%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818063531+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818063531+01'00') /Title (Remaking the Middle Ages: The Methods of Cinema and History in Portraying the Medieval World) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3077 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Remaking the Middle Ages: The Methods of Cinema and History in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Portraying the Medieval World)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The thesis and value of Andrew Elliott?s new study of ?medieval film? are neatly encapsulated by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminding us at the end of the book?s preface that, in the medieval tradition, the Grail quest involved asking, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not answering, the right questions. The importance of Elliott?s book to this increasingly crowded field )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(happily, to nod to Langland, a fair field now more full of folk\) lies in the author?s penchant for asking the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right questions over and over again as he seamlessly moves through areas of critical enquiry too often seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at odds with one another: literary theory, medieval studies, cinema studies, film theory, historiography, new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historicism, medievalism, and cultural studies in general ? while also acknowledging his need to address )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audiences of both specialists and non-specialists alike in all these fields.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1136)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 September, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Elliott)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780786446247)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(32.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(286pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McFarland & Company, Inc.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jefferson, NC)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Harty)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8315 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Umberto Eco has, perhaps uncharacteristically simply, reminded us that ?people seem to like the Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ages? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 67.004 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 67.004 768.819 m 80.996 768.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 80.996 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 86.996 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while also warning us that there is no such thing as )] TJ ET BT 334.640 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 352.304 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages. Rather, in Eco?s view, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are at least ten at times distinct, at times overlapping notions of the Middle Ages, which multiple post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval worlds have both happily embraced and readily discarded as they saw fit. Elliott?s study takes heed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Eco?s warning, adopting in his book a series of ?medieval imaginaries? \(a phrase coined by Franois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amy de la Bretque as the title for his monumental 2004 study of ?medieval film?\) as the basis for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistently insightful study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elliott begins by discussing history, historiography, and film ? and the ?one, big mess? that post-medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to access the medieval have become. He then argues that historiography and cinematography share )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a common burden. They are not so much at odds with each other as attempting, one on page and one on film, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to do the same thing: to re-imagine and to reconstruct some version\(s\) of what we call the medieval. Film )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not, therefore, necessarily get medieval history, literature, or culture wrong. Rather, film, like the study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history itself, attempts to bridge a gap between two eras, our own and what we think of as the medieval, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either by showing us that which we perceive iconically as medieval or by assimilating the medieval into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?more recognizable and familiar models?. European film is more adept than American film at doing so, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the very simple reason that many of the sets and points of reference for ?medieval film? literally survive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intact across Europe ? an idea driven home by )] TJ ET BT 258.296 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monuments stars du 7)] TJ ET BT 364.628 549.029 Td /F2 10.7 Tf [(e)] TJ ET BT 369.364 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( art)] TJ ET BT 386.368 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a fascinating exhibition curated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by N. T. Binh in Paris last year at the Centre des monuments nationaux, and by the accompanying exhibition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catalogue of the same title.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 162.992 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 162.992 514.467 m 176.984 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having established a solid critical foundation for the balance of his study in part one, Elliott next turns his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the characters we see \(or think we see\) on the screen in cinematic medieval worlds, devoting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate chapters to those who fight, those who rule, those who pray, and those who work. In doing so, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion includes an astonishing number of cinematic comparisons and contrasts. Indeed, throughout his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, Elliott discusses more than 150 films, no mean feat and a further testimony to the usefulness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of his study. And again, here in this great middle of his study, Elliott is relentless in asking just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the right questions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In discussing, those who fight ? the knights who were bold in days of old ? Elliott begins with the problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posed in attempting to find a medieval referent. Do we ? and filmmakers ? look to Chaucer?s idealized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canterbury portrait of the ?verray parfit, gentil knight?, or to the forcefully aggressive Beowulf, Cuchulain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roland and their counterparts in )] TJ ET BT 191.660 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Njals Saga)] TJ ET BT 244.004 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 267.332 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(El Cantar del mio Cid)] TJ ET BT 374.012 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? Is our model chivalric or violent? In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking to resolve this dilemma, Elliott turns first to iconic recreations of knighthood, then to ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(film seeks to tame aggression by distinguishing between ?good knights? and ?bad knights? ? in much the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same way that the film Western had distinguished between the ?good guys? and the ?bad guys?, sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by simply giving them different colored hats, or the trademark post-exit line ?they went thattaway?. \(It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be noted though that the cinematic ?Black Knight? is just as likely to be a hero ? Alan Ladd in )] TJ ET BT 524.300 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Black )] TJ ET BT 64.340 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight ? as a villain ? James Mason in )] TJ ET BT 252.656 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prince Valiant)] TJ ET BT 322.988 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.