%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818093743+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818093743+01'00') /Title (History in the Discursive Condition: Reconsidering the Tools of Thought) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4820 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(History in the Discursive Condition: Reconsidering the Tools of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Thought)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History in the Discursive Condition)] TJ ET BT 218.348 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2011\) ? a follow up to her \(for me\) ground-breaking )] TJ ET BT 478.616 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Realism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Consensus )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 88.352 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 88.352 250.545 m 102.344 250.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 102.344 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 128.672 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sequel to History: Postmodernism and the Crisis of Representational Time)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.336 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.336 250.545 m 505.328 250.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 505.328 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Deeds Ermarth, a student of interdisciplinary cultural history and theory, explores the practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications for history of the discursive condition, the condition which in her view has been created \(or at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least is in the process of being created\) by the so called ?postmodern? challenge to modernism. \(Readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who would like to know more about Ermarth might like to read her strangely reticent ?Invitation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.012 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.012 179.265 m 100.004 179.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 100.004 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ermarth, it may be noted, does not much like the terms ?postmodernism? and ?postmodernity?, which in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion have ?lost value from too little specificity or too much contradictory or careless usage? \(p. xii\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North America, in particular, treatment of the term ?post-modern? by a variety of generally unnamed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals and others has been too often ?trivialising?, ?dismissive? and ?inadequate? \(p. xii\). Where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible, we should avoid using the term. Following the precedent set by Lyotard in )] TJ ET BT 439.988 97.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Postmodern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Condition)] TJ ET BT 82.028 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, she personally prefers to use the terms modern condition and discursive condition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part one of )] TJ ET BT 101.996 56.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History in the Discursive Condition )] TJ ET BT 276.332 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(made up of two chapters, on the modern condition and on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1135)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 September, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Deeds Ermarth)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415782180)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(160pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Macfie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 88.3517 250.8595 102.3437 262.7395 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 491.3357 250.8595 505.3277 262.7395 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 86.0117 179.5795 100.0037 191.4595 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7663 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the discursive condition\))] TJ ET BT 152.672 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 155.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ermarth explains in some detail how the modern condition \(modernism\) arose out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the ? discontinuous? medieval background; and how it became accepted as the established order of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding. In part two \(made up of four further chapters, on individuality and agency in the discursive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condition; discursive times: phase, phrase, rhythm; method and the tools of thought; and action and art\) she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains how, in the late 19th and 20th centuries, the modern condition \(modernism\) was challenged by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of artists, scientists, philosophers and others, with the result that a paradigmatic shift \(a ?tectonic? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift, a ?sea-change, a ?second Reformation?\) occurred in the process of understanding, a development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, in her opinion, has not yet been fully accepted by the academic community.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The medieval \(Christian\) world out of which modernism emerged was, in Ermarth?s opinion, one in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time and space were seen as being static and discontinuous. In this static and discontinuous world, narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not based on a meaningful distinction between past, present and future, but on ?interpretative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalisations of typological paradigms? \(p. 7\), essences united only in the mind of God. The successful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French king, for instance, was one who ?approximated the type represented by Charlemagne, however )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remote from any French king Charlemagne?s immediate concerns might have been? \(p. 7\). Objects in space )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were identifiable merely in themselves, not in their mutual relationships with each other. Even in cases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where time had some thematic value, it was given a ritual rather than a formal importance. The emphasis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was always on difference and incompatibility, not on continuity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Modernism, the successor to the medieval perspective on things, or rather lack of a perspective, according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ermarth \(here she draws on her earlier work on the subject\) started in the period of the Renaissance, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artists such as Masaccio, Piero della Francesca, Leone Battista Alberti, Michelangelo and Raphael, created a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new ?perspective technology?, a development that lead effectively to a revolution in human consciousness. