 0000035391 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35487 %%EOF