\) Film further tames knightly aggression by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing how cinematic heroes rightly earn the rank of knight ? just as film cowboys had to earn their spurs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in what might be considered parallel rites of passage. In the aggregate, film, according to Elliott, has gone to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great lengths to present a number of paradigms of knighthood, some at conflict with each other: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(swashbuckler knight, the cowboy knight, the action-hero knight ? multiple examples of which he compares )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and contrasts both in terms of different characters portrayed and different actors doing the portraying.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elliott?s approach to those who rule is similar. Again, he begins by looking at medieval referents, no easy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(task since there is considerable scholarly debate about the exact nature of kingship in the Middle Ages, made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more complicated by differences in time period and geography. Film?s response to this debate, Elliott )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, is to invest characters with a number of clearly demonstrable virtues and vices \(or assume that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actors playing them are already so invested because of their other appearances on the screen in a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roles medieval and otherwise.\) Thus British character actors such as Finlay Currie and Felix Alymer become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gray-bearded icons of sagacity regardless of what role they play. And film is not above sanitizing medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical figures when it is convenient to do so, thus the widely diverse portraits of Richard I of England in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 67.0037 769.1335 80.9957 781.0135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 162.9917 514.7815 176.9837 526.6615 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8636 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades and decades of Robin Hood and Crusader films \(and television programs\). Film kings can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knights, wise rulers of their realms, usurpers, weaklings, and even the most dastardly of villains. Film )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audiences have come to accept ? and in some cases to expect ? nothing less.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Borrowing a phrase from Anton K. Kozlovic, Elliott next addresses ?Saint Cinema?, a prickly topic since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saints are by their very nature prickly ? men and women who run against the grain. Cinematic hagiography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(runs the gamut from the overly pious to the skeptical. Treatments of the non-canonized, especially those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belong to the various ranks of the clergy, is similarly multifaceted. Again, the medieval referent for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical figures is contradictory ? Chaucer did, after all, give us the Parson, but that living embodiment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Good Shepherd seems almost too good to be true when compared to, and outnumbered, by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prioress, the Monk, and the Friar. Elliot notes how film attempts to unpack the riches and the leadership \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack thereof\) of the clergy, and the connection between cross and sword. The contrasts in )] TJ ET BT 464.240 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brother Sun, Sister )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Moon)] TJ ET BT 62.012 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( between the threadbare attire of Francis and the sumptuous vestments of the prelates whom he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounters readily spring to mind. But in the Middle Ages, and to a certain extent, though slightly less so, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today, the word )] TJ ET BT 112.004 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(clergy)] TJ ET BT 141.992 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had multiple referents from parish priest, to prelate, to cloistered monk and nun, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wandering friar. Chaucer?s Friar Huberd and the Summoner?s skewering in his prologue and his tale of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fraternal orders in general notwithstanding, we seem, thanks to Robin Hood?s Tuck, to expect our cinematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friars to be jolly, good natured members of the clergy who find their vows elastic; film monks, bishops, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archbishops, and cardinals, on the other hand, seem never to be trustworthy; and screen popes are always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(singularly political at the expense of their being spiritual. Nuns ? whether from the Middle Ages or more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern and postmodern times ? always prove problematic when it comes to their depiction on film. Just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what are we to make of the composite view of nuns presented in such different films ? medieval and later ?as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pope Joan)] TJ ET BT 85.004 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(either version\), the Francis films that include )] TJ ET BT 310.640 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Clare)] TJ ET BT 337.976 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 343.976 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Anchoress, Hildegard of Bingen, The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Devils, Black Narcissus, The Nun?s Story, Agnes of God, The Bells of St. Mary, The Song of Bernadette, The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trouble with Angels, Come to the Stable, )] TJ ET BT 234.356 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Watergate scandal spoof )] TJ ET BT 372.980 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nasty Habits, The Singing Nun, The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sound of Music, Thrse, In This House of Brede, Lilies of the Field, Brides of Christ, Sister Act)] TJ ET BT 496.