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this new world, objects \(and people\) were/are no longer thought of as being static and discontinuous, as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the medieval period, but as interconnected, wrapped in an envelope of neutral, homogeneous and infinite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space and time \(Newton?s absolute time, ultimately God?s time\), subject to mutually informative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measurement. It was this interconnectedness of objects in space and time, in Ermarth?s opinion, that enabled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the discovery of scientific laws \(and generalisations\), the creation of realistic art and literature, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invention of historical representation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, out of the modern condition ? so Ermarth believes ? arose the discursive condition, one created, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly in the 20th century, by a series of revolutionary artists \(Manet, Cezanne, Picasso, Braque, Breton\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientists \(Einstein\), writers \(Woolf, Joyce, Beckett\), philosophers \(Heidegger, Derrida, Foucault\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students of linguistics \(de Saussure\), who individually and collectively challenged the principal assumptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the modern condition, in particular the neutrality of space and time, the objectivity of the ?real?, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common denominator of measurement and generalisation \(except in the most limited of circumstances\), the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transparency of language, as a vehicle for understanding the world, and the concept of individuality and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated concept of individual agency. No longer, it seems, in this new world of surrealism, relativity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory, quantum mechanics, the stream of consciousness and modern linguistic analysis, can we depend on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space and time to provide the common denominators that make possible mutually informative measurement. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No longer can we reconcile difference, using a ?consensus apparatus? to bridge the gap between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irreconcilable modes of understanding. No longer, in other words, can we identify and observe a real and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objective world, out there, awaiting our description.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of these artistic and other discoveries and innovations, the most important, in Ermarth?s opinion, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly Ferdinand de Saussure?s radically new theory of language, in which language is identified, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a transparent vehicle for the description of meaning and value in the world, but as a differential system of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning and value, in effect a code or semiological system, finite, arbitrary, and autonomous. \(Ermarth?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the implications for knowledge of de Saussure?s innovations in the field of linguistics, which she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly considers fundamental to her understanding of the discursive condition, is excellent, well worth the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchase price of the book\). According to de Saussure, meaning in language is enabled, not by its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association with the world it supposedly describes, but by ?system?, a subliminal code of discursive rules \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(langue)] TJ ET BT 66.680 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) that enables speech \()] TJ ET BT 173.312 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(parole)] TJ ET BT 204.644 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Any actual enunciation of the code is understandable only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systematically and negatively, never positively, as both the code and its enunciation lack any referential )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7755 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anchor in the ?real? world. This is true, not only of verbal languages, but also of all other systems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning and value that operate like languages in the world, such as body language, garment language, traffic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control language, and the languages of diplomacy and history. What this means is that ?everything is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language, everything is writing, and in the expanded sense Saussure sponsors, in which language and writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are things we do in non-verbal ways as well as in verbal ones: in this sense everything is discourse? \(p. 39\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such discursive systems are the condition of our consciousness and knowledge. They determine what we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think and what we say \(though the creative scope of enunciation is considerable; occasionally an exceptional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speaker of the code, such as Shakespeare, may extend the code, but for the most part it is fixed: we do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speak, we are spoken\). In other words, as Ermarth puts it, we inhabit not the modern condition, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discursive one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What does this mean for history? Effectively, as Ermarth makes clear, at the very least its destruction as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objective portrayal of what happened in the past. In the discursive condition, history takes its place as just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one more \(language\) system amongst many, no longer )] TJ ET BT 297.644 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 312.308 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( system that contains all)] TJ ET BT 430.640 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems. The historian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and for Ermarth we are all in one way or another historians\) cannot simply carry on as usual, assuming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual identities and causalities as if time were an envelope, unproblematic and even neutral. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discursive condition, process is conceived anew as a semiological \(sign system\) process, based on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(semiological system, not a historical one. Time is a dimension of events, phrased, discontinuous or rhythmic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Things are not objects, ?objectively? there, but merely the sites of acts of attention. The individual, the so-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called ?founding subject of history?, is what Ermarth refers to as a ?palimpsestuous? multiplicity, evident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only in enunciation, not in system \(p. 56\). The historian, by an act of enunciation, can remain creative \(more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so perhaps than ever\), but he or she cannot represent or reconstruct the past, except as a sort of fiction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That does not mean that, in Ermarth?s opinion, the historian is finished. In the discursive condition, he or she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can, if he or she wishes, practice history as an art, a coded possibility of enunciation, engaging genuinely