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sequel)] TJ ET BT 64.676 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, Dead Man Walking)] TJ ET BT 164.660 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 190.988 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heaven Knows, Mr. Alison)] TJ ET BT 320.648 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Addressing film versions of the medieval peasant presents Elliott with a unique problem: the seeming near )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invisibility of medieval peasantry ? although, as Elliott points out, the situation is decidedly more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicated, even if one does not go so far as to adopt Dennis?s take on the difference between ruled and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruler in )] TJ ET BT 72.008 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monty Python and the Holy Grail)] TJ ET BT 233.660 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The term )] TJ ET BT 286.316 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(class)] TJ ET BT 310.316 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( meant different things in medieval times than it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does today and in intervening periods, and film peasants tend to be based on paradigms borrowed from other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(films rather than from strictly medieval models. They constitute interchangeable faces in the crowd, and are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarely round characters ? they are what Elliott nicely calls ?the rent-a crowd? that filmmakers readily and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeatedly seem to employ. Alternately, Elliott argues, medieval peasants have yet another kind of group )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invisibility, an invisibility that they share with the downtrodden and oppressed in any number of other film )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genres: women, indigenous people, and minorities by race, creed, religion, ethnicity, or affectional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preference.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elliott then takes up the larger issue of the medieval worlds that we have come to expect on the screen, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shiny and pristine, some gritty and foul, some a little bit of each, but all part of our collective modern and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodern ideas of the )] TJ ET BT 152.000 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(real)] TJ ET BT 171.332 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 212.324 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(reel)] TJ ET BT 230.984 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Middle Ages. Elliott nods to others who have discussed neo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medievalism, including Eco, while also offering his own insights into the key question all such discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must eventually ask: ?to what extent do accuracy and authenticity diverge?? Elliott is not brash enough to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think he can answer this crucial question definitively. Rather, with true scholarly humility, he admits that, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the final analysis, he has ?tried to open the field up to further works, by calling into play some useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions which ? it is to be hoped ? later scholarship will address in more depth?. Let it be noted that Elliott )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeds admirably in this intention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The definitive study of ?medieval film? remains Laurie A. Finke and Martin B. Shichtman?s )] TJ ET BT 481.964 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cinematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Illuminations: the Middle Ages on Film)] TJ ET BT 223.676 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.676 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.676 77.043 m 240.668 77.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 240.668 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Elliott?s )] TJ ET BT 286.676 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Remaking the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 415.652 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a more than worthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successor to that volume. It is scrupulous in acknowledging its sources and debts; it includes a useful )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.6757 77.3575 240.6677 89.2375 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 2518 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glossary; and it offers an extensive bibliography and filmography, and a carefully crafted \(and accurate!\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(index. It is, in short, an important welcome addition to the series of questions we continue to pose in our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions about the \(dis\)connections between the )] TJ ET BT 281.984 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(real)] TJ ET BT 301.316 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( medieval and the )] TJ ET BT 389.300 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(reel)] TJ ET BT 407.960 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( medieval.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.059 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Umberto Eco, )] TJ ET BT 134.336 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Travels in Hyperreality )] TJ ET BT 249.992 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 1986\), p. 61.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 394.628 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 394.628 701.043 m 448.616 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monuments stars du 7)] TJ ET BT 170.348 692.837 Td /F2 10.7 Tf [(e)] TJ ET BT 175.084 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( art)] TJ ET BT 192.088 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 260.080 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 260.080 686.787 m 314.068 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laurie A. Finke and Martin B. Shichtman?s )] TJ ET BT 277.664 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cinematic Illuminations: The Middle Ages on Film)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Baltimore, MD, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 178.340 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 178.340 658.275 m 232.328 658.275 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 642.943 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 625.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 625.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1136)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 623.769 m 328.316 623.769 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 598.792 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.392 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7776)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 394.6277 701.3575 448.6157 713.2375 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 260.0797 687.1015 314.0677 698.9815 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 178.3397 658.5895 232.3277 670.4695 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 624.0835 328.3157 635.9635 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1136) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000595 00000 n 0000000677 00000 n 0000003806 00000 n 0000003915 00000 n 0000004025 00000 n 0000004134 00000 n 0000007695 00000 n 0000007823 00000 n 0000007907 00000 n 0000007998 00000 n 0000016366 00000 n 0000016396 00000 n 0000016522 00000 n 0000016558 00000 n 0000016588 00000 n 0000016716 00000 n 0000016752 00000 n 0000016836 00000 n 0000025525 00000 n 0000025555 00000 n 0000025681 00000 n 0000025717 00000 n 0000025822 00000 n 0000028393 00000 n 0000028521 00000 n 0000028576 00000 n 0000028704 00000 n 0000028759 00000 n 0000028887 00000 n 0000028942 00000 n 0000029070 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29166 %%EOF