in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cross-disciplinary work \(as opposed to a mere splicing activity that preserves the disciplinary status quo\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and renewing individuality, agency and causality in terms, not of neutrality, as in the modern condition, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of multiplicity \(multiple semantic systems\). Moreover, he or she might \(Ermarth provides a useful list of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestions for this on pp. 111?2\): develop themes based on iterative details and patterning rather than on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plot-and-character; employ sequences and series that are inflected rather than plotted; emphasise difference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than resemblance; employ a narrative line constituted by a process of digression and return; emphasise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fabrication and not representation; and use pasts as dimensions of present experience \(of present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enunciation\). He or she might even, if brave enough, attempt to decipher, from particular acts of enunciation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the differential systems of meaning and value the new paradigm implies ? something ruled out, I would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought, in de Saussure?s system. By this means the historian would create, or at least attempt to create, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something that would reflect more accurately the multiplicity of human experience and consciousness in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To illustrate the potential of the discursive condition for the arts, Ermarth cites a number of what she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers to be exemplary cases of artists who succeeded in using or shaping that condition, including the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novels of Virginia Woolf, Jorge Luis Borges, Julio Cortzar and Vladimir Nabokov \(extended discussions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which appear in )] TJ ET BT 113.660 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sequel to History)] TJ ET BT 196.988 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), the paintings of Pablo Picasso and Ren Magritte, and the films of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Clooney and Alexander Payne. Though surprisingly \(or maybe not\) she includes few if any works of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?postmodern? history in her citations, mainly perhaps because they are as yet so few and far between ? a fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that should give even the most enthusiastic advocate of the discursive condition some pause for thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ermarth clearly expects that, in the near or distant future, modernist historians will respond positively to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discursive condition, and adapt their histories to its exigencies ? this despite the fact that she fully recognises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the deep-seated conservatism of the historical profession. That, in other words, we historians, as she puts it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will ?get over it? \(it being presumably the paradigm shift she identifies\); \(the phrase ?get over it? is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ermarth?s, p. xiv\). I am not so sure ? though a number of theorists, including Roland Barthes, Hlne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cixous, Luce Irigaray, Keith Jenkins and Hayden White have apparently already made considerable progress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in that direction. This is because, as I understand it, history is a cultural practice that, consciously or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconsciously, follows \(reflects, participates in, responds to\) the mainly spoken culture of the age in which it )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7429 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is written \(in our case English\). It can therefore only employ the words and phrases \(terms, concepts, ideas\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally accepted by the language concerned, such as, in our case, time and space \(Newtonian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjective\), things \(objects\), individual identity \(I, you, we, they\), cause and effect \(because\), story \(plot and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drama\) and picture \(representation\). History, in other words, is fundamentally unsuited to the construction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a new paradigm, as science and possibly philosophy are not. True, from time to time a quisling word from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the language of the new order may penetrate the language of the old \(relativity, narrative, discourse, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantum and code spring to mind, though interestingly Ermarth views relativism as a part of the old, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Modernist order, and not a part of the new\), but for the most part we historians are not equipped to promote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical change; we are slaves of the old order, not advocates of the new. It will, therefore, I fear \(I nail my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colours to the mast here: I am more or less persuaded by the philosophical necessity of the discursive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condition\) be some time before we as historians feel confident enough to adopt the new paradigm in full, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even in part; though we may from time to time adopt some of its useful words and phrases. And \(if and\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when we do, the new order \(paradigm\) will have become so entrenched in our thinking \(consciousness\) that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we will not even be aware of the extraordinary changes we have accomplished. We will simply employ the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(mainly literary\) devices proposed by Ermarth, and no doubt others, without even thinking about them, as if, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Ermarth puts it, such things were entirely natural.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One should not assume that the discursive condition, as defined by Ermarth, is above suspicion \(though it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be a brave man or woman who enters the lists against Ermarth, a formidable adversary\). How far, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonders, in the medieval world, was time static and discontinuous mainly for the educated elite? For the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasantry, it might well have been rather a dimension of events ? the rising and setting of the sun ? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposed by Ermarth in the discursive condition. Why should not modernist time \(neutral, Newtonian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infinite\) co-exist, admittedly as part of a different language system, with discursive time \(discontinuous, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finite, rhythmic\)? May not all language systems be the product of common brain events that somehow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produce consciousness ? of which all language systems appear to be mere derivatives? Or is consciousness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps, merely an integration of all language systems? How far, one wonders, could one survive in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?real? world without some concept of the ?real? and the ?objective?, or at least an awareness of the same? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why should not Modernist history survive, as a language system, enjoying its own autonomy, as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative to history in the discursive condition, its supposed successor? Finally, is not the discursive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condition, that Ermarth proposes, itself just one more example of the capacity of the modernist condition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalise the particular, a generalisation that Ermarth elsewhere condemns so vigorously? After all, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might speak and understand body language. We might speak and understand garment language. But it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubtful if we will ever succeed in speaking and understanding the language of the discursive condition. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are some of the questions that Ermarth?s penetrating analysis of the discursive condition provokes, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(me at least.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I might add that I am not entirely convinced of the differential and negative nature of language in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discursive condition. When I hear the word rabbit I cannot help thinking of the rabbit I used to keep \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lost\) in my childhood ? but I suppose that this is just a typical modernist error of understanding, subject to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future correction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ermarth is understandably uncertain about how far we, the inhabitants of our contemporary culture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilisation, will succeed in constructing \(fashioning, creating, inventing\) tools of thought appropriate to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discursive condition \(it cannot be said that many of the instances of experimentation she cites in the field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the arts, the novel and cinema are particularly convincing\). But she is in no doubt regarding the probable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of a failure to respond adequately to the changes brought about by the condition. Without a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious attempt to discover the new tools of thought appropriate to it, she believes, we will be unable to find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical ways of dealing adequately with practical problems such as, for instance, over-population, water )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortage and global warming. Nor is she in any doubt regarding the probable consequences with regard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history \(her main concern in this book\). Without fashioning new tools of thought, appropriate to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discursive condition, she argues, it will prove difficult, if not impossible, for the historian to distinguish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objective truth from lies. This is because, as Ermarth puts it \(discussing a particular case of genocide in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balkans\): ?There is little possibility of comparing objective truth with lies when the objective \(historical\) )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 2971 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth is ?the lie?? \(p. 92\). History performs a cultural function, and that function is ?not so much to hold up a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mirror to nature as to create and maintain the terms in which it is possible to see, and not see, the world? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(93\). As for the modernist historian, who continues to write modernist \(standard\) history, his work will, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ermarth?s opinion, seem about as quaint an undertaking, as painting realistic landscapes: laudable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appealing, reassuring no doubt, but relatively useless in terms of cultural renewal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.547 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Deeds Ermarth)] TJ ET BT 184.652 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 190.652 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Realism and Consensus)] TJ ET BT 304.652 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( in the English Novel)] TJ ET BT 405.320 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 1983\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 514.640 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 514.640 672.531 m 554.636 672.531 l S BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 658.275 m 78.008 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Deeds Ermarth, )] TJ ET BT 190.652 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sequel to History: Postmodernism and the Crisis of Representational Time )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 170.336 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 170.336 629.763 m 224.324 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Deeds Ermarth, ?Invitation to historians?, )] TJ ET BT 315.980 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beyond History)] TJ ET BT 390.968 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 5, 2 \(2001\), 195-215.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 498.956 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 498.956 615.507 m 552.944 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author will respond to this review in due course.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 573.919 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 556.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 556.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1135)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 554.745 m 328.316 554.745 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 529.768 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.368 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7775)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 514.6397 672.8455 554.6357 684.7255 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 658.5895 78.0077 670.4695 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 170.3357 630.0775 224.3237 641.9575 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 498.9557 615.8215 552.9437 627.7015 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 555.0595 328.3157 566.9395 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1135) >> endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000581 00000 n 0000000684 00000 n 0000005556 00000 n 0000005665 00000 n 0000005775 00000 n 0000005884 00000 n 0000009445 00000 n 0000009573 00000 n 0000009657 00000 n 0000009686 00000 n 0000009813 00000 n 0000009849 00000 n 0000009878 00000 n 0000010006 00000 n 0000010042 00000 n 0000010071 00000 n 0000010198 00000 n 0000010234 00000 n 0000010299 00000 n 0000018015 00000 n 0000018080 00000 n 0000025888 00000 n 0000025953 00000 n 0000033435 00000 n 0000033547 00000 n 0000036571 00000 n 0000036699 00000 n 0000036754 00000 n 0000036880 00000 n 0000036935 00000 n 0000037063 00000 n 0000037118 00000 n 0000037246 00000 n 0000037301 00000 n 0000037429 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37525 %